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\^c- 7V??. t -/. 




RADCUFFE COLLEGE UBRARYI 



SSf 



WOMEN'S ARCHIVES 

Transferred from 

HARVARD COLLEGE UBRARY 

1960 



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^pp 



Tjike of alum 2Iba.; talt, lib. j hot wi|^er suffieient ^ 
^ to distoue 4heni. When coo! enough to bear tlie 
hand in without tealdiog, immerse the skin. After 
lort5>ei||iit honra withdraw it, and nail it akin outward* 
SfE»i«i^ a wall in the shad^. While wet take equal 
pnrtt of alum ana chalk, finely powdered ; wbidi mix 
XA water, il^Cil it it a thick paste ; spread it over the 

VBofe on, tifl the grease is completely withdrawn ; then, 

^ii**^?^ ^ '^^^ **^® '''*"' *'"*' *' '^^'^^ pumice-stone 
eifl thin cnoujfh, when work it ab<mt gently with the 
liandtf^ and it will become as soft as wash-le§^H>w 



' I'. 



f 



^■^ 



/, 



n 



f i* 



y. 



/ 1' 



INDIAN 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



AND 



RECEIPT BOOK. 



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ft 



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INDIAN 

DOMESTIC ECONOMJ 



AND 



RECEIPT BOOK; 

COMPBISING 

NUMEBOUS DIKECTI0N8 POB PLAIN WHOLESOME GOOKEfiT, , 
BOTH OBIENTAL AND ENGLISH; WITH MUCH MISCELLANEOUS MATTER, 
ANSWEBING FOB ALL GENiy^ PUBPOSES OF BEFEBENCE, 

CONNXCrXD 

WITH H0U8EH0LD AFFAIRS, LIKELY TO BE IMMEDUTBLT 

BEQUIBED BT FAMILIES, MESSES, AND PBIYATE INDIVIDUALS^ 

BESIDING AT THE PBESIDENCIES OB OUT-STATION&, 



BY THE AUTHOB OF 

'MANUAL OF GARDENING POR WESTERN INDIA.*' 



hi A, luit^i 



FIFTB SBSTXON— BJBVX8SB. 



MADSAS: 
panmiD at thb pkbss of thb socibtt fos rsoMoriNG 

CHUISTU2? KNOVLSDOE, TBFERY. 
1860. 



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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

BCQULST or 

MRS. CNESTEK ». QOCf N0U6N 

RCPTEHBER 20, 1925 



J 31 






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PREFACE TO THE FUTH EDITION. 



To this edition the Author has appended the new Act 
for tlie management of the Post Office and the Begulations 
of the duties of Postages. He has seen no occasion to make 
foitber additions; nevertheless he feels assured the work mil 
continue to sustain its expectation as one of general utility 
throughout India. 

The flattering notice taken of the work by the Press of 
the three Presidencies^ and its acknowledged usefulness as a 
book of reference by numerous private individuals unknown 
to the Author^ is highly gratifying; while the facts proye^ 
ivhafc has always been his opinion, that a work having 
for its object simple yet distinct instruction— by the assimi- 
lation of the Asiatic Customs with the European — in 
Domssno 'Ecovouy, must prove eminently useful and ao« 
ceptable to the Anglo-Indian Community. The Keceipts are 
rendered in as plain a manner as possible, so that no diffi- 
culty may arise in their communication co Natives; the 
selections are such as are most easily attainable; and the 
means for their preparation generally procurable ; whilst the 
additions are largely imported into this country, and are to 
be had at almost every Bazaar. 

Thb Mabket Tables attached will form a very fair guide 
to the actual prices of provisions, &c. at either of the Pre- 
adencies or in the Mofussil, and prevent any immoderate 
overcharge by servants; for let the European's experience be 
what it may, and even were he to visit the Market himself^ 
he never could purchase any article at the same rate as the 



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VI PREPACB. 

Native> nor can he fail to discover in any intercourse with 
him involving outisLj, that he is obliged to submit to a per 
centage in some degree, or what is called Dostoory,^ «n 
allowance established by general usage and considered by the 
servant as his perquisite for making purchases. When small, 
however, it may be as well to let him enjoy the advantage, 
if quiet and comfort are desired. This deduction is not so 
applicable to the household expenditure ; especially when the 
head servant's account is settled every morning, as then the 
prices charged are generally made at the admitted or known 
rates, and can be checked accordingly if examined at the 
time; but when allowed to stand over, articles are. frequently 
entered and charged for, although neither procured nor con- 
sumed, and of course there is clear gain to the servant, 
who besides, takes his usual DasTooBT when settling with 
the tradesmen for bond fide purchases. 

Families and single individuals residing at the Presiden* 
ties or the Mofussil, who may at times be particularly cast 
on their own resources, or deem it necessary to superintend 
their daily expenditurey and are not above an acquaintance 
with the number of annas and pice forming a rupee, — items 
as indispensable to present as conducive to future comfort, 
*-will, in all mattas of household affairs, whether in check- 
ing the extravagant charges of domestics, the over-demands 
of trades-people in purchases, or affording useful instruction 
for the routine of the Culinary department, as well as the 
management of the Farm, Poultry Yard, or, Kitchbn 
Garden,, it is hoped» find that much useful informatTon may 
be derived by following the rules and instructions contained 
in the '^ Indian Dokbshc Economy/' 



* Two pie in eadi mpM. 



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ANALYTICAL INDEX. 



Chapter 1st. Servants; — ^their description, habits, caste, wages, &C'^ 
at Bombay, Bengal, Hyderabad, and Madras. 

— 2nd. Farm and Poultry Tard; — Cows, Calves, Buffaloes, 

Goats, Sheep, Pigs, Babbits ; management of Poul- 
try with preliminary remarks; Turkeys, Guinea- 
fowls, Geese, Ducks, Pigeons and Pba-fowL 
'*- 3bd. Horse and Stable ; — ^Exercise, grooming, feeding, and 
medical treatment in the most immediate and easiest 
form, with recipes, &o. 

— 4th. Daily; — General remarks on Utensils, Pans, &c.; 

MOk, Creun and Butter; mode of making butler 
from Cream and Milk • also Iresh Cream and Curd 
Cheeses. 

— 5tb. Soups of various kmds, with general directions for 

flavouring, foroe*meat balk, te« 

— 6tb. Fish, and Shell-fish, with Bemarks upon dressing, Stc. 

— 7th. Bemarks on Boiling, Boasting, Broiling, &c. 

— 8th. Sauces and Gravies. 

— 9th. Beef; Yeal, Mutton, Liamb and Pork. 

— IOth. General directions for Grame and Poultry, with various 

methods of dressing the same. 

— 11th. Vegetables; — ^how to prepare and dress in different 

ways. 
12th. Devils, Zests, Sandwiches, Omdettes, Essences, Toast- 

ed Cheese, Bamakins, &c« 
13th. Pickles and Chutneys. 

— 14th. Pastry, Tarts, &c. 

— 15th. Puddings. 

— 16th. Cakes. 

— 17th. Baking ;— Bread, Biscuits, &c. 

— 18th. Sweet Dishes, &c. 

— 19th, Jellies and Jams* 



- 



1 



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VIU ANALYTICAL INDEX. 

Chapter 20th. Tea, Coffee, &c. 

— 2 1st. Syrups, Drops, &c. 

— 22nd. Drinks, Liquors, &c» 

— 23bd. Cordials. 

— 24th. Cooling fluids ; Purifying water. 

— 25th. Freezing Mixtures, with or without loe. 

— 26th. Making Ice ; — receipts for the same, with directions 

for preserving it. 

— 27th« Vocabulary of Culinary terms. 

— 28th. Oriental Cookery ; — prelimmary remarks on Curries, 

Brianes, Pullows, Ashes, Kubabs, Cakes and Chut- 
neys ; with various receipts for making the saoie. 

— 29th. Bombay Market Table, with the average Prices Cur- 

rent for three Months in the year ; January, May 
and November j Tables of Money, Weights and 
Measures ; with the Commercial Weights in various 
parts of India, &c. 

— 30th. Calcutta, Dinapore, Madras and Aurungabad Market 

Tables, and prices of Miscellaneous Articles, &c. 

— SlsT. Tables of Exchange, Interest, &c. 

— S2nd. Miscellaneous Domestic Heceipts. 

— S3BD, Kitchen Garden and Orchard^with a copious Index 

of the whole. 



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CHAPTER I, 



SERVANTS. 

The misdeeds of Indian servants appear to be a general 
aod unfailing source of complaint amongst all, whether we 
take the new-comer on his arrival, or the long resident, 
without reference to any particular place; the complaint 
of them is universal — ^laziness, dishonesty, falsehood, with 
a host of other vices, seem to be inherent in them. This 
need hardly be wondered at, when we consider the way in 
which they are brought up, taught from their earliest in- 
fancy to look for employment only in the particular calling 
of their parent, or the guardian by whom they have been 
adopted. Nor is the fault wholly on their side — much that 
is complained of, originates with the master, and is owing 
to him* In the first place, taking a servant merely on the 
recommendation of a written character, without any en- 
deavour to ascertain whether the bearer is the person de- 
scribed, or how he became possessed of it. In most cases 
these characters are borrowed; in many they are written 
for the occasion, by a class of persons who earn their bread 
by writing characters for any applicant who will give them 
a few annas, or agree to pay a per centage should he suc- 
ceed in getting the place. So sudden and frequent are 
the changes in India, that a master or mistress has seldom 
an opportunity of making any personal inquiry, and is 
often led to overlook this precaution; all this causes a 
fruitful source of mischief to domestic economy. 

Then again, persons are not sufficiently careful in giving 
characters ; how often it happens that a master or mistress, 
when turning away a servant, gives him, from false kind- 



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Z INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

ness^ a better character than he deserves^ suppressing the 
real cause ol his being sent away^ and at the same time 
mentioning a period of service sufficiently long to be of 
itself a Tecoinmendation, and almost a guarantee of his 
trustworthiness and usefulness, whereas they know the con- 
trary to be the ease. 

Some servanis there are who enter your family simply 
to see what they can lay their hands upon, taking them- 
selves off the first convenient opportunity. 

Others there are who take advantage of the advance of 
pay, usually given in setting out on a journey, to enable 
the servant to leave a small sum with his family or 
relations and to provide himself with necessaries; thus 
getting a month's or more advance of pay, and, in nine 
cases out of ten, when the traveller starts, are nowhere 
to be found, or slip away after the first day or two. 

The best way to prevent this, is to make your head 
servant (if out of your own power) go to the Police Office, 
and have their names and agreement registered; it will 
afford an opportunity for detection, should they be old 
offenders, as the Police have better means of making in- 
quiries than you can possibly have. This clearly shows 
what an advantage an office for registry would be, where 
the honest and well-disposed servant could be heard of, 
when he would be sure to find a place. 

On the other hand, servants have too often just cause 
for leaving their places suddenly, the slightest fault of a 
native servant being often visited with blows and such 
abuse as no respectable man will bear, very often too for 
no other fault than that of not understanding what the 
master has said, who has given his directions in some 
unintelligible stuff, from ignorance of the language, that 
no one could understand. 

The races of servants are very different at the three Pre- 
sidencies ; at Bombay there is a large proportion of native 
Portuguese, Parsees, Mussulmen, and Hindoos, besides 
Eurasians; at Madras native Christians take the place of 



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AND COOKSET. 



Psrsees at Bombay, lind at Calcutta there is a mixture of 
efoy caste and grade in India. There are some amongst 
&eae who speak English^ and who generally bear but very 
indiflferent characters* ' 



BOMBAY. 
A Batler, whether Portugaese, Parsee or Mossul- 



man, B«. 


10 to 15-20-30 


A Table Servant (seldom more), 


6 „ 


10 


Cook, 


7 „ 


20 


Aaristaat, 


4 „ 


6 


Tf tshennan or Dhobee, according to the family, 


7 „ 


36 or more. 


Mor, 


7 „ 


15 


Ayifc. 


8 ,• 


15 


Amah or Wet Nttrae, 


7 „ 


16 


Coachman, 


10 „ 


16 


Gorahwalkh, 


5 „ 


9 


Maasolchee, where no house Hammals are em- 






l^J^ 


6 




fiheestee, if used, but the Htunmals do this work, 


8 




Totee or Sweeper, 


2 „ 


6 


Gkapiaaee or Pnttah WaUah» 


5 „ 


7 


BENGAL. 






A Sircar or Acoonntant, 


...Bs. 10 to 13 


A Butler or Khansmnar, .. 




8 .. 10 


A Table Servant or Khidmutgar, 


... 


6 „ 8 


Assistant do. orMatie, 


.. 


4 „ 6 


Bresaang Bearer or Bhoee, 


... 


6„ 8 


Hooae and PiOkee do. 


., 


5 ., 7 


Washerman or Phobee, 


... 


4 „ 14 


Water Carrier, Bheestee or Puckalec, ... ' ... 


,, 


6 „ 8 


Cook or Bawurchee, 


... 


8 „ 18 


Sweeper, Halalknr or Mihtor, 


.. 


8 „ 4 


Messenger or Hnrkara, 




6 „ 6 


Porter or Dorwany 


.. 


6 „ 6 


Tailor or Bnrsee, 


•»• 


5 „ 8 


Goaofaman or Ghareewan, 




8 „ 15 


Horaekeeper or Syce, 


... 


5 „ 6 


Graascutter or Ghaswara, 




3 „ 5 


Elephant Driver or Mahut, 


... 


8 „ 16 


Assistant Cooly, 




3 „ 5 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



Gamelman, Oontwallah, 

Gardener, Malee or Baghban, 

Shepherd, B'herehara, 

Water Cooler or Abdar, 

Tent Pitcher, or Lascar, 

Hooka attendant, or Hookabadar, 



Rs 



Female ServanU. 



Ayah, or Waiting^woman, 
Amah, or Wet Nurse, 
Ladies' Tailor, 1st Class, 

Do. 2nd do. 

Washerman, 1st do. . 

Bo. 2nd do. 

Sweeper, or Mihturanee, 



Butler, per mensem, from 
Ordinary Servants, 

Boys, 

Cooks, 
Under do. 
Waterwoman, 
Coachman, 
Horsekeeper, 
Grasscutters, ... 
Gardeners, 
Cowman, 
^Water Carriers, 
Ayahs, 

Under do. .. 
Ponkah Pullers, 



Miufulmans. 



MADRAS. 



HYDERABAD. 



Xhansumar, or Butler, 12 to 20 

1 Jemadar of Servants, 12 „ 15 
Ehidmutgar, or Table 

Servant, - - 7 „ 10 

2 Dressing Boy, - - 7 „ 10 
Abdar or Water Cooler, 8 „ 12 
Hookabadar, - - 12 



Hindoos. 



. 5to 


3 


s „ 


6 


3 „ 


4 


5 „ 


8 


3 ,. 


5 


6 „ 


8 


5to 


13 


« .. 


12 


10 




6 




10 




6 




3 „ 


i 


10 to 


21 


7 .. 


10 


6 „ 


7 


7 „ 


17 


3 




3 „ 


4 


10 „ 


15 


5 „ 


7 


3i ., 


4 


4 „ 


7 


5 „ 


7 


4 „ 


6 


10 „ 


17 


6 „ 


8 


5 





5 Matie, - - • 6 to 7 

6 Mussalehee, or Barber, 4 „ 7 
Dhobee, - - 6 „ 8 
Syce, - • . 7 
Grasscutter, - - 4 „ 6 
Bearer, - . - 7 
Head Bearer, - 8 



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.ND COOKBIIY. 







Hindoot. 




to 6 
„ 7 


Male, - - 
Cooly Woman, 
7 Cook, 
Tailor, - - - - 


- 6 to 8 

2 „ 3 

-10 „ 20 

7 „ 12 


„ 7 
.. 8 


Ayah, • - 


- 7 „ 16 



MtunUmam. 

% Fisrraah, or Lascar, 7 

Mihtiir, or Sweeper, 3 

i Chuprassee, or Jewan, 5 
Mahut^ or Elephant 

Driver, - - 12 

Aasistaiit to do. - 6 

fflieestee, or Packalee, 7 



In engaging with an Ayah who speaks English^ as is 
iDo^y the case with the Indo-Portuguese^ it is necessary 
to be very particular in your agreements as to the amount 
of yoor wages^ and also whether they expect food to be 
fband them, as their demand at first will be made gener- 
aDy without reference to the latter, and at as high a rate 
ts they can venture to ask, in consequence of their attain- 
ments being beyond those of most Mussulmen and Hindoo 

Ayilss, who can only assist in dressing a lady; whereas 
most of the first clase Indo-Portuguese dress hair, wash 
laoes, silk stockings, .&c., and in some few instances can use 
tbeat needles, for all of which they expect to be better paid 
of course. The wages of an Ayah will greatly depend upon 
the daties she undertakes, and those who perform the 
moiial offices, which some do, are on the lowest scale of 
pay. 

The Wet Nurses are only procurable generally from the 
lower classes, and are very obstinate as to their rules of 
diet The greatest trouble arises in getting them to re- 
strict themselves to proper food; they are prone to indulge 
in liquor, opium, ' tobacco, pawn, suparee, &c. ; they are 
perfectly careless of any regularity as to their state of 
healthy and require great watching. Previous to engaging 
ihey make the most exorbitant demands, which from ne- 
cessity you are often compelled to comply with. Besides 
Iheir wages, it is usual to find them in food and clothes. 

All classes of servants are engaged by the month, though 
not always paid at the expiration of it, and it is usual to 
keep them in arrears until the middle of the following, as 



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6 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

some check upon their behaviour^ and to prevent their 
withdrawing themselves without notice, as they subject them- 
selves to the loss of one month's pay, if they quit of their 
own free will, or without giving a proper warning. 

In some houses, besides the Khansumar or Butler, whose 
province appears to be merely superintending the concerns 
of the table and of the servants attached to it, a sort of 
Jemadar of servants is also kept up, who takes charge of 
the purse and of all the out*of-door servants, pays all the 
expenses,— in fact, superintends the household concerns in 
general. He is usually a Mussulman, but sometimes of the 
other class, answering in some degree to the Sircar in Cal- 
cutta. Very frequently, instead of a regular servant for the 
toilet, a Hindoo of the Bearer class is employed, and it 
seems the better plan; for, being a dressing servant, he is 
in general too great a man to assist in carrying the palan- 
keen: he yet keeps up with it, and is always therefore at 
hand. If the bearer be a Mussulman he is made some- 
times to wait also at table. 

A Furrash, I suspect, is kept up but in few houses: his 
occupation is that of a Lascar or Khalassie; he sweeps the 
carpets, cleans the house and furniture, the care of which 
he has ; also the beds, shades and lights, it being his duty 
to light the latter; in fact, his duty is both that of thf 
Lascar and Mussalchee, has he is in some houses^ where a 
IHirrash is not kept up in Bengal. His principal duty is 
the charge of tents, with the care of the same, * pitching, 
striking and loading them. 

A Ghuprassee may be either Mussulman or Hindoo, as 
frequently one as the other. The distinction between the 
Ghuprassee and Jewan, is that the latter, besides being a 
messenger and attending bis master in Ids journeys about, 
is employed also in guarding his house; the Chuprassee's 
badge is his external sign, the Jewan has it not. 

Matie is sometimes a Mussulman, but less frequently; 
and is assistant to the table servant. 

The Mussalchee in general has charge of the candles, 



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AND COOKERY. 7 

ahmdes and lights; but where a Furrash is kept up^ he is 
employed as torch-bearer and barber^ his profession gen- 
erally being that of the latter. 

The C!ook is usually a Native Christian of the lowest 
casle ef Hindoos from Madras or the Coast; sometimes 
they are Mussulmen^ but seldom in any proportion to the 
former* The bearers are a hard-working and very trusty 
class of people; you may leave articles of any value with 
them with perfect safety^ only making it over to their 
charge, whether Hindoos or Mussulmen; indeed, this may 
be said to be the case with most classes of native servants 
who are well treated ; and if a fair estimate and allowance 
is made, it will generally be found that there is more rea- 
son to praise than complain of them. Entrust money, 
jewels, clothes, &c., in fact, any thing to their charge, and 
yoa will find them usually faithful. They will for years 
treasure up the smallest rags for you, though now and 
then you will see them appropriating articles, they have 
thought forgotten by their masters (from their never having 
been asked for), and if they can profit in any way from 
their intermedium in purchasing for you, you will find they 
will generally cheat you in over demands in some slight 
way or other. Should you become poor they will drop 
ewfsm this in a very great degree, or totally. In sickness 
they will take the greatest care of you, doing for you ser- 
vices that a European seldom ever will. In marching, at 
all seasons and all weather, they will go long distances 
without grumbling, cook for you, put their hands to pitch- 
ing tents, loading, and at all times do work extra to their 
own duty. They are in general sensitive of and grateful 
for kindness, and become active and zealous therefrom. 

Their principal vice, besides what I have already given, 
is an intolerable habit of lying. In the way of tea, sugar, 
bread, milk, paper and such like articles, they will fre- 
quently, like European servants, appropriate a little for 
themselves. You will sometimes find oases of ingratitude, 
but if yott treat them kindly, you will not find these fre- 



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O INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

quent. They will conceal in general the petty thefts and 
cheatings of one another from their master, but when any 
one has been detected by him, all are ready to come for- 
ward and tell against the offender. Canning and doable- 
dealing characterize the Native^ and are some of his 'prin- 
cipal faults. Curiosity, also, is another of his peculiarities; 
if you send a man with a note or message, he is sure to 
be asked by all he meets where he is going, and on what 
business, if he knows. They also endeavour to find oat 
all that concerns you; whether you are an influential per- 
son or in any way a leading character, and are guided 
accordingly. I think that you have only to treat natives 
well and kindly, and they will generally prove good servants 
to you. Sympathize in their griefs and joys, with the 
smallest words of kindness, speak kindly to them, and 
oblige them when you can, and they will serve you well, 
and will refuse to execute no sort of work how extraneous 
soever from their regular duties ; on the contrary, if a 
master or mistress is always finding fault with their ser- 
vants for the most trifling omission of duty, having them 
beaten and cutting from .their pay the value of an ar- 
ticle broken by accident, the Native naturally becomes 
discontented and careless to please,' knowing he can but be 
sent away with a chance of getting a much more humane 
and even-tempered employer. They are often turned off 
without being paid their wages, upon the alleged score of 
insolence; this being assigned as the reason when a master 
loses his temper, and ill-treats a servant without cause, for 
appearing stupid or awkward. It is necessary, if you desire 
to retain and attach your servants to you, to act justly by 
them, make them fully understand what you desire to be 
done, and see that it is so; and if a servant has commit- 
ted a fault, or destroyed your property in a wanton man- 
ner, do not, if you can help it, punish him yourself, but 
refer the case, where you have the means, to the decision 
of public authority, or give him his discharge at once. 
Encourage a servant to come and confess his fault, show- 



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A^D COOKEAY. 9 

ing perhaps tUat be has broken, an article; then refrain 
from blows,, abuse, and cutting his pay, which seldom at 
any time is very high, owing to the small sum required for 
a native to live upon, and if reduced by stoppages, falls 
heavily upon him, and arouses his natural cunning to make 
it up most assuredly at your expense, and in future induces 
him to bide by every m«ans in his power any fault be 
may afterwards commit. 

In having mentioned the particular duties of each ser* 
vant, I do not wish to be understood that he will confine 
them only to one particular department, as was almost 
generally the case formerly in the upper parts in India, 
though not so much at the Presidencies of Madras and 
Bombay; for where circumstances require that a few ser- 
vants are only kept in the establishment, the duties of 
two or three may be carried on by one, with a little 
management, as is indeed generally practised. The Cook 
may attend the market early of a morning and purchase 
the supplies for the day ; but here it is essentially necessary, 
to prevent disappointment as%well as to insure comfort, 
that the necessary orders for all that is required be given 
over night, as after seven or eight o'clpck, nothing .but the 
refuse of meat, &c., is procurable : this duty, though coming 
more immediately under the province of the head servant^ 
may, where economy is the object, be, as has been stated, 
intrusted to the Cook or a Xhansumar. 

The head servant may aet as Butler, attend the table, 
look after the plate, and as is often the case, superintend 
the making of, if not make himself, the pastry and sweet- 
meats, besides exercising superintendence over the whole 
household, and recording the daily expenditure in an ac- 
count-book kept for the purpose. A little difficulty some- 
times exists in getting servants to perform more than their 
own particular duty, but by a little management it is soon 
overcome and adds to the domestic comfort. 

It is a useless, besides expensive custom, giving dresses 
to your servants; however, this is a mere matter of consi- 



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10 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. 

deration with yourself. In some families in Bengal, where 
the establishment is large and the servants numerous, and 
expected to be all dressed uniform with turban, &c., a man 
is kept on purpose to make the latter up, and is paid a 
small sum by each for so doing or by their emj^oyer, he 
performing some other duty when not so engaged. The 
only class requiring a livery generally, are your horse- 
keepeVs and coachmen; they need little more than an uni-* 
form turban and belt, but insist en their appearing in clean 
clothes when in attendance* 



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CHAPTER II. 



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•VTNIR EC«]!I«IT. 



*^^W^AA^V\^«^S^^^*WWM 



THE FARM AND POULTEY YARD. 

The best Cows in Western India are the Quze- 
Cteiw. ratti, and in the South, the Mysore and Nellore, 
and in the Upper parts, the Nagore; the general 
time of calving being at the commencement of, and daring 
the monsoon. The Guzerat cows, when in full milk, after calv- 
>»gi give from five to six seers daily, for the first three or four 
months, if fed with gram and green grass;*— the Nellore 
€ow about half the quantity, and the common country cow 
seldom more than two or three seers, and generally not 
more than one, from which the calf must have its share. 
Few country cows will give any milk if the calf is taken 
from them. It depends upon the constitution of the cow 
how nearly she may be milked to the time of her calving, 
— also on the quantity and cost of feeding. When pas- 
turage is abundant, the best way is to keep such a stock 
of cows as will enable you to have a succession in milk. 
The expense of tending them out grazing is the same for 
a dozen as a couple, a man being required to milk, feed 
and pen up the calves morning and evening.t The quan- 



* The natiyes scUom if ever give gram to their catUe ; and, previous to calving, 
Oard is the principal grain given ; — also Tonr, Chenna, and others that are cheap. 
Tlie Oord is first boiled and then mixed with oil, — say one -eighth of a seer of oil to 
one seer of Oord, and this is o^ven to a cow, and twice the quantity to a bufifaloe. 

t At an the towns and villages there are herdsmen who collect and take out the 
cstik to feed of a morning, and bring them back in the evening, chaI^^ifig so moch 
A head, — Irom two to eight annas, — a month. 



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12 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

tity of gram to be given to each cow daily must neces- 
sarily depend upon her milk. For a common country cow 
half a seer soaked at each milking is sufficient; double the 
quantity will be required for a Nellore, or Guzerat qow. 
In selecting a cow for purchase the Natives give preference 
to those with fine thin skin, good looking udder (not de- 
pending upon the size), and long thin tails. Colour is a 
matter of no consequence ; of course if the cow does not 
promise from her appearance, when in full calf, to give a 
fair share of milk, no one would think of becoming a pur- 
cliascr. The price of a good Guzeratti cow is from 30 to 
70 rupees or more; the Nellore probably not quite so much, 
and a country cow from five to fifteen rupees. It is ne- 
cessary that a cow should be fed while being milked so as 
to induce her to give it down freely ; the natives generally 
allow the calf to suck at the same time; before the cows 
are milked the teats should be washed and wiped. The 
milk of some cows yields more cream than that of others. 
The cream yielded by the last half of the milking is always 
the best, provided the udder is properly emptied. Water 
added to milk causes it to throw up a larger quantity of 
cream than if unmixed, but the cream is of a very inferior 
quality. Milk carried to a distance before it is set for 
cream, or in any other way shaken, gives much less cream, 
and also thinner, than that which has not been agitated. 
Milk should always be strained before setting for cream. 
The cream being churned, and strained from the butter- 
milk, is to have the remains of the buttermilk carefully 
squeezed from it with as little working of the butter as 
possible, and then moulded into the form necessary; it 
should never be touched during the making by the hand, 
but worked up with a wooden spatula. Butter is always in- 
jured in its quality by being kept in water, nor wQl it keep 
so long as if in a cool vessel that is porous, with moisture 
round it. The only cheeses made in this country are cream 
or common white curd, directions for miOLing which will 
be found under a separate head of tlie present worl« 



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AND COOKERY. 13 

The feeding of these animals for the table 
Calves. (as in Europe) is seldom carefully attended to; 
but should you desire to have good veal, you 
must allow the calf the whole of its mother's milk, and 
for the first week break a raw egg into its mouth every 
day; the second week, give it two eggs, and increase the 
number weekly, until it has had six daily, when it will be 
found fat and fit to kill — not such half-starved meat as is 
usually sold as veal, but approaching in flavour to an English 
dairy-fed calf. If you do not choose to give it eggs, let 
the calf run to another cow, as the expense with a country 
bred animal is very trifling* Calves may be reared upon 
skimmed milk as in Europe, but then the milk must not be 
allowed to stand more than a few hours, otherwise it will 
get sour. At first the milk must be put into a vessel and 
the hand immersed in it, giving a finger for the calf to suck 
and draw the milk up by ; or else put the milk into a leather 
bag, funnel'shaped, with a small opening for the calf to suck 
it out by; this is the common native practice, but after 
a few days, the calf will drink it very readily from the 
vessel it is offered in. In Europe chalk is placed in the pen 
where the calf is confined, for it to lick ; this is done, not 
as is generally supposed to whiten the meat, but to correct 
the acidity of the milk. 

The finest description of these animals to be 
Bi^aioes. found throughout Hindoslan are those along 
the banks of the Ganges, as well as in some 
parts of the Deccan about Jefferabad, Amarouttee, and 
Mahore, east of Hingolie. The quantity of milk from the 
finest bred animals has been known to be equal to that of 
first rate English cows, being upwards of five galloiTs in 
the twenty-four hours, bat this is very uncommon. The 
average supply received from a good buffaloe, in full milk, 
may be about from six to eight seers, from a common 
one seldom more than four; and, if not carefully attended 
to, they soon fall off even firom that quantity. The milk 



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14 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

of the buifaloe is extremely rich, and answers all domestic 
purposes, yielding a rich cream, butter, cheese, and ghee. 
In choosing 'a buffaloe, select the fine dark black or light 
brown, with a good barrel, short legged^ thin necked, flat 
and broad hind quarters and large open eyes. Their food 
consists generally of grass, hay, kirbee, bran, oil-cake, cot- 
ton seed, &c. But when they have, calved the best food 
to give them besides grass for the first week at milking 
time, is bdiled jawaree and baujeroe, about one seer of each, 
with a table spoonfull of zeera. When brought home to 
be milked, cotton seed or oil-cake is given to them. They 
delight in water, and will not thrive unless they have a 
swamp or pond to wallow in. There rolling themselves, 
they work hollows, when immersed, deep enough to leare 
nothing but their horns, nostrils, and 6yes above the water. 
When a buffaloe has calved the young one is immediately 
taken from her and brought up by hand ; if a male, it is 
given away, being considered useless except for draft or to 
breed with. The males are very savage, and if taken out 
to the jungles with other cattle, will fight even the tiger ; 
should he venture to attack the herd, the female will aiso 
make the same resistance. The milk sells from eight to 
twenty seers the rupee, and ghee made from it with care 
may be considered one of the most useful of domestic 
articles, and will keep sweet and good for years. 

These are procurable in all parts of India, 
Goais, of a fine description, though varying much in 
appearance. The Surat goat brought to Bom- 
bay is highly prized. It is short-legged, well formed, round 
and compact, giving as much milk as a seer at a time. 
The *kid affords a delicate meat, for which Bombay has 
long been celebrated. The goats from the banks of the 
Jumna in Hindostan are a long-legged breed, but excel- 
lent milchers ; so are some from the southern part of 
India. They all feed alike, and will eat leaves and roots 
where no other animal could find a subsistence. It is 



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AND COOKERY. 15 

• 

necessary to give a little grain^ morning and evenings to 
your milch goats. Half a seer to each of gram, or other 
grain at a time is quite sufficient, and, if you have a 
garden, the refuse leaves from any vegetable wiU be greedi- 
ly eaten by them, as also cakes of bread made from the 
common sorts of grain, such as jawaree, baujeroe, &c. 
Where there are children, a milch goat about the house is 
invaluable; but remember they are very destructive to a 
garden and must be carefully looked after. The kid should 
not be allowed tg follow the mother if you require her 
milk, unless some means is adopted to prevent its sucking, 
either by a muzzle or tying her teats. 

Bengal has long been celebrated for its gram- 
Skeq^. fed mutton, which gives the meat a flavour far 

superior to any other method of fattening ; the 
grain of the meat is not finer than that of sheep in other 
parts of India, as, undoubtedly in the Deccan, where there 
is good green grass pasturage, the meat is fine and ex- 
tremely sweet, and mixed with a proportionate quantity of 
fat. To the southward there is a large breed of sheep of a 
reddish colour that, if fed on grain like the Bengal, will 
become fat, as easily retaining the same flavour and quali- 
ties. Perhaps much of the estimation in which Bengal 
gram-fed mutton is held arises from the shepherd^s making 
wedders of the males, when young, — a practice not gen- 
erally adopted, but very essential to having fine-flavoured 
mutton. In the case of sheep, it is necessary that their 
pens should be clean and dry, and secured from the 
attacks of wild animals. They may be taken to feed with 
goats, but should never be driven out before the dew is 
off the ground, and should always be brought home of an 
evening when they are to have their grain given to them; 
such sheep as you are about to prepare for fattening will 
require less than those you intend to kill, being already 
&t. If, for instance, you kill once or twice a week, you 
will replace the slaughtered one by another from the flock. 



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16 INDIAN DOMESTIC SCONOMY 

and 80 continne. The selection for killing should fall upon 
that sheep which is in the habit of rushing to the gram 
trough shoving the others aside ; he generally is in the beat 
condition. Sheep should at first have the grain broken for 
them and a little salt every third day, or so, mixed witli 
it ; it is useless giving sheep grain until thef have eight 
teeth in front, and then the proper quantity for each, 
averages about half a seer daily. In some parts of Bengal, 
where grain is very cheap^ the whole flock is fed on it. 
A sheep is allowed to get fat, and fall off, and again fat* 
tened before he is killed; which very much lidghtens the 
flavor of the meat. This is two or three times repeated. 
The lambs, besides sucking the ewes, are fattened with 
ground gram, sugar and milk ; the Hindostan shepherds 
understand this well, and the meat is deliciously sweet. 
The proper time for making wedders of them is when they 
are about three weeks old. 

House lamb is very seldom procurable, though some- 
times the natives will bring them up for the purpose of 
sale, where there is a demand for such meat. They are 
fed on native bread, milk and vegetables — in feict, pretty 
much in the same way they are at home. 

These animals when reared in a stye, for 
Piff9. domestic purposes, are very useful, and Ao not 

give much trouble. The China breed being 
round, short-legged and of a docile temper, are to be pre- 
ferred, but if crossed with English or any other breeds 
make much flner pork and bacon, as they do not run so 
much to fat^ and the bacon becomes more streaky. If you 
desire to bring up several young pigs for porkers or bacon, 
rail off a space of a few square yards independent of the 
stye, that they may roam about, as it is not beneficial to 
confine them at first, and give them any spare vegetable 
with their food daily ; but as soon as you wish to fatten 
them, let the food be as nourishing -as possible, and remem- 
ber they wiB fatten much sooner on boiled food than raw. 



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AND COOKBET. 17 

Thej should also have plenty of clean water to drink. The 
tame pig gives from 6 to 11 young ones at a time and carries 
ber yoong 16 weeks. They sometimes breed twice a year, 
but the more usual time is once in eight months. Clean- 
liness is essentially necessary to rearing pigs in India, and the 
best way to attain this end is to have the stye paved with 
luge stones, so that they cannot be turned up ; yet a sow that 
is breeding will get on better, if she has plenty of grass, on a 
good clay floor, which should be kept just moderately moist^ 
80 as to be cool, bat neither swampy nor wet. Before they 
firrow they are very fond of scraping a hole to lie in, and if 
tbe ground is dry and dusty the young ones are apt to 
get smothered; this is known to have been the case with 
a htter where there was a chunam floor. The sow may 
be pat with the boar from a month to six weeks after 
farrowing, though it is much better to wait a longer period. 
The young are seldom fit to roast under a month, tmd 
tbere will generally be found in a litter one larger than 
the rest. This is not, as is supposed by some, the mother's 
farorite, but is the strongest, and manages, by thrusting 
tbe others aside, to get the largest share of milk. Of 
course he is the first for roasting. 

The stye may be bailt of stone, bricks, or wood, and, if 
not for breeding sows, should always be well paved, and 
on a slope, that water may be thrown ov^ it to keep 
the animals cool and clean— giving them during the rainy 
and cold weather plenty of straw or grass to lie on. 

Heir food may consist of the refuse from the garden, 
table and kitchen, or rice boosah mixed with buttermilk. 
They thrive very well on boiled grain, such as jawaree, 
cooltie, &c. Gram are they also very fond of; and if you 
wish for fine, firm, fleshy bacon, it is the best grain they 
can have when fattening. The food, whatever it is, should 
be put' into troughs for them to eat out of, and the best 
I have found are those cut out of stone, as being strong, 
as well as heavy and not easily turned over, which, if it 

bappens, occasions a great loss of food. Where pigs are 

c 



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18 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

kept it is necessary to have a Hindoo servant to attend 
and feed them, and this duty is generally performed by 
one of the Mihtur caste. 

The successful management of these animals 
Mahbits. consists in cleanliness and proper feeding, keep- 
ing them dry, and in the open air, and shel- 
tering them from rain and sun. The boxes or hutches in 
which they are kept should be swept out every day,' and 
holes made in the bottom, so that they may be as dry 
as possible. The breeding hutches for does should have a 
separate compartment, with a door at the end for the pur- 
pose of cleaning it out when necessary, but this door should 
never be opened after the doe has littered, until the 
young ones are able to run about. Some does are so shy 
that if you disturb them in any way at the early stage 
after giving young, they destroy them immediately. Bab- 
bits are very prolific ; their period of gestation is one 
calendar month. The does when about to breed should 
have fine dry grass given to them to make their beds with, 
which they line by plucking hair from the breast and 
stomach. The young ones may be separated from the does 
when a month old, but it is better to let them remain a 
fortnight longer, as it increases their size ; the feeding of 
them carefully after this, is principally to be attended to. 
They should be kept in a separate hutch; by themselves 
and fed at regular periods ; for if seldom fed and in large 
quantities, they overfill their stomachs and become what 
is called pot-bellied. The best food is lucerne, cabbage, 
lettuce leaves, and sliced carrots, also wild endive, with bran 
of the first sort, and ground gram a little moistened, also 
jawaree. A doe may be put with the buck when her 
young ones are a month old. The number a doe produces 
at a litter varies;, some giving three and others as many 
as seven or more young ones. The buck should always 
have a roomy hutch to himself, with plenty of gram and 
dry food. The young bucks intended for fattening should 



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AND COOKBftT. 19 

be cut when about a month old. This can be done by 
indsioni or ligature. 

Sabbits may be kept in an artificial warren by digging a 
large square hole about six feet deep, lining it with a brick 
Tall, and then filling up the hole again with earth and water 
or day, beating it well down. This must be surrounded with 
another wall, and covered in, so that no animal can disturb 
the rabbits which are here put^ and left to burrow as they 
please. An opening should be made into a separate room 
or yard, with a sliding door where their food is to be placed 
for them to feed. This is done with the view of catching 
and selecting them when at their meals. In some situa- 
tioDS, where the ground is of a hard stony nature, so , as 
not to require a wall beneath, it is only necessary to exca- 
vate the place and fill it up with earth, as before directed, 
moistening it with water, and beating it down firm. 

MANAGEMENT OF POULTRY. 
The time of incubation with the domestic 
SomeJfiic fowl is three weeks, and during that period the 
Fwh. fowl generally, if left to herself, will leave her 
eggs once in twenty-four hours to feed, shake 
her feathers^ and exercise her limbs. Some fowls are such 
close sitters that they will not leave their nest even for 
this purpose — so intent are they on their maternal duties. 
In such a case the hen must be lifted carefully from her 
eggs, and put out to feed, when, after a short time, habit 
will induce her to leave them at the same time each day. 
A. sitting hen daily turns her eggs^ and if she were not 
to do this, the heat from her body would be unequally distri- 
buted, and the yolk would become misplaced. A laying 
hen must do this, as she could not deposit the requisite 
rnunber of eggs for a brood in less than fifteen days, and 
in a fourth part of that period, the yolk would have sunk 
through the white, and come in contact with the shell, 
which being porous would have admitted the atmosphere 
ind the vital principle would have become inert, and the 



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20 INDIAN DOMBSnC ECONOMT 

egg be addled. As early as the third day of incubation the 
nature of the egg is altered and rendered unfit for use. The 
yolk of the egg is devoted exclusively to the nourishment 
of the chicken in embryo^ and if this, by the admission 
of air, as I have before observed, is injured, the brood is 
destroyed. Chickens may be left under the mother without 
injury for a couple of days, as her care and warmth are 
far better calculated to rear them than any artificial means. 
As nature has pointed out the means of preserving her eggs 
to the mother, it is plain that the same plan of turning 
them daily is necessary to keep them fresh and equal to 
new laid. When a batch of young chickens is hatched, 
it is hardly necessary to confine them under baskets or 
coops, as they thrive better by being allowed to foUow 
the hen about, and only require food to be given them 
once or twice a day. They must at night be carefully 
shut up with the mother in a basket, on straw or fine dry 
grass, and let out early in the morning. The food may 
be rice or jawaree. Game fowls require much more care 
than the common. The same treatment as to food, &c. 
for the turkey will here perhaps be found the best. It is 
not advisable to put the game hens on their own eggs, 
as they are too heavy and clumsy birds, very often de- 
stroying the young ones, like tuAeys, from trampling and 
pressing them to death, even whilst resting at night. The 
common hens should therefore be preferred, and, as they 
are small, not more than seven eggs should be placed 
under them at a time. It is very difficult to get the 
thorough game breed, and, in many of the large cities in 
India that are celebrated for them, the owners of the fowls, 
if constrained to sell the eggs, often '*dip them in hpt 
water previous to doing so, with the view of destroying 
their vitality. Even any rough motion will have the 
same effect, by rupturing the membranes which keep the 
white, the yolk, and the germ of the chick in their ap- 
propriate places, and upon these becoming injured or mixed, 
putrefaction is promoted. 



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AND COOKERY. SI 

Persons desiroas of breeding their own stock may com- 
mence at any time of the year^ although that after the 
first fall of rain and during the cold weather is the most 
fiivourable, when turkeys, guinea fowls, and chickens may 
easily be reared. Ducks and geese are later in laying, 
though the former will sometimes continue to give eggs 
throughout the year. Geese seldom lay more than one 
batch of eggs in the year, and the period during which 
they usually lay, is from August to January. 

I may mention, for the information of persons rearing 
their own poultry, that an enclosed, sheltered spot, well 
secured either by a trellis work, or wall sufficiently high 
to confine the stock, is necessary, in which there should 
be a shallow pond, or chunam tank, for the ducks, in some 
convenient part,- as else they are occasionally drowned, if 
care be not taken that the sides slope sufficiently for the 
animals to get in and out with ease. There should also 
be patches of gravel for the fowls to roll in and clean them- 
selves, as well as for food; and, if protected by a shed, the 
better, under which should be a few pits filled with dry 
sand or ashes from the kitchen, &c. for the birds to wallow 
in. The fowl-house should be large and roomy, and if 
tiled the better, as being cooler and safer from animals. 
The door should be well secured and inaccessible to vermin, 
vith a hole sufficiently large for the fowls to pass through, 
bnt admitting of being well closed at nights, or, if require- 
ed, at any other time. Around the room there may be 
boxes, pans, or baskets fixed at a proper distance from 
each other, either in the wall or on the floor, perfectly ac- 
cessible, for the hens to lay and sit in* Fowls are very 
stupid in recognizing their own nests, and often interfere 
with each other, so as to spoil a hatch. Care should be 
taken to mark the basket or box in which a hen has com- 
menced to sit, putting the date down in a book, or marked 
in some other way. The room should be frequently white- 
washed, and wood ashes sprinkled plentifully about; and 
after a batch of chickens have been hatched, the boxes or 



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22 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMT 

baskets should be scalded or famigated with smoke, to kill 
the vennin and fleas, which are almost certain to collect. 
The hens whilst sitting should be at liberty at all times 
to leave their eggs to procure food or wallow in the ashes 
put on purpose for them. If, for want of accommodation, 
you are obliged to keep your ducks and geese in the same 
place with your poultry, they should be separated by a 
division, and the two latter species again divided and kept 
apart. It is essentially necessary that the fowl-house be 
continually swept out, and the floor and walls occasionally 
washed with fresh chunam water to destroy the vermin, 
or else it is impossible for a visitor to inspect the stock. 
Glean water should also be near in pans for the poultry 
to resort to whenever so inclined. 

In selecting fowls for the table, it is in this country 
almost impossible to obtain any particular breed. Choose 
your birds young, weU shaped, and in a healthy condition. 
If you cannot appropriate a room, you must keep them in 
a feeding coop, or under baskets made on purpose; only 
be careful that cats, the moong90se, or other vermin can- 
not get at them, and see that they are not crowded ; pro- 
vided you keep them clean and supply them with jawaree, 
ricey gravel) and water, there is little else necessary, and, 
by substituting fresh fowls for those killed off, you may 
always have at hand a few pairs of fowls ready for the 
table. 

To fatten fowls, when you put them up, first mix some 
fine bran and ground jawaree, wheat, or rice, together 
with warm water ; let them pick this for four or five days, 
then cram them with ground rice, wheat, or jawaree, with 
a little mutton fat chopped fine and mixed, for about a 
fortnight, when they will be in prime order. 

Chickens should pick on ground grain with milk and a 
little fat for a week at least before cramming, and do not 
afterwards force them too fast. 

Capons should be crammed for three weeks the same as 
fowls. Turkeys require a month to fatten ; give them rice 



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AND COOKERY. 23 

boiled in millc with ground grain^ and some fat mixed in 
the same manner as* for fowls. 

Qive geese and ducks coarse boosali^ mixed with soaked 
jawaree and water or buttermilk, for a few days ; then 
give dry g|fun, such as rice in husk, jawaree, and clean 
water, also some fine gravel. Do not let them wet their 
feet, but give dean straw to lie upon ; feed them three 
times a day at regular hours, and give them no more 
tlian they can eat at once without leaving any, and water 
only once a day. In two or three weeks ducks, and, in 
three or fouv, geese, will thus be good. 

Ducks that are kept in a small mclosure with a pool or 
tank to wash in, will get very fat on common grain and 
plenty of chopped vegetables, such being given to them daily. 

As a general rule, keep your poultry for fattening clean, 
keep them in darkness after • their meal, let them have 
milk to drink, and, immediately before you kill them, 
nothing but congee water made with rice. By these means 
you will have delicate, white, and fat poultry for table. 

Lay from fifteen to twenty eggs, and at all 
Turiejfs, seasons. The hen will sit and bring out the 
young, but they are very careless mothers, eating 
the food greedily that is prepared for their young ones, 
and trampling upon them when moving about. A hen sits 
upon her eggs for twenty-five or twenty-six days, and will 
lay them in any secluded spot. When you find a nest, 
do not remove the whole of the eggs at once unless she 
has done laying. If she has only lately commenced, take 
away a part, but be certain to leave a nest egg, and 
tatch her daily. 

When she lays her egg, then remove it, and continue 
this until she is inclined to sit. The time of incubation 
I have known to vary, but on the twenty-fifth day the 
chickens make their appearance generally. Do not remove 
them until the whole are come out, unless the hen has got off 
the eggs herself. In that case, take away the young ones. 



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2i INDIAN DOUESTXC BCONOMT 

and put them in a basket lined with cotton and keep them 
safe; when they are all hatched the hen should be removed 
into a dry spot^ and let some chopped eggs^ onions^ and 
pounded grain, mixed, be given to her and the young ones; 
let her eat her fill. Large baskets of a con^ shape are 
most convenient for rearing them under. If the hen is 
careless with her chickens, treading on them, she must be 
taken away and kept outside, and the young ones fed by 
themselves, until they are strong enough to run about and 
get out of her way ; if you have a person to watch them^ 
the hen may be allowed to roam about, as the young 
ones thrive faster and considerably better on the seed and 
insects they pick up in grass, than when wholly confined. 
At all events, they should be allowed to feed in this way 
morning and evening. When the young ones are put up 
with the hen at night, see that she has fine soft grass in the 
basket in which she sits to cover the young ones, otherwise 
you may find one-half killed by her smothering them during 
the night. If the young ones appear to mope, and do not 
seem lively, put two or three grains of black pepper down 
their throats. It may be bruised at first, but this is not 
of much consequence. The ground on which the basket 
is kept during the day must be dry, and should also be 
shaded from the sun. After the young ones are feathered 
there is little trouble with them ; they eat greedily chopped 
onions, salad^ hard eggs, bread and milk, or in fact any- 
thing. The young ones should never be let out when the 
dew is on the ground, and should always be taken in a 
little after sunset. Turkeys certainly thrive better when 
allowed to roam about, but require to be watched on their 
excursions, and will, if fed in any particular spot, return 
to it at the customary hour. When Turkeys, or fowls, or 
chickens get the chicken-pox, what the natives call mattie 
(and to which they are very subject in the rains), both old 
and young, pounded charcoal and bruised onions, mixed 
with a little cocoa-nut oil, if rubbed over the pimples 
about the head for a few times, is almost a certain cure ; 



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AND COOKERY. 25 

care at the same time most be taken that the eyes are not 
closed over by the disease, for if so, the birds cannot see 
to feed, and large turkeys or fowls will then require to 
be crammed with food, or else they die from starvation. 

These are reared when young precisely in 
Guinea the same manner as turkeys; only the female 
/owls* in this case seldom hatches her eggs; when she 
does it is necessary to keep her confined under 
a large basket or coop. The young ones should have 
white ants given to them twice or thrice a day, with hard 
boiled eggs^ rice, and onions chopped fine. It is particu* 
larly necessary to keep them in dry ground and sheltered 
from rain and sun. If they appear sickly, put a few black 
pepper corns down their throats. One hen will lay as 
many as sixty eggs, hut only during the rains. Their 
time of incubation is twenty-five days. When you wish 
to hatch a brood under a common hen, never put more 
than eleven or thirteen eggs, and after she has sat about 
fourteen days you may ascertain if they are good by gently 
ahakiiig each egg separately, when if addled it will be per« 
ceived at once by its sound as if filled with water; or by 
holding the egg firmly in the hand near the ear, the young 
one wiU generally be heard to chirp. When a hen has 
died on her eggs, before the time of hatching, they may 
be brought out, by putting them in flannel near a fire, 
or exposing them to the sun; by this means the whole 
batch will sometimes be brought forth, though there is 
trouble in first teaching them to feed, but which they soon 
learn if they have a young chicken placed with them; or 
at night they may be put under another hen that has 
young ones. When a hen is let out to feed with her 
I brood, care should be taken to protect them from hawks, 
crows, &c. 

These commence laying in September, and 
Gee^e. - continue until February, sometimes later. Their 



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26 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOVT 

period of incubation is thirty days. The goslings re- 
quire very little looking after if there is a pond, nul- 
lah, or tank where the old one can resort; when the 
goose begins laying she should have plenty of dry grass 
or straw near her to cover the eggs with. On her quitting 
the nest, if there is any danger of the eggs being 
stolen or destroyed, they must be removed, leaving one 
as a nest egg. 

These hatch their own eggs, and sit 25 days. 
Dueha. They require to be near water with a sipping 

bank, where they can easily go in and out 
with their young ones, as otherwise they are cons<3intIy 
drowned. Their food may be either fine bran mixed in 
water, or any other sort of meal. Bice in its husk they 
are very fond of. 

These, whether of the fancy or common kind, 
Tigeona. require pretty nearly the same treatment, and, 
as my object is to describe the simple mode* 
of rearing them for domestic purposes, it would be use- 
less to enter into a description of the various fancy breeds, 
further than to describe the particular sorts, which consist 
of the carrier, pouter, fantail or shaker, so called from 
its head being always in motion, and the tumbler. The 
common kinds, generally kept for profit, vary both in 
colour and size, and seldom quit the place in which they 
are bred. The first thing is to provide a commodious 
place for rearing the stock, and for this end a room, 
secured from the entrance of cats and other destructive 
animals, is necessary. The door should fit close and secure- 
ly, with an opening for the pigeons to pass in and out, 
and at such a height from the ground that no animal 
could pass or jump easily through, with a. door or slide 
o close at night, and a step or perch for them to rest 
upon on entering the inside of the room. Chatties may 
be built in the wall (or pots) lying on their sides, with 



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AND COOKKRT. 87 

the mouths projectiBg from the surface several inches ; the 
pots should each be at least one foot in diameter, and 
the mouth from four to six inches — the distance between 
each chatty at least one foot. They may in this way be 
arranged round the sides of the wall as the proprietor may 
please in any number^ or a house may be built on posts 
with shelves, and close boxes inside, but then the posts 
or pillars must be defended so that cats and other animals 
cannot climb up into the house, and this can only be 
done by sloping shelves, or else thorns kept bound round 
them; this latter plan is tronblesome. They may also 
be allowed to breed in chatties suspended under the roof 
of a flat verandah where no animals can get near them. 
"When the house or dove-cot is prepared, the next business 
is to stock it, and this must be done with young birds 
just fledged, and which have never essayed the wing ; other- 
wise they are dif&cult to retain ; with old birds it is ne- 
cessary to pluck the long feathers out of one wing only, 
and let them remain in the house until the new feathers 
are grown, when perhaps they may have formed some at- 
tachment to the place, and will not leave it ; but this is 
not to be depended upon. Pigeons begin to breed when 
they are six months old, and produce eight or ten couples 
a year. When pigeons are confined to a room, food and 
fresh water must be supplied to them daily, and in such 
a manner as to prevent the excrement contaminating it ; 
if confined, they must be provided with green food, and 
the pl^fce occasionally cleaned, after which strew about 
l^enty of gravel, and take every opportunity, by white- 
washing, to destroy fleas and other vermin. Pans of water 
should also be kept in the place. They are fond of gram, 
peas, jawaree, and aU kinds of pulse ; and if they are at 
liberty will only require to be fed once a day. It is not 
difficult to match young ones according to your wish, pro- 
vided they have not already formed their attachment. Eor 
this purpose they must be shut up together, or near, and 
within reach of, each other. The male is distinguished 



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28 INDIAN DOMESTIC £CX>NOMY 

hj his size and forwardness of action ; the female lays 
two eggs, and, having laid one, she rests a day, and then 
proceeds to sit ; the period of incubation is nineteen days 
from the first egg, and the male and female divide the 
labour during the day between them, but at night the 
hen always sits. At the end ^of a month the young 
ones are abandoned and left to shift for themselves. Until 
they can fly, they are called squabs. When a pigeon 
loses its mate it often entices another from a distance, 
and this may account for the loss of any particular bird. 
Cats, rats, and snakes often commit great depredations in 
a dove-cot ; also the mongoose when it can effect an 
entrance. All these enemies must be guarded against. 

Should no young pigeons be produced after the lapse 
of a day or two beyond the time of incubation, the eggs 
should be removed, as they are certain to be bad, and a 
squab taken from another pair substituted. The parents 
will rear this, and feed off their soft meat, or which might 
otherwise stagnate in their crop, and injure them* This 
soft meat is a sort of pap secreted in the craw against 
the time it is required to nourish the young. 

These, when brought up by the hand, become 
Pea fowl, very tame, mixing with the domestic poultry, 
roosting on some high tree at night or the 
cross beams of an out-house. The natives continually during 
the rains bring in the eggs from the jungle, and if put 
under a common hen they are easily hatched and reared. 
The food given to the young chickens is precisely the same 
as for turkeys or guinea fowls. The hen lays from five 
to seven eggs, and always leads her young away from the 
male bird to feed until they have got their top knot feath- 
ers, as he kills them otherwise* They are ornamental about 
a house, but very destructive to a garden. It is said 
that they destroy snakes. The young ones when brought 
in from the jungles must be kept under a coop or basket 
and fed with bruised grain or millet seed, chopped eggs 



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AND COOKERY. 29 

and onions, fine grass, and occasionally with white ants. 
It does not do to give them too many of the latter, as 
th^ are so fond of them as to refuse their other food. 
If the young are only just hatched^ it is difficult at first 
to teach them to feed. A young chicken^ about their 
own age^ put with them, will soon shew the way, and, 
from its habits, teach them to follow into the basket in 
which they are kept during the night, and save the trou- 
ble of catching them for the purpose. 



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CHAPTEE III. 



THE HOESE AND STABLE. 

To keep a horse in proper working condition^ he ought 
to have at least a three-mile canter every other day. If, 
from not being able to give him this exercise yourself, or not 
having a person to ride for you, this is impossible, he 
should be walked at a slapping pace, not the lazy, lurch- 
ing walk which the horsekeeper always allows the horse, 
when led, to indulge in, for at least an hour and a half 
of a morning, and an hour in the evening. 

If the horsekeeper can ride at all, it is better to allow 
him to mount the horse with a snaffle bridle, and take 
him at a good walk for the same period. Don't trust 
the horsekeeper with a curb bit; and when he returns, if 
you waift to preserve your nag from getting a sore back, 
be particular yourself in examining the saddle place for 
any galls or lumps that may have arisen. Horsekeepers 
never will tell you of these slight accidents, which taken 
in time are trifles, but if allowed to go on overlooked for 
some days may prove a serious nuisance. A pad of num- 
dah, cut to fit beneath the saddle, will mostly prevent 
this occurring; the application of salt and water is gene* 
rally all that is requisite for removing excoriations when 
only of a simple nature, at the same time the saddle 
should be fresh cased and padded as soon as it begins to 
be of the least inconvenience to the horse. 

On his being brought home, he is to be well rubbed 
down, and his water given. Then the feet and legs are 
to be well washed in warm water. Each leg to be washed 
half way up the cannon bone and dried separately. Horse- 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECOl^OMY AND COOKERY. 31 

keepers are invariably careless unless well looked after, 
and wash all four legs at once, leaving three wet while 
they are drying one. This produces cold and swelling of 
the legs constantly, and is likely to bring on thrushes 
in the feet. His grain is now to be given him, and, 
about half an hour after, some more water offered, and 
his grass given. 

It is better to give all the grass you intend giving him 
between 9 and 12 o'clock at once, as he can then select 
the best himself ; about half-past IS o'clock water is to be 
again given, and at 1 o'clock the mid-day feed. After this, 
half of the remaining grass is to be given; at 4 the stall 
shoTdd be swept, the horse rubbed down and taken out to 
his evening exercise. On returning he is to be again slightly 
rubbed down and cleaned, and the evening's water given, 
then the evening's feed and the rest of his grass. If the 
horse is a greedy one, and inclined to eat his bed, he must 
have a muzzle put on about ten o'clock. Then leave him 
for the night perfectly undisturbed. 

To keep your horse in regular working condition, the 
times of feeding should be as equally divided as convenience 
will permit : and when it is likely that the horse will be 
kept longer than usual from home, the nose-bag should 
invariably be taken. The stomach of a horse is small and 
consequently emptied in a few hours, and if suffered to re- 
main hungry much beyond his accustomed time, he will 
' afterwards devour his food so voraciously as to distend the 
stomach, and endanger an attack of staggers. , 

As herbage, green and dry, constitutes the principal part 
of the food of the horse, it is very seldom regarded with 
the attention necessary. The quantity of dry huryalah grass 
sufficient for an Arab of 14 hds. generally is from 12 to 
14 pounds daily, but this must depend of course on his 
sia ; it should, when cut, be well washed, then spread out 
in the sun to dry for three or four days before giving to 
the horse. Where the horse is fed on green grass, the 
asual method is to keep a man to bring it daily, which he 



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32 INDIAN DOMKSTIC ECONOMY 

cuts and digs up with a portion of the roots ; this is washed 
and brought home every evening, and in its wet state forms 
n bundle as much as he can well carry ; and if given to 
the horse in such a state, can never be so wholesome as if 
dried previously; it should always be kept upon a stand, 
and given to the horse in small quantities. Hay ought to 
be cut soon after the rains, when full of its juices, and 
before the seed falls ; it is then in its most nutritive state. 
The grass cut late in .the season merely fills the stomach, 
affording scarcely any nourishment ; hence the necessity, 
when laying in a stock, to examine the quality before pur- 
chase, as old hay is dry, tasteless, innutritive and unwhole- 
some. Horses, like aU other domestic animals, are fond of 
salt, and it is a good practice to sprinkle the hay with 
water in which salt has been dissolved, or to suspend a 
lump of rock salt near the horse, where he can at pleasure 
lick it; there can be no doubt that salt very materially 
assists the process of digestion. 

Lucerne, when it can be obtained, is extremely advan- 
tageous for bringing a horse into condition ; it is easy of 
digestion and speedily puts muscle and fat on the horse 
that is worn down by labour, and is almost a specific for 
hidebound. A horse must not have too much given to 
him at once, as it is apt to make him refuse his other grass 
or hay. Kirby or cholum (the stalk of the jawaree) is, 
when chopped up, an excellent dry food for feeding and 
bringing a horse into condition. It should be cut coarse 
and put into a manger or rackstand, thus enabling the 
horse to feed at leisure ; and as it takes time for mastication, 
the stomach becomes more gradually filled, and the in- 
creased quantity of saliva necessary for its amalgamation^ 
softens and makes it more fit for digestion. 

Carrots^ being procurable in abundance for several months 
after the rains, may be given either to strengthen the horse 
or for his recovery, if sick. To the healthy horse they 
should be given sliced with finely chopped kirby, half a 
dozen pounds being an ample allowance. Stewart says of 



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AND COOKIRT. S3 

them in his Stable Economy : " This root is held in mnch 
esteem. There is none better nor perhaps so good; when 
first given it is shghtly diuretic and laxative^ but as the 
horse becomes accustomed to it these effects cease to be 
produced : they also improve the state of the skin ; they 
form a good substitute for grass and an excellent altera- 
tive for horses out of condition. To sick and idle horses 
they render corn unnecessary, they are beneficial in all 
chronic diseases connected with breathing, they are ser- 
viceable in diseases of the skin, and have a marked in- 
fluence upon chronic coughs and broken wind/' 

Gram. — The quantity of gram necessary for an Arab of 
14 hds. averages about three seers or more daily ; the gram 
should be ground slightly and soaked for not more than 
a few minutes. Of course a horse of 15 hds. will require 
an extra seer or more^ but it entirely depends upon the 
work he has to do ; if he is hunted every other day or 
otherwise daily worked, four seers will not be at all too 
much. If the gram is not ground, it will require a little 
longer soaking. 

Cooltie is given in the same quantity, but requires pre- 
vious boiling ; horses unaccustomed to this grain and 
its mode of preparation, refuse it at first, but soon take 
to it like other food. N. B.--A seer is two English 
pounds weight. 

Tie Stable should be as large of course as the number 
of horses it is destined to contain; and as in India aU 
stables, except for racing, are generally open, I shall 
merely describe the length and breadth necessary ^for a 
stable, which is amply sufficient if 10 or 12 feet^ in breadth 
and fourteen in length. The open face of the stable must 
depend on circumstances, and if it is thought necessary 
to have any apertures for increased circulation in the sur- 
rounding walls, they should be as far above the horses 
as they conveniently can, to prevent all injurious draughts 
of air falling upon them. Backs are useful in a stable 
to keep the hay or grass dean, and prevent its being 



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34 INDIAN DOllXSTIC ECONOMY 

mixed with the litt«r. In some stables where the horse 
is allowed to run' loose^ enclosed by a high partition from 
his neighbonr^ and bars in front, a rack is generally made 
in one comer, with a wooden trough on the other side 
for giving him his gram, cooltie, or other food^ though 
more commonly the nose-bag is used; this is either made 
of leather or strong coarse canvas. 

When horses are fastened ill a stable by halter and 
heel ropes, consequently almost always standing in the 
same place, it is essentially necessary that a pit made 
of brick or stone, where the horse stands, should be sunk, 
with a sloping gutter running underneath the groundwork 
of the stable, for the urine to pass off; the surface must 
be covered over either with a large stone having holes in 
it for the purpose, or else boards at such intervals of 
distance as will admit of the urine passing through into 
the pit or drain. It is well known that the urine of a 
horse contains a large proportion of ammonia, and that 
the vapour given out rises soon after the horse has staled, 
which is in itself injurious in a close stable, as is the 
case in large towns and the presidencies ; this mixing also 
with other matter of an offensive nature, must affect the 
health of a horse : hence the necessity of its being remov- 
ed, and keeping the stable amply supplied with fresh air. 

In a warm climate like India, where the stable is con- 
fined, ventilation is essential; if this is not attended to, 
the air becomes empoisoned, and the health of the animal 
must suffer. ''In England it is thought that the majori- 
ty of the maladies of the horse, and those of the worst 
description, are directly or indirectly to be attributed as 
much to a deficient supply of air as to hard work ' and 
bad food : and to prevent any accumulation of foul air, it 
is necessary that the dung and urine of the horse should 
be immediately removed, to prevent fermentation and its 
evolving unwholesome vapour/' 

Light. — Indian stables, away from the presidencies, are, 
from their construction, seldom deficient here. Horses kept 



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AND COOKERY. 35 

in dark stables in England are frequently notorious start- 
ers, and it is probable that even the horse fastened in the 
stable with a dark wall in front may have his vision affected 
by it; the colour should never be glaring, neither should 
it be white, especially if the sun shines into the stable, 
it being as injurious to the eye as sudden changes from 
darkness to light. The colour therefore should depend upon 
the quantity of light, and therefore the best colour is 
perhaps a grey or light brown, easily effected by the simple 
native process of gobering. Hence dark stables are un- 
firiendly to cleanliness, the frequent cause of the vice of 
starting, and of serious diseases of the eyes. 

Grooming. — It is to the stabled horse, highly fed and 
irregularly worked, that grooming is of so much importance. 
Good rubbing with the brush or the currycomb opens the 
pores of the skin, circulates the blood to the extremities 
of the body, produces free and healthy perspiration, and 
stands in the room of exercise. No horse will carry a 
fine coat without either unnatural heat or dressing; they 
both effect the same purpose by increasing the insensible 
perspiration, but the first does it at ,the expense of health 
and strength, while the second, at the same time that it 
produces a glow on the skin and a determination of blood 
to it, rouses all the energies of the frame; and a fine 
coat should only be produced by good cleanings and not 
by warm clothing or stimulating spices, though a horse 
just landed from a ship wiU benefit much by leaving stim- 
ulants mixed with his gram, such as black pepper and 
salt, for a time. 

A horse must be dressed regularly every day, in addition 
to the grootiing that is necessary after work. If he has 
been driven, he should . be walked gently about without 
removing the pad or harness, the traces being unbuckled 
and removed, or turned up so as not to trail on the ground. 
If ridden, he should be walked- with the saddle on, but 
the girths loosened and the stirrups secured high up, to 
prevent him from getting his feet into either of them. 



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36 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

When the horse is moderately cooled, he is to be taken 
to his stall and well hand- rubbed and shampooed till dry; 
his grass or other food may then be given him. The curry- 
comb should be at all times lightly used; even the brush 
need not be so hard or the points of the bristles so irregular 
as thy often are. A hair cloth made like a bathing -glove, 
or of coir, is all that is necessary with horses of a thin skin, 
and this latter is often used by the natives. There is no* 
thing after all like good hand-rubbing, and to this the Indian 
horse is accustomed* The only thing is to See that the 
horsekeeper does his duty as he ought; but if not looked 
after, this is not always the case. 

Waier. — ^The difference between hard and soft water is 
known to all persons ; and a horse, if he has a choice, will 
always take running water in preference to that from 
a well, though the latter be clearer : hard water makes the 
coat stare, and not unfrequently gripes and otherwise injures 
him. An Arab horse seldom takes any injury from satiating 
his thirst at pleasure, that is, if he has the opportunity 
on a journey; a horse should be liberally supplied with 
water; when he is a little cooled, two or three quarts 
may be given to him, and after that his feed ; before he 
has finished his gram two or three quarts more may be 
offered. He will take no harm if this is repeated three 
or four times during a long and hot day. An Arab horse 
enjoys bathing as much as a human being, and when yoa 
have an opportunity of indulging him with a bath in a 
clear running stream at noon during a hot day, it is 
most healthy. The Indian horsekeepers are much in the 
habit of washing a horse in the morning ; this is all very 
well if he is not required for work immediattly, and can 
be well dried and groomed after ; but if it is only done to 
save trouble of hand-cleaning, the sooner it is put a stop 
to the better, and it should seldom be allowed in the rains, 
except in the middle of the day. 

Brauj or the ground husk of wheat, is usually given 
to sick horses on account of the supposed advantage of 



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AND COOKERY. 37 

rdaxUig the bowels, but it must not be constant or even 
frequent food, as ,it produces indigestion from its accumu- 
lation in the large intestines. Bran is useful as an occasional 
aperient in the form of a mash^ but never should become 
a regular article of food. 

Odff.-^For the assistance of persons whose horses may 
meet with accidents usual in a stable, desirous to know the 
treatment immediately necessary, in the easiest and common- 
est forms, and where' professional advice is not directly at 
hand, I have "selected from White* and ^ The Horse,'' a few 
remarks and prescriptions, and add^d to these some of my 
own, which may serve our purpose in a general work on 
Domestic Economy. 

The first thing to be done is to remove care- 
Broken knees, fully all extraneous matter, washing the wound 
clean with warm water, and taking care that 
no gravel or dirt remains. If the joint is .penetrated, a 
poultice must be first applied; this will prevent or reduce 
inflammation. If the joint has been opened, the orifice 
must be closed, and every attention paid to prevent the 
escape of the fluid which lubricates the joint, by the appli- 
cation of a compress enclosing the wound, and which must 
not be removed for some days. If it be a deep or extensive 
wound, goulard poultice is to be applied twice or thrice 
a day^ taking care to keep it constantly moist, when in two 
or three days a white healthy matter will appear, and the 
poultice may be discontinued and simple dressing applied ; 
but should the wound put on an unhealthy appearance, 
and the matter become fetid and smelling offensively, add 
some pounded charcoal finely sifted through muslin to the 
poultice, and continue this until a healthy action has taken 
place ; but in aU cases when the disease is of a severe or 
unusual character, the assistance of a Veterinary Surgeon 
should be immediately sought, or the best works on the 
subject consulted. 
Where there has been only a partial abrasion of the skin. 



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38 INDIAN DOMBSTIC ECONOMT 

carefolly washing the part and applying a little simple oint- 
menty with about one-eighth part mercnriai, wiH be found 
all that is necessary. To promote the growth of the hair, 
the part may be rubbed with any simple ointment containing 
a small portion of stimulating matter either in the shape 
of turpentine or blistering fly; a solution of blue vitriol 
and brandy is perhaps the best application to all bald sur* 
faces where the roots of the hair still remain. 

In recent bruises fomentations are the most 
JBruUes, essential remedies, and, if extensive, with inflam- 
mation, it is advisable to bleed moderately near 
the affected part, and should any hard callous swelling 
remain in consequence, rub well into the part, twice or 
thrice a day, some of the embrocations mentioned for bruises. 

This operation is performed either with a 
Bleeding, lancet or fleam. The latter is the most common 
instrument, and safest in an unskilful hand. A 
lancet with a spring has long been invented by Mr, Weiss 
in the Strand, by which a novice may bleed safely from 
the jugular or smaller vein. 

"For general bleeding the jugular vein is generally select- 
ed. The horse is blindfolded on the side to which he is 
to be bled, or his head turned well away; the hair is 
smoothed along the course of the vein with the moistened 
finger, then with the third and Httle fingers of the left 
hand, which holds the ' fleam, pressure is made in the 
vein, sufficient to bring it fairly into view, but not 
to swell it too much, for then, presenting a round- 
ed surface, it would be apt to roll or slip under the 
blow. 

"The point to be selected is about two inches below 
the union of the two portions of the jugular at the angle 
of the jaw : the fleam is to be placed in a direct line with 
the course of the vein, * and over its precise centre, as 
close to it as possible, but its point not absolutely touching 



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AND COOKSKT. 39 

the rein: a sharp rap with the blood stick, or the hand, 
on that part of the back of the fleam immediately over 
the blade, will cat throngh the vein, and the blood will 
flow. A fleam with a large blade shoidd always be preferred; 
for the operation will be materially shortened, which will 
be a matter of some consequence with a fidgetty horse, 
and a quantity of blood drawn speedily will have iai more 
effect on the system than double the weight slowly taken, 
while the wound wiQ heal just as readily as if made by a 
smaller instrument. A slight pressure, if the incision has 
been krge enough and straight, and in the middle of the 
vein, will cause the blood to flow sufi&ciently fast ; or the 
finger being introduced into the mouth, between the tusks 
and grinders, and gently moved about, will keep the mouth 
in motion, and hasten the rapidity of the stream by the 
action and pressure of the neighbouring muscles. 

''When sufficient blood has been taken, the edges of the 
wonnd should be brought closely together, and so kept by 
a sharp pin being passed through them ; round this a piece 
of twine, tow, or a few hairs from the mane of the horse, 
should be wrapped so as to cover the who le of the incision, 
and the head of the horse tied up for several hours, to 
prevent his rubbing the part against the manger. 

''Few directions are necessary for the use of the lancet. 
Those who are competent to operate with it will scarcely 
require any. If the point be sufficiently sharp, the lancet 
can scarcely be too broad-shouldered, and an abscess lancet 
will generally make a freer incision than that in com- 
mon nse/' 

PHYSICKING. 

A horse should be carefully prepared for the action of 
physic. 

Two or three bran-mashes, given on that or the pre- 
ceding day, are far from sufficient. When a horse is 
about to be physicked, whether to promote his condition, 
or in obedience to custom, mashes should be given until 



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40 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

the dung becomes softened; a less quantity of pbysio will 
then suffice, itnd it will more quickly pass through the in- 
testines, and be more equally diffused over them. Fi?e 
drachms of aloes, given when the dung has thus been soften- 
ed, will act much more effectually, and much more safely, 
than seven drachms, when the lower intestines are obstruct- 
ed by hardened faeces. 

On the day on which the physic is given, the horse 
should have walking exercise, or may be gently trotted 
foi a quarter of an hour, twice in the day; but after the 
physic begins to work, he should not be moved from his 
stall. Exercise then would produce gripes, irritation, and 
possibly dangerous inflammation. The common and absurd 
practice is to give the horse most exercise after the physic 
has begun to operate. 

A little hay may be put into the rack; as much mash 
may be given as the horse will eat, and as much water 
with the coldness of it taken off as he will drink. If, 
however, he obstinately refuses to drink warm water, it is 
better that he should have it cold, than to continue with- 
out taking any fluid; but he should not be suffered to 
take more than a quart at a time, with an interval of at 
least an hour between each portion. A table-spoonful of 
pounded black salt mixed with the horse's gram, and given 
morning and evening for a few days, will act as a mild 
aperient, and generally be found sufficient to keep him in 
good health and condition. 

May be used either for the evacuation of the 
Clysters bowels, or for soothing or nourishing a 
horse. Where a regular machine is not pro- 
curable, a large bladder with a wooden pipe may be used^ 
or a kid skinned, without perforating it, is an immediate 
substitute even for the bladder. The principal art in ad- 
ministering a clyster, consists in not frightening the horse. 
The pipe, well oiled, is to be very gently introduced, and 
the fluid not too hastily thrown up, and the heat should 



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AND COOKERY. 41 

be as nearly as possible that of the intestine^ or about 96'' 
of Fahrenheit's thermometer. 

Two ounces of soft or yellow soap, dissolved 

Aperient in a gallon of warm water. For a more active 

CljfsUr. aperient— Eight ounces of Epsom salts^ or even 

of common salt^ dissolved in the same quantity 

of water. . If nothing else can be obtained^ warm water 

may be employed.. 

If an injection of a soothing nature is required^ it may 
consist alone of plain congee (rice water) ; but if a purg- 
ing be great or difBcult to stop^ add four ounces of pre- 
pared or powdered chalk to the congee^ made thicker with 
two scruples, or a drachm, of powdered opium. 

Open the pores of the skin, promote perspi- 
F(nMnia' ration in the part, and so abate the local swelling, 
tunu. relieve pain, and lessen inflammation. They 
are rarely, if ever, continued long enough, and 
when they are removed, the part is left wet and uncov- 
ered, and the coldness of evaporation succeeds to the heat 
of fomentation. The perspiration is thus suddenly check- 
ed, the animal suffers considerable pain, and more injury 
is done by the extreme change of temperature, than if 
the fomentation had not been attempted. 

Fomentations may be made by boiling Neem leaves, 
poppy heads, marsh mallow roots, to a strong decoction, 
and then applied — even boiling water is useful. 

Are made by pouring boiling water on bran 

Maties and stirring it well, and then covering it over 

until it is sufficiently cool for the horse to eat. 

They are very useful preparations for physic, and they are 

necessary during the operation. 

A stale mash should never be put before a horse, as it 
soon turns sour. 



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42 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Is purely a local disease^ and arises from 
Mange bad feeding and little attention being paid to 
the animal; it is contagious^ and may there- 
fore attack horses in good condition. 

A cure for Mange. — ^Fig leaves beat to a pulp, and 
soaked one night in Tyre (butter milk), will in three ap- 
plications cure the most inveterate state of this disease. 

When the bars, or roof of the horse's mouth 
Lampas. near the front teeth, become level with or higher 
than the teeth, he is said to have the lampas, 
and he feeds badly in consequence. Same burn down 
the part with a red-hot iron; but the best practice is to 
make a few incisions across the bars with a penknife^ or 
lancet, not too deep, and rub the parts with a little salt; 
this will cause the swelling to subside^ and relieve the 
inflammation. 

Are fomentations of the best kind, continued 
Poultices much longer than a simple fomentation can be. 
The moisture and warmth are the principal 
use of the poultice; and that poultice is the best for general 
purposes in which moisture and warmth are longest retain- 
ed. A poultice, if applied to the legs, should never be 
put -on too tight, so as to prevent the free circulation, or 
too hot, so as to give pain and increase inflammation. 

The best poultices are made from coarse wheat flour 
and linseed meal. Bran is objectionable from its becom- 
ing soon dry. 

Are inflamed tumours, produced by the un- 
Saddle equal pressure of the saddle, and, if neglected^ 
Galls often become troublesome sores, and are a con- 
siderable time in healing. As soon as a swell- 
ing of the kind is observed, cold lotions should be appli- 
ed and kept constantly wet, or if matter is formed, it 
must be opened and let out, and poultices applied. Should a 



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AND COOKEEY. 43 

bard swelling remain after the inflammation is in a great 
measure reduced, recourse must be had to a blister, and 
after dress with simple ointment. In the first instance of 
a gall being discovered, a strong solution of salt and water 
will be generally sufficient. 

The saddle must be looked at> and the stuffing renewed. 

The attack of this disease is always sudden, 

Gripe9,or and. proceeds from various causes. Sometimes 

Spasmodic from drinking a large quantity of cold water, 

CdUc. when the body has been heated and the blood 
accelerated by violent exercise. In horses of a 
delicate constitution, that have been accustomed to warm 
clothing and a hot stable, it may be brought on by drink- 
ing very cold water, though they have not been previous- 
ly exercised. Bad hay is another cause of the complaint; 
but it frequently occurs without any apparent cause. Colic 
sometimes follows the exposure of a horse to the cold air, 
or a cold wind after violent exercise. 

The symptoms are, first, the horse begins to shift his 
posture, look round at his flanks, paw violently, strike his 
belly with his feet; voids small quantities of excrement, 
and makes frequent and fruitless attempts to^ stale ; lies 
down, rolls, and that frequently on his back. In a few 
minutes the pain seems to cease, the horse shakes himself 
and begins to feed, but on a sudden the spasm returns 
more violently, every indication of pain is increased, he 
heaves at the flanks, breaks out into profuse perspiration, 
and throws himself more violently about. In the space of 
an hour or two, either the spasms begin to relax, and the 
remissions are of a longer duration, or the torture is aug- 
mented at every paroxysm, the intervals of ease are fewer 
and less marked, and inflammation and death supervene. 
A powerful remedy is three ounces of Oil or Spirit of Tur- 
pentine with an ounce of Laudanum, mixed with ghee or 
oil. If relief be not obtained in half an hour, the horse 
ahould be bled freely, as far as three quarts, as it may 



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44 INDIAN DOMXsnC ECONOMY 

relieve or mitigate inflammation^ and a clyster given, com- 
posed of congee (rice water) with a handful of common 
salt. If it be a clear case of colic, half of the first dose maj 
be repeated with an ounce of Barbadoes aloes dissolved in 
a little warm water. The belly should be well rubbed by 
two persons, one on each side, and the horse afterwards walked 
about or trotted moderately. 

When reb'ef has been obtained, the horse must be rub^ 
bed dry, plenty of litter given him to rest upon, and have 
bran mashes for the next two or three days. 

As the treatment for colic would be fatal in inflamma- 
tion of the bowels, the distinguishing symptoms are here 
given : — 

Colic. Inflammation of the JBotceli, 

Sudden in its attack. Gradual in its 'approach, with 

Fulse rarely much quickened in previous indications of fever, 

the early stage of the disease, and Fulse very much quickened, 

during the intervals of ease, but small, and scarcely to be felt, 

evidently fuller. Legs and ears of Legs and ears oold. 

the natural temperature. Eelief Belly exceedingly tender, and 

obtaiued from rubbing the belly. painful to tbe touch. 

Relief obtained from motion. Motion increasing the pain. 

Intervals of rest. Constant pain. 

Strength scarcely affected. Kapid and great weakness. 

The causes of inflammation are, most frequently, sudden 
exposure to cold, over-feeding, having been some hours 
without food, and then allowed to drink freely of cold 
water; — ^stones in the intestines are an occasional cause, 
and colic, neglected or wrongly treated, will terminate in it. 

The treatment must be early and copious bleeding, ap- 
plication of blisters to the abdomen, or else mustard em- 
brocation assiduously rubbed upon it, and if the horse is 
costive, a pint of castor oil mixed in congee must be ad« 
ministered by a clyster, and his legs well rubbed by the 
hand, and plenty of litter for the animal to lie down. If^ 
after these remedies have been applied^ the disease appear 
to continue in violence, the pulse become quick, weak, and 



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AND COOKERY 45 

flattering^ so as scarcely to be felt, or if there appear a 
remission or cessation of pain, or the horse become delirious, 
these are always fatal symptoms, denoting that mortification 
is taking place; but should the pain continue after the 
above remedies have been fairly tried, an anodyne clyster 
may be injected. 

Are bony excrescences about the shank bone. 
Splints i. e.f between the knee and fetlock joint. They 

never occasion lameness, unless situated so near 
the knee, or back sinews, as to interfere with their motion, 
and are invariably found on the outside of the small bone, 
and generally on the inside of the leg. 

The treatment is simple; — shave the hair closely off 
lound the tumour, rub in a little strong mercurial oint- 
ment for two or three days, and follow it up with an active 
blister; — sometimes a second may be necessary. 

Consists in a discharge of fetid matter from 
T%rusi the cleft of the frog. When the frog is in a 
sound state, the cleft sinks but a little way into 
it, but when it becomes contracted, the cleft extends in 
length, and penetrates to the sensible horn within ; from this 
fissure the thrushy discharge proceeds. When the complaint 
attacks the fore feet, it is seldom an original disease. 

The treatment consists in first removing every part of 
the loose horn, and keeping the frog moist, and introdu- 
cing as deeply as possible a pledget of tow or lint covered 
vith an ointment, composed of one ouuce of blue and 
white vitriol rubbed down with two pounds of simple oint- 
ment or lard, to which is added one of tar; at the same 
time giving the horse a gentle laxative, and nothing is 
better than a table-spoonful of pounded black salt, morn- 
ing and evening, mixed with his gram. When the disease 
exists in the hind feet, the same attention is necessary, 
keeping the bowels moderately open, and applying the as- 
tringent ointment. This treatment will be assisted by gentle 
exercise, and frequent hand-rubbing to the legs. 



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46 * INDIAN DOMESTIC EOONOMY 

There are three kinds found in the horse; 

Worms, the most mischievous reside in the stomach, 

and are named bots, they attach themselves to the 

stomach at the sensible part^ and do great injury, occasioning 

emaciation, a rough staring coat, hide-bound, and a cough. 

2nd. A long white worm, much resembling the common 
earth-worm, six to ten inches long, which inhabits the small 
intestines; a dose of physic will sometimes remove incredi- 
ble quantities. 

3rd. A smaller dark-coloured worm, called the needle 
worm, inhabits the large intestines; they cause great irri- 
tation about the fundament, and are very troublesome to 
the horse. Their existence may generally be discovered by 
a white powder found about the anus. They may be re- 
moved by an injection of linseed oil, or an ounce of aloes 
dissolved in warm water. 

Cure for long White Worme^ 

White Arsenic, - - - - 5 to 8 grains. 
Cantharides finely powdered, • 6 to 10 grama. 

Sulphate of Iron finely powdered, - 1 to 2 drachms. 
Ginger powder, - - - ] drachm. 

Tartarized Antimony, - - - 1 do. 

To be given with his gram for a fortnight ; mix with the powder a 
little Boosa. 

Purgative Balls. 
No. 1. No. 2. 

Barbadoes Aloes, 5 dr. Barbadoes Aloes, 7 dr. 

Prepared Natron, 2 dr. Castile Soap, \ oz. 

Aromatic Powder, 1 dr. Powdered Ginger, 1 dr. 

Oil of Caraways, 10 drops. Oil oif Caraways, 10 drops. 

Syrup enough to form a hall for one dose. 

No. 3. 

Barbadoes Aloes, 1 oz. 

Prepared Natron, - . - . 2 dr. 

Aromatic Powder, - - . - - 1 dr. 
Oil of Anise Seeds, .... lo drops. 
Syrup enough to form a hall for one dose. 



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AND COOKERY. 



47 



Tonic Balls. 
Yellow Peruvian Bark, 6 dr. Powdered Opium, - 

Gascarilla, - - - 1 dr. Prepared Kali, - - 

Syrup enough to form a ball for a dose. 



idr. 

1 03. 



No. 1. 
Cummin Seeds, Anise 
Seeds, and Caraway 
Seeds, of each. 
Ginger, - - - 
Treade enough to make 
it of a proper consis- 
tence for balls. The 
dose about - - 

No. 3. 

Cummin Seeds, Corian- 
der Seeds» and Cara- 
way Seeds, of each. 

Grams of Paradise, - 

Cassia^ ... 

Cardamom Seeds and 
Saffron, of each,- 

liquorice dissolved in 
White Wine, - - 

Syrup of Saffron enough 
to form a mass. The 
dose about - 



Cardial Balls. 

No. 2. 
Anise Seeds, Caraway 
Seeds, Sweet Fennel 
4 oz. Seeds, and Liquorice 

2 oz. Powder, of each, - 

Giuger and Cassia, of 
each, - - - 
Honey enough to form 
2 oz. them into a mass. 

The dose about 
No 4. 
Powdered Ginger, 
Powdered Caraway Seeds, 
4 oz. Oil of Caraways, and 

1 oz. Oil of Anise Seeds, of 
i oz. each. 

Liquorice Powder, - 

2 dr. Treacle enough to form 
a mass. 



4 oz. 



Hoz. 



2 oz. 



4 oz. 



2 dr. 
8 oz. 



4 oz. 



2 oz. 



No. 
OamphoT, 
Oil of Turpentine, 
8oap Liniment, 

Mix. 



Embrocation for Bruises. 



L. No. 2. 

- \ oz. Tincture of Cantharides, 1 oz. 
1 oz. Oil of Origanum, - 2 dr. 

- \\ oz. Camphorated Spirit, 6 dr . 

Mix. 

Mustard Ewirocation. 



No. 3. 
Moriate of Ammonia, - 
Distilled Vinegar, - 
Spirit of Wine, - 
Biix. 



No. 4. 

1 oz. Camphor, - - - 1 oz. 

8 oz. Spirit or Oil of Turpentine, 2 oz. 
6 oz. Water of Ammonia; - - 2 oz. 

Flour of Mustard, • - 8 oz. 
To be made into a thin paste, with water, and rubbed for a con- 
siderable time on the part. 



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48 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMT^AND COOMRY. 

BlUtering Ointment. 
No. 1. No. 2. 

Spanish Mies powdered, \ oz. Oil of Turpentine, - - 1 ox. 
Oil of Turpentine, - 1 oz. To which add gradually 
Ointment of Wax or Vitriolic Acid, - - - 2 dr. 

Hog's Lard, - - 4 oz. Hog's Lard, - - . 4 oz. 
Mix. Spanish Flies powdered, - 1 oz. 

No. 3. 

Common Tar, - • 5oz. 

Vitriolic Acid, 2 dr. 

Oil of Origanum, - - - • - -^oz. 
Hog's Lard, - - - • - - 2 oz. 

Spanish Flies, powdered, H or 2 oz. 

Add the Vitriolic Acid gradually to the Tar, and then the rest of 
the ingredients. 

Alterative BaU. 
Socotrine Aloes, - . - - - - 1 oz. 

Castile Soap, IJ oz. 

Powdered Ginger and Myrrh, of each, - - J oz. 
Syrup enough to form a mass, to be divided into six balls. 

Lotiane. 

The strength of these often requires to be altered. Where the 
inflammation and irritability of the part are considerable, they must 
be diluted with an equal quantity of water ; but if the inflammation be 
subdued, and a swelling and ulceration remain, the alum solution 
cannot be made too strong. 

Astringent Lotion. 
No. 1. No. 2. 

Alum powdered, - - 1 oz. Alum powdered, - • 4 ou. 

Vitriolic Acid, - - 1 dr. Vitriolated Copper, - \ oz. 

Water, - . - . 1 Pint. Water, - - - li Pint. 

No. 3. 

Sugar of Lead, 4 oz. 

Vinegar, 6oz. 

Water, 1 oz. 



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CHAPTEE IV- 



»>•» ECONMT. 



DAIET UTENSILS, Etc. 

These, for holding the milk or setting the 
Pom. cr^am, should be of tin, or glazed ware: the 

objection to the latter, if common, consists in 
the surface being easily chipped, and from its porousness 
the vessel acquires a greasy scent, which no washing will 
remove, as the milk from time to time soaks into the sub- 
stance of the pan, and then, becoming stale, gives a very 
disagreeable taint to the milk or cream. The very best 
dishes for setting milk in, are the real common China, pro- 
curable in the bazars at the presidencies and large towns, 
or else tin pans. 

Brass vessels may be used, but they must be kept perfectly 
sweet and clean, the pans well scalded and washed previous 
to their being used, as also every other utensil, lotah, chum, 
cloths or sieve, spoons, &c. In fact, cleanliness is necessary 
with aU articles destined for the use of the dairy; and 
without, it is impossible to succeed. 

Milk should be kept where there is a free circulation of 
air, and covered with gauze or wire screens, to keep off 
fliesj &c. Previous to setting milk for cream, dip the pan 
in cold water, and if required for table-use, take care to 
skim it before the milk gets in the least sour, which, in 
warm weather, soon takes place. 

When the butter is taken from the chum, the smaller 
the quantity of water used in preparing it, the better. 



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50 INDIAN DOMBSnC ECONOMY 

The batter should be placed on a board or dish in a 
sloping position^ so that the butter-milk may run off, and 
then by means of a flat stick the mass must be pressed, 
rolled, and beaten; then sprinkle over it a little salt, .and 
renew the process of pressing until no more butter-milk 
appears, and the butter shall have become firm, when form 
it into shape for use. The chief essential in preserving 
butter, is to remove all the milk, and this can only be 
done by working it well; water remaining in the butter 
is as bad, as it soon undergoes decomposition : hence butter 
to be preserved sweet should never be kept in water, but 
in a vessel that is porous, with a damp cloth round it, 
and in a free circulation of air. 

Those who desire to possess the luxuries of* a dairy, such 
as butter, cream, and milk, in perfection, should keep their 
own milch cattle, or else, if the milk is purchased, have 
the animals brought to their doors, and there milked; even 
then if the people are not looked after, they will bring 
water in the lotahs, and adulterate the milk; however, 
care 'will prevent this fraud. The next precaution if you 
buy your milk is to see that you get the milk you actu- 
ally order, or pay for; the buffalo-milk being so much 
cheaper, they often mix it with the cow^s and sell it as 
such. If you keep your own cattle, you possess the ad- 
vantage of being able to turn the produce of your dairy 
to account. The various modes of using the milk will 
suggest themselves after the butter is made and the fa- 
mily wants supplied, the remainder being converted to 
economical purposes, as the milk or whey may be mixed 
with grain or bran for feeding poultry, pigs, &c. Skim- 
milk in this country is of no other lise, as it soon turns 
sour from the heat. 

Pill your pan two-thirds full of new milk, 

SealdedCream. and place it at a proper distance over a 

dear charcoal fire, and with a gentle heat; 

let it warm gradually for about SO minutes^ when the 



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AND COOKERY. ^ 51 

Maiding will be complete; if allowed to go beyond a 
certain point the cream will not rise properly^ and it is 
spoilt. Remove the pan steadily^ and set it to stand dnr« 
ing the night, the following morning the cream may be 
taken off. It may be scalded by setting the milk in tin 
pans over boiling water; the precise moment for remov- 
ing the milk can only be ascertained by practice. 

The milk must be set for about twelve 

Devmshire hours; the vessel containing it is then placed 

Clotted over a very slow fire or stove, without shak- 

Cream. ing, or disturbing it as little as possible; the 

cream then rises gradually to the top, and 

forms a thick mass when it is cool; the cream is to be 

removed and set aside for butter or other purposes. 

Boil two seers of morning's milk slowly 
leUow until it is reduced about one-fourth, stir it 

Butter, constantly while boiling and cooling, until it is 
cold, in the warm weather, but if in the cold 
season, leave it lukewarm; cover the milk with a cloth tied 
o?er the vessel, until the afternoon, when treat the even- 
ing milk in the same manner, and nux them both togeth- 
er, adding about two table-spoonfuls of the morning's 
batter-milk, kept for the purpose. 

In the morning chum it, adding every now and then 
a Httle cold water while churning. This quantity of milk 
ought to yield one chittack of butter to the seer. 

Obs. — In warm weather, the milk after boiling may be 
left to set by itself with a cloth tied over it; but in the 
cold weather, you must set the vessel containing the milk 
upon hoi embers, so as to keep it a little warm all 
night; of course, if you purchase your milk, the best plan 
is to set the whole quantity at once in the morning: 
more butter-milk is required to be added in the cold sea- 
son than in the hot. 



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52 INDIAN BOVEITIC ECONOMY 

This for families is made either from pure 
Butter. cream^ or the cream and milk together^ with 
which a small quantity of the previous day's 
butter-milk has been mixed at the time of setting, a table- 
spoonful to each seer of milk is sufficient. The natives 
do it otherwise, by first smoking the inside of the chatty 
in which the milk is kept; it is said that more butter is 
procured by this means^ but it always retains the smoky 
flavour, and is the cause of the milk having the same, 
when brought to persons on a joomey or march, if notioe 
of its being required has not been previously given. 

The best method of preserving butter is to 
Buttery to have every particle of water worked out of it 
preserve, with a wooden spatula, and then mixed with 
it a few black pepper corns that have been 
washed and dried; put the butter into a jar, and lay 
over the top a small quantity of moist sugar placed in 
a bag or between two folds of linen. By this means 
butter may be preserved in travelling many' days. 

Way is to clean your butter well; mix with 

Another a very little salt; put it into a porous vessel, 

and keep cool with wet doth round it, or else 

in a cooling machine. (See Coolers.) Butter gets rancid 

sooner by being kept in water, than when dry. 

Ohe. — Butter if melted at the very lowest temperature 
and set to cool, so that the water separates entirely from 
it, will keep for months. 

The milk is first strained into flat pans or 
From Cream dishes, which should never be deeper than 
two or three inches. Tin pans are preferable, 
as they are easily kept sweet and clean, besides not being 
so readily broken. The round or oval shape admits of 
being skimmed with ease, if a small quantity of cream is 
only used, such as is given from two or three seers of milk; 



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AND COOKEEY. 53 

a large fruit bottle answers all the purposes of a chum. 
Of cotirse, if a large quantity, then a churn must be used : 
it seldom is necessary to add any thing to the cream to 
give it acidity. 

The bottle is beat upon a roll of cloth made with coarse 
canyas until the butter is formed into flakes, the butter- 
milk withdrawn^ and a little cool water substituted; this 
is again shaken in the bottle till the butter is in a mass, 
changing the water two or three times; when the butter 
is taken out^ put into a basin, and work it with a fiat 
piece of bamboo or stick similar to a paper cutter; after' 
it has become as firm as the weather will permit^ it is 
transferred to the butter pot or plate, and formed into any 
fanciful shape of a flower or cone, and put on the breakfast- 
table. If the butter is intended to be kept, a little salt 
may be added. 

04f. — Cream that is moderately sour makes sweet butter, 
and it is generally so after standing twenty- four hours. 
The cream may be either from cow's or buffalo's milk. 

The general custom in this case is to 
From Milk and simmer the milk over a chafing dish or 
Cream. brazier with clear coals, but of course your 
kitchen fire will answer, only remember the 
milk must never boil, or be. removed out of the pan it is 
warmed in. A small quantity 6f the previous day's butter- 
milk saved on purpose is then thrown into it; the following 
morning the whole is put into the churn, and the butter 
is made in the usual manner. If the butter is made from 
buffalo -milk, a little colouring is given by soaking the seed 
of the sappun, Bixa Orellana, or a little saffron — though the 
latter is too dear for general use. 

Take any quantity of buffalo or cow's 

jkotierjromelot- milk, let it stand for three or four 

ied Cream in a hours, then simmer it gently over a 

few minutes. charcoal fixe, taking it off before it 



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64 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

is at the boiling pointy and not on any account shake 
or disturb it in removing the pan to the shelf it is to 
stand upon. The cream that will rise is a very good 
imitation of clotted cream, and will be fit for use, 
if for eating, in twelve hours, but if required for but- 
ter may stand for twenty-four. Skim it carefully, put 
it into a bottle with a wide mouth, and shake it 
well, the butter will come in a few minutes. When 
travelling, if the cream is thus put in a bottle and care- 
fully suspended on a camel or other cattle, the butter 
will be ready on your reaching the end of the stage — 
this I believe to be a common custom with officers march- 
ing in India. 

Is prepared by boiling butter over a dear 
Ghee fire until every particle of water is evaporat- 

ed, it will then keep good for years. If ghee 
has a rancid flavour or is tainted, which is often the ease 
when procured from the bazaar, it may be rendered sweetj 
by boiling it with a handful of Moringa leaves ; this is the 
tree the root of which furnishes a substitute for horse 
' radish. 



Cheese 



Is only made in this country as cream-cheese, 
or fresh curd. 



Take any quantity of good cream, hang it in 
Cream a coarse cloth (that has been dipped in scald- 
Cheeee. ing water and wrung out) for about twelve hours, 
then line with cloth a small fine bamboo basket 
made on purpose, or a tin mould — the shape rpund or ob- 
long, with about an inch and a half rim, and the bottom 
perforated with holes; place the cheese in it, and turn 
the ends of the cloth over it. Put on a light weight, 
and turn the cheese carefully once in twelve hours, sprink- 
ling a little fine salt over it; in four or five days it may 
be used. 



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AND COOKBRY. 55 

Take six seen of new milk^ put it in a 
Rt9k saucepan over a slow fire» then mix in by 

CAeeie. degrees a coffee cup-M of white salt, stir- 
ring the milk the whole time^ until it is near- 
ly boiling; take it off> poar it into a dish, and let it 
stand until cool, add half a tea-cup of sour butter- 
milk and squeeze a little lime juice into it and let it 
remain twenty-four hours, then remove the curd from the 
whey, put it into a towel or cloth, ini hang it to ^drain ; 
when the whey has run off, give the curds a shake in 
the doth so as to bring all into a mass, put it, with the 
doth it is in, into a bamboo basket or frame, and place 
a weight of about six pounds upon it, with a thin board 
between, the following day the cheese may be turned and 
salt sprinkled over it. In three or four days it is fit 
for eating, though it is better for being kept longer. 

To the same quantity of mUk add a pint of 
Jnoiier* cream, turn it with rennet or by any other 
means, let it stand for twenty-four hours before 
removing the curd, put the whole into a towel tied mo- 
derately tight to strain, shaking the sides of the cloth 
to bring the cheese together; when the whey is aU out 
torn the cheese into your frame lined with cloth, and 
treat it as last directed; this from the addition of cream 
will be richer than the last. 

06s. — ^If from any unknown cause you find the curd has 
fermented or has a honey-comb appearance, your cheese 
will not be so firm or good. 

Take the stomach of a calf four or five 
Bennei, <f weeks old, remove the curd, wash the bag 
takes, and replace the curd with a handful of salt 

pg or kid. and the juice of four or more limes, tie it up 
so that none of the juice escapes, then cover 
it well with salt, and lay it in a deep dish, and, let it dry, 
or eke stretch it out on sticks for the same purpose. When 



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66 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMT 

required for use^ cat a bit with some of the curd and 
soak it in salt and water. The stomach of a young sack- 
ing pig, kid or lamb answers as welL Wash it dean in 
a strong brine of salt and water^ and return the maw as 
with the calfs stomachy treating it exactly in the same 
manner with plenty of salt. The usual application is as 
follows. The night before cheesemaking, one or two inches 
of the' maw should be cut oS, and steeped in a few table 
spoonfuls of warm water; on the following morning the 
liquor is strained off and poured into the milk; one inch 
is generally held sufBcient to curdle the milk of five 
English cows. Some put sweet-briar^ cloves^ and variona 
aromatics into the rennet, for the purpose of imparting a 
fine flavour to the cheese. 

Take the inside skins of fowls' gizzards^ 
Italian warm a little milk and steep the gizzards, 

rennet strain and add it to the milk to be turned 
into curds — the gizzards after being used, if 
washed and dried, will answer several times, but it is 
hardly necessary to take this trouble where fowls are so 
common, and easily procured. 

The dried leaves of the flower of the thistle 
Vegetable and artichoke coagulate milk, and, form the onlj 
rennet. rennet principally used in the south of France. 
The blue flower of the artichoke, if taken if esh 
or dried, turns milk into excellent curd for cheese or 
other purposes. A tolah weight of the fresh flowers soaked 
in two table-spoonfcds of hot water, and strained, is suf- 
ficient to turn a pint of milk ; two-thirds of a tolah weighty 
or two English drachms of the dried flowers soaked in a 
little hot water, and a tea spoonful of salt, turned two 
quarts of fresh buffalo milk into a rich curd. 

Devonshire Turn some new milk, as for curds, in a wide 
junket. shallow dish; when firm, pour over the top 



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AMD COOKSRT* 57 

dotted cream mixed with pounded sugar^ a little brandy^ 
and some grated nutmeg. 

Turn some new milk with a little rennet; 

Anoiier sweeten some clotted cream, add pounded nut- 

jn/nkeU meg or cinnamon^ make it warm, and when 

cold, pour it over the curd; and put a little 

wine or sugar at the bottom of the dish. 

Made bj adding a little butter-milk to warm 
Tj/re. fresh milk and letting it stand all night; the 

whole may be churned for butter, or the top 
onlj^ as it is the richest and best. 

This is made from the first drawn milk 

Beastin^f. after the cow has calved — ^it is to be well 

sweetened with treacle, then put into a deep 

pie-dish and baked, a common preparation both in Devoa- 

shire and Somerset. 



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CHAPTER V. 



SOUPS. 

G£N£BAL DiEECnONS. 

The great essential in making good And economical soop^ 
is cleanliness. The utensils must not only be perfectly 
sweet and clean, but the meat and oth^ kigredient^ well 
washed to insure success. 

In this country, stock must be made as it is wanted, 
for even in the cold season it will seldom keep sweet till 
the following day, especially where yegetables are UBed in 
its preparation. It is therefore necessary, as fresh meat 
must generally in all cases be used, that the skimming be 
particularly attended to, and a sufficient time allowed for 
the juices to be' extracted by slow and careful boiling as 
well also as for its cooling, that the fatty particles may 
be removed from the surface, and admit of the sediments, 
if any fall to the bottom of the liquid, being drawn off 
clear. 

The material for the basis of plain soup should always 
have its goodness extracted by first applying only a small 
quantity of water and butter to the meat, the remaining 
portion of water added, and immediately brought to the 
boiling point, to raise the scum, and then allowed to simmer 
gently ; then it is that great attention is necessary in remov- 
iug all the scum at first as it rises, else it settles over the 
meat, and the soup is never dear. This must be continued 
whilst any remains; a little cold water thrown in, will 
cause more scum to rise, should there be any. 

Bich and high-seasoned soups have a much stronger 
flavour when the meat is stewed with herbs and butter 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC SOONOMY AND COOKBRY. 59 

previotts to sioek or water being added^ than when the 
latter is at onee pat to the meat^ and, as is often the 
eas^ kept at a boiliag rate, tliroughout the whole process, 
by which means the flavonr and juice is not half extracted, 
and th^ meat rendered tough. The ingredients for season* 
ing soup should be so equally proportionate, that, when 
mixed, no particular flavour predominates. 

Presh lean juicy meat is always to be preferred for clear 
soups ; fat meat is not so good, and stale meat makes the 
broth grouty and bad tasted, besides wanting in its juices 
and strength. Whenever esculents, such as cabbages, endive, 
spinach, or any others are used, they should be first blanched 
in boiling water to remove the bitter and strong taste. It 
is sometimes necessary to boil them in one or two waters 
for this purpose, or they cannot be used. 

Soups that have vegetables in them will seldom keep 
beyond the next day, but on no account must they be 
allowed to remain m any metal vessel, but kept in earthern 
jars or pans. Whatever vessel is used for preparing soup, 
care must be taken that the lid fits close and well, to pre- 
vent the quick diminution of the soup, though sometimes 
it is necessary, if the soup is weak, that the cover should 
be removed to allow the steam to pass off and reduce it : 
the proportion of water is about a quart to a pound of 
meat, if the steam is retained by having a close fitting 
eover so that the broth sbwly evaporates. Soup may also 
be made in a jar covered with paste, or folds of paper, and 
the jar boiled in water or baked in an oven. Chicken 
broth made in this way is superior. 

Sauces, ketchups, fee, should only be put to weak soups 
diat require a flavour to be given to them. Huch as are 
made from calves' and sheep's head, cows' heels and calves' 
feet, require flavouring additions; where wine is used a 
glass mixed with the sauces, and put into soup just before 
it is finished, (to prevent its tasting raw,) will go as far 
as a pint that is boiled with the soup, and which, if given 
to the cook, seldom ever finds its way to the soup ketde. 



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CO INDIAN DOMSSnC BCONOMT 

Broth^ to contain the pure juices of the meat^ must be 
boiled gently, until it is tender; as the flavour can only 
be extracted bj very slow simmering; those seasoned with 
vegetables and herbs, and thickened by using flour, arrow- 
root, rice, potatoe, starch, bread, sago, &c., are ^pcidedly 
the most wholesome. £efore vegetables or herbs are added 
to the broth, be careful that they are perfectly clean. 

If broth is carefully skimmed, it will be clear enough 
without clarifying, which in a great degree impairs tiie 
flavour. To clarify broth» beat up the white of an egg, and 
add it to the broth, and stir it with a whisk, when it has 
boiled a few minutes, strain it through a tammis or napkin. 
Thickening may also be done by stewing the meat down 
to a gelatinous consistence* 

PAKTICULAa DlKECnONS. 

White Soxtps may be flavoured with cream, egg, almond, 
spices, white wine, celery, white pepper, salt, &c. The thick- 
ening made of bread, arrowroot, flour, almonds, cream, 
mashed vegetables^ such as potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, 
turnips, pumpkin, &c. 

Brown Soxtps may be flavoured with sauces, ketchup, 
essence of anchovy, soy, herbs^ vegetable essences, vegetables, 
wine, vinegar, &c., and coloured with toasted bread, burnt 
sugar, fried onions^ or brown sauce: if the soup has by 
any means acquired a burnt taste, a little sugar will re- 
move it. 

The liquor in which mutton^ beef or pork has been boiled^ 
if -the latter is not too salty may be converted into very 
good plain economical soupy by adding vegetables fried in 
butter or ghee^ and thickened with a little arrowroot or 
flour made into a paste with some of the broth; it must 
then be boiled up again to take off the raw taste of the 
same. 

By attending to these few directions, any person may 
produce good palatable broths and soups, and vary them 
to any extent by a little judgment: at the same time it 



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AND COOKERY. 



61 



nuist be remembered that the relish is lost if the soup 
be oold^ th^efore never poor it into the tureen until it 
is to be pnt on the table. 

The principal agents employed to flavour soups and sauces, 
are ijashrooms, onions, anchovy, lemon juice and peeU 
or vinegar, wine^ (especially good daret,) sweet herbs and 
savoury spices. 

Broih heris, So/up rooU, and Setuonings, 



Scotch Barley. 


Tomata. 


CherviL 


Bread. 


Celery. 


Shallots. 


Bioe. 


Common thyme. 


Champignons. 


Potatoe Mucilage. 


Mushrooms. 


Leeks. 


Carrots. 


Celery seed. 


Cress seed. 


Pearl Barky. 


Lemon thyme. 




Raspings. 


Orange thyme. 


Nutmeg. 


VcrmiceUi. 


Gariic. 


Allspice. 


Beet-root. 


Parsley. 


Clove. 


Hour. 


Knotted marjoram. 


White pepper. 


Peas. 


Sage. 


Cinnamon. 


Maccaroni. 


Bay leaves. 


Mace. 


Turnips. 


Burnet. 


Ginger. 


Oatmeal. 


Lemon peeL 


Black pepper. 


Beans. 


Mint. 




Isinglass. 


Winter Sav(»ry. 


Essence of anchovy 


Parsnips. 


Tarragon. 


Lemon juice 


Cucumber. 


Sweet Basil. 


Seville Orange juice 



These materials, combined in various proportions, added 
to wine or mushroom catsup, will give to broths and soups 
a variety of the most agreeable and pleasant flavours. . 

Cut a few carrots and turnips into narrow 
Soup h la slices or ribbands, divide two or three heads of 
Julienne, celery and the same number of onions (with 
a few leeks), cut these about an inch long, and 
a quarter of an inch wide, and the same in thickness. 
Put into a stewpan two spoonfuls of butter and lay the 
vegetables over it. Fry the whole over a slow fire, stirring 



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6S INDIAN DOMBSTIC fiCONOMT 

it gently all the while till of a nice brown. Moisten the 
vegetables with veal gravj^ chicken or mutton broth ; season 
to your taste with salt and pepper, and let it boil at the 
side of the fire ; skim off all the fat as it rises^ and add 
a little sugar to take off the bitter taste of the vegetables. 
04*. — Green peas, French beans, some lettuce or sorrel, 
may be added. 

Scald and clean the giblets of a goose or 
Oiblel Soup, a pair of ducks ; stew them in water, a pint 
for each set, till they are quite tender, or with 
a neck of mutton, or a couple of pounds of gravy beef, 
three onions, a buijich of sweet herbs and four pints of 
water, stew them until the gizzards are quite tender, then 
remove and set aside ; add more stock if necessary to the 
soup. Flavour with mushroom or Harvey sauce, and a 
little butter rolled in arrowroot or flour to thicken it. 

Take four heads of celery, two carrots, two 
Prussian turnips, two onions and lettuce, cut them all 
Sottf, up into small pieces, and fry in a little ghee 
or dripping. Take a seer of mutton, cut it 
into slicesy put all together in a large saucepan, and keep 
it sweating for an hour without any water, then pour on 
two quarts of water, shut the lid of the saucepan dose, 
and simmer gently for two hours longer and serve up. 

This may be considered the very best of white 
Almond soups, and to make it well, great care is necessary. 
Soup. See that the soup kettle has been well tinned 
and well cleaned, or all your labour will be in 
vain. Clean sweet towels are also essential, spoons and 
ladle. Make your stock of the knuckles of veal and fat^ 
with a slice of ham or bacon, season it with thyme or 
any sweet herbs, using also white pepper. If you have 
not veal, neck of mutton with sheep's feet will answer, 
only be careful to skim off all the . fat» &c« Have ready 



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AND COOKSaT. 63 

a fowl nicely boiled^ and when the stock is finished^ say 
enough for six persons^ take the meat off the fowl, cut 
it ap into slices or bits, and pound it well in a marble 
or large clean mortar* Then take four ounces of blanched 
almonds, pound them up fine, and mix with the pounded 
meat of the fowl, adding six table-spoonfuls of cream or 
Tery rich buffalo milk — if milk is used, add the yolk of 
an egg or a couple— -rub the whole through a sieve or 
coarse doth; when this is done, take as much arrowroot 
as you conceive necessary to give a prefer consistency 
to the soup*— a table-spoonfol is enough; this must be 
mixed with a little of the stock, then add the whole together, 
atirring it carefully, but do not let it boil, else it will 
curdle. 

Take three quarts of good white stock, made 
Another either of fowl, veal, rabbits, or aheep's head and 
White feet, or the liquor in which a calPs head has 
Soup. been boiled; put one pound of lean veal, some 

slices of ham, two or three whole onions, a 
head of white celery and a large carrot, a banch of 
parsley, and three blades of mace, boil one hour; strain 
and add to the liquor the white part of a cold roast 
or boiled fowl, (or pheasant) finely pounded, about two 
ounces of sweet almonds blanched and pounded, and the 
pounded yolks of two hard-boiled eggs. Bub the whole 
through a sieve or coarse open-textured doth. Mix the 
yolk of six eggs, well beaten, with one pint of boiled 
cream and a table-spoonfd of arrowroot, add it to the 
soup. Stir it over the fire until thoroughly hot, but on 
no account let it boil, or else it will curdle; then add a 
little salt and a tea-spoopfol of sugar. 

Obs. — Two or theee table-spoonfuls of butter may be 
added to the cream instead of arrowroot, and a few peach 
kayes substituted for the almonds, but the latter must 
be boiled in the stock. 



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64 INDIAN DOMESTIC BCONOKT 

Make a clear broth from the head and iSeel 
Artichoke of a sheep or from the remains of any cold 
Soup, Je- meaty or a large roast fowl will answer ; have 
rusalem. ready the following vegetables, which dean and 
cut up into slices : one head of celery ; carrots, 
turnips, leeks and onions, two of each ; stick ludf a doeen 
cloves in the latter, and put the whole into a stewpan 
with the consomme, (or the cold roast fowl cut up,) to 
which add from two to three quarts of broth; boil the 
whole gently for a couple of hours, and skim off the fat 
as it rises. Take two pounds of Jerusalem artichokes, 
wash and peel them clean, free from all skin and colour ; 
put them into a stewpan with some broth, and boil till 
they are sufficiently tender to rub through a cloth; strain 
the remainder of the broth and add the artichokes with 
a little salt, after which return the whole into the stew- 
pan and give it a boil up, taking off any scum that 
rises; then mix with it a pint of boiling cream in which 
the yolk of an egg or two has been beaten. Serve with 
or without toasted sippets of bread. 

Take three quarts of plain good veal or mutton 
Another broth, add the following vegetables, sliced : two 
way. onions sthck with a few cloves, two carrots, 

two turnips, a head of celery ; boil the whole 
very slowly down to one half, and remove any scum that 
rises ; take at least a pound and a half of artichokes that 
have been carefully scraped and cleaned; boil them in 
some broth, then rub smooth in a mortar, and pass the 
whole with the remainder of the broth through a tammis ; 
have ready a pint of rich milk thickened with arrowroot 
and the yolk of two eggs to the consistence of cream ; 
add this to the soup, with a little salt, and serve up 
hot. 

Asparagus This is made only with the green tops, in 
Soup, the same manner as pea soup. Having pre- 



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AXB OOOKEBY. 65 

pued two quarts of veal or mutton brotb^ take a pint 
and a half of the green tops^ cut about two inches in 
length and boil them in water with a little salt; then 
mb two-thirds through a cloth or sieve and thicken the 
broth with it; the remainder chop up to the size of 
peas, and lastlj put with the soup before serving, that 
thejr may be as firm as possible. 

Take a leg and shin and break the bones 
BetfBouiUi of the formerj or else eight or nine pounds 
and Soup. of the brisket, put it into a soup kettle, or 
stewpan, with a sufficient quantity of water to 
oover it well; set it on a quick fire to raise the scum, 
which remove as it rises j^ add two carrots, the same of 
onions, turnips, and two heads of celery, with a little 
parsley, and spice, also a slice or two of lean ham if 
you have it by you, or an anchovy; let the whole 
simmer gently for four or five hours; season with all* 
spioe and black pepper ; then carefully remove the meat 
and keep it warm, whilst getting ready the following 
vegetables: take a large carrot, an onion, a turnip and 
a head of celeiy; put them into the soup and boil till 
tender ; then take them out and cut the whole into slices ; 
thicken a part of the gravy with flour and add the veget- 
ables; give the whole a warm up, and pour the sauce 
over the meat if served whole, if cut into slices pour the 
sauce and v^etables round it. 

A few chopped capers or some mushroom catsup may 
be added, and the bouilli may be served on stewed red 
cabbage flavoured with vinegar. If you wish to have soup 
as well> strain the soup through a sieve or coarse cloth 
into a clean saucepan, put the vegetables cut into the 
soup after the fat has been removed, and flavour the soup 
with a glass of port wine, some pepper and mushroom 
catsup, and thicken it if required with three or four 
spoonfuls of flour, or a sufficient quantity of arrowroot 
robbed up in butter, or a little of the clear fat from 

I 



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66 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

the top quite smooth; stir it by degrees into the soap 
and simmer for ten minutes longer; brown a little pound* 
ed sugar at the fire and put it to colour, if necessary. 

Take a leg (and cut the meat into pieces), or 
Betf gravy, four or five pounds of gravy beef, lay it in 
a stewpan, properly tinned, with half a pound 
of ham or lean bacon, a large carrot, a head of celery, 
an onion with a dozen cloves stuck in it, some black 
pepper and a little sugar ; moisten it with a pint of 
broth or water; cover the stewpan dose and set it over 
a moderate fire; when the broth is so nearly reduced 
as only to save the ingredients from burning, prick the 
meat with a knife and shake it about so as to brown it 
equally all over; then gradually add^a pint or more of 
boiling water for each pound of meat ; let the whole stew 
gently from four to five hours, and skim it well at inter« 
vals that it may be very clear, then strain it through a 
fine napkin, and set it in a cool place; when cold, take 
off all the fat. 

Oitf.— -Particular care is necessary, during the process 
of browning the meat, to prevent it sticking to the pan 
and acquiring a burnt taste; also if the water is pour- 
ed in too soon, the colour and flavour will be injured; 
and if by accident it is at all muddy, it can only be 
converted, by thickening, into some other soup. 

This may be made to approach very near- 

Imitation ly in flavour the genuine oyster. Having pre- 

OysUr pared a good white stodc or consomme (a full 

Soiip. quart), take and blanch two ounces of shelled 

almonds (sweet) and pound them to a paste 

with a little water; then rub it with a half pint of 

cream, or rich milk, through a cloth or sieve; mix up 

two table-spoonfuls of anchovy sauce, three of mushroom 

catsup, one of vinq;ar, three of white wine, a quarter of 

a nutmeg grated, and the yolk of two eggs well beaten 



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AND COOKBJIY. 67 

with a table-spoonful of arrowroot or fine flour; add this 
to the consomme^ with the abnonds and cream^ and give 
the whole a boil up; season only with pepper and a 
little mace. 

Clean the head and feet of a calf; then 
Mock scald off all the hair in boiling water^ scrap- 

turtle, ing it well with a knife ; when the head and 
feet are properly cleaned and the fat remov- 
edy split the head open, take out the brains and lay 
them aside; put the head with about five quarts of clear 
water into the soup kettle, with a dose-fitting lid, and 
let it boil gently until the head is sufficiently done^ so 
that the meat separates from the bone; if half the head 
is required for a side dish, you must remove it before 
quite so much done, with the tongue, but do not take 
away the bone; set this on one side, and let the othw 
half simmer a little longer; when ready, remove the 
whole of the skin and meat, and reduce the broth to 
about a couple of quarts, or one half; strain it through 
a thick wet doth and set it to cool. Take the meat, 
cut it into slices of half an inch square, and set it on 
one side. Boil the feet down into a jelly of a quart 
or more, strain it and let it stand to cod, when you can 
remove the fat and scum if any. Now take the brains, 
which have been previously boiled, set apart half for sauce 
for the remainder of the head, and with the other portion 
add crumbs of bread, yolk of ej^, black pepper and salt; 
bind the whole with a little flour, and make into balls the 
size of marbles and fry in hot ghee to a nice brown. Then 
take 6ome veal, fowl or fish, chop it up fine, pound it in 
a mortar, to which add chopped parsley, or lemon thyme, 
some crumbs of bread, marrow, ved udder or suet, the 
yolks of eggs, a little sdt and pepper, with a little flour to 
bind the whole; make this into bdb and fry of a rich brown* 
Then make some egg-balls and keep the whole on one side 
till the soup is ready for serving; now brown your stock 



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68 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

with roax, add the jelly from the feet with four table- 
spoonfuls of mushroom catsup, one of anchovy saace, three 
glasses of Prench claret, or two of white wine, a blade of 
mace, half a grated nutmeg, some black pepper and a 
table-spoonfol of sweet basil, wine or vinegar, or two or 
tliree of the fresh leaves not more ; give the whole a boil 
up with the slices of the head. Then put the force meat 
balls into the soup tureen with the juice of a lime, and 
pour the soup over it. Bed pepper is an improvement, 
which can be added at pleasure. 

Take the head and feet and clean them as 
Another directed in the last receipt, also a pound of 

way. ' pickled pork, which soak, and wash ofTall the 
salt; put the whole into a soup kettle with 
a couple of onions stuck with cloves, some lemon thyme« 
a leaf or two of sweet basil, a stick of celery and a blade 
of mace ; add about six or seven quarts of water and boil 
very gently until the meat is tender; separate the meat 
from the bones and cut it into small pieces; return the 
bones into the soup and let it stew for some time longer 
until sufficiently reduced ; then set it to cool, remoTe all the 
fat and strain it : colour the soup, add the wine and sauces, 
with the force meat and egg baUs, as directed in the last 
receipt. 

Obt.^-Two sheep's head with eight feet, dressed in a 
similar manner, will make excdilent imitation mock turtle. 
The skin of the head may be made to resemble the green 
calapash, by colouring it with spinach juice after it has 
been cut into pieces. 

Make two quarts of a rich stock with a 
Carrol Soup, shin of beef, a quarter of a pound of lean 
ham, a fowl, some sweet herbs, cloves, two 
onions, black pepper, and salt, with a head of celery; 
strain; let it stand; when cool, remove all the fat. Clean 
and boil till tender, twelve good sized carrots^ poand them 



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AXD OOOKBRY. 69 

in a mortar, and rab through a tammis into the soup, 
gi?e it a boil and serve. 
Oil.— A spoonfol or two of mushroom catsup improves it. 

Make some good clear mutton broth, 
CveMmierand about three quarts or more, from the neck 
Pea Soup. and head, a thick slice of lean bacon, an 
onion stuck with four or five cloves, a carrot, 
two tonupsy a little salt and a few sweet herbs^ strain 
it, and brown with an ounce of butter, and the crumb 
of a French roll, to which add four cucumbers and two 
heads of lettuce cut small; let them stew a quarter of 
an hour in a quart of the broth; when it boils, put in 
a qnart of green peas ; and, as it stewst add the remainder 
of the broth. 

To every pound of eels add a quart of water, 
EdStmp. an onion, some sweet herbs, a cm^t of bread, 
some mace,* pepper and salt, and let the whole 
boil until half the liquor is wasted; then strain and serve 
up with toaated bread. If the soup is not rich enough, 
tticken with flour and butter. 

To the liquor in which eels have been boiled, 
IdSoup, add a small bunch of parsley and a couple of 
pkm. green onions. Let it boil for ten minutes, then 
put in a thickening of fiour rolled in butter, with 
a little salt ; continue the boiling until the rawness of the 
floor is gone ; add a small quantity of white pepper, and 
poor into the tureen. Have ready the yolk of one ej^ 
beaten up and stir it in the soup. 

To make a tureenful, take a couple of middling 

FiikSaup. sized onions, cut them in halves, and across, 

two or three times; put two ounces of butter 

into a stewpan^ when it is melted, put in the onions, stir 

them about till they are lightly browned. Cut into pieces 



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70 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

three pounds of unskinned eels (or other fish), pat them 
into your stewpan and shake them over the fire four or 
five minutes, then add three quarts of boiling water, and 
when it comes to boil, take the scum ofT verj dean ; then 
put in a quarter of an ounce of the green leaves (not dried) 
of basil or winter savory, the same of lemon thyme, and 
twice the quantity of parsley chopped, two drachms of 
allspice, the same of black pepper ; cover it close and let 
it boil gently for two hours, then strain it ofF, and skim 
it very clean. To thicken it, put three ounces of butter 
into a clean stewpan ; when it is melted, stir in as much 
flour or arrowroot as will make it of a stiff paste, then 
add the liquor by degrees, let it simmer for ten minutesj 
and pass it through your sieve, then put your soup on 
in a clean stewpan, and have ready some little square pieces 
of fish fried of a nice light brown. The firied fish should 
be added a little before the soup is served up. Force meat 
balls are sometimes served with it. 

Take two ounces of any fish — crayfish, 
Fisk force metU lobster, shrimps, or oysters, free from skin ; 
far Soup. put it in a mortar with two ounces of fresh 
butter, one ounce of bread erumbs9 the 
yolk of two egg^ boiled hard, and. a little eshallot, grated 
lemon peel, and parsley, minced very fine; then pound it 
well till it is thoroughly mixed and quite smooth; season 
it with salt and cayenne to your taste, break in the yolk 
and white of one egg, rub it well together, and it is ready 
for use. Oysters parboiled and minced fine, and an anchovy 
may be added. 

Take three pounds of any fish, cut it into 
Fi$l Soup. pieces and place them in a stewpan with two 
anchovies, some onions, parsnips, turnips, celery^ 
and sweet herbs, and three quarts of boiling water. Stew 
altogether for two hours, then strain and season with white 
pepper and salt to taste. Put some force meat balls in 



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AND COOKERY. 71 

the sonpj with the crust of a !French roll, and let it sim- 
mer for a quarter of an hour before serving np. 

Cnt half a pound of ham into slices, and 
Gravj^ Soup, lay them at the bottom of a large stewpan 
clear. or stockpot with two or three pounds of lean 

beef, and as much veal ; break the bones and 
lay them on the meat ; take off the outer skin of two large 
onions and two turnips, wash dean and cut into pieces a 
couple of large carrots and two heads of celery, and put in 
three cloves and a large blade of mace ; cover the stewpan close, 
and set it over a smart fire. When the meat begins to 
stick to the bottom of the stewpan, turn it, and when 
there is a nice brown ^ glaze at the bottom of the stewpan, 
cover the meat with hot water, watch it, and whep it 
is coming to a boil, put in half a pint of cold water, take 
off the scum, then put in half a pint of more cold water, 
and skim it again, and continue to do so till no more 
scorn rises. Now set it on one side of the fire to boil 
gently for about four hours, strain it through a dean 
tammis or napkin (do not squeeze it, or the soup will be 
thick) into a clean stewpan, let it remain till it is cold, 
and then remove all the fat. "When you pour it off, be 
cuefdl not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the 
pan. 

Take three pints of large peas of a nice 
Oreeii Peaa green colour, boil them with a quarter of 
Soup. a pound of butter and a handful of parsley 

and green onions over a slow fire till thorough- 
ly stewed; then put them into a mortar, and pound them 
well, rub them through a tammis and moisten with good 
eonsomme; leave it on the comer of the fire, for if it 
boils the peas will lose their green colour. Just at the 
moment of sending up, put in slices of bread nicdy fried 
and cut in dice shape. 



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72 INDIAN DOMBSnC XOONOMY 

Tske a couple of hares^ skin and wash the 
Hare Soup* inside well, separate the legs, head, shoulders, 
&c* ; put them into a saucepan, with a couple 
of onions stuck with cloves, a bundle of parsley, « sprig 
or two of thyme, two or three leaves of sweet basil (Suffidd 
Toolsie), and a blade or two of mace, with half a pint 
of broth or port wine; put the whole over a slow fire 
or stove, and simmer with the saucepan covered close for 
one hour; then add a sufficient quantity of good broth 
to cover* the whole, and continue to boil it gently until 
the meat is quite tender. Then remove it from the broth, 
and strain the latter through a doth or sieve, and soak 
the crumb of a small loaf in it* Then remove all the 
meat from the bones of the hares and pound it in a 
mortar until fine enough to be rubbed through a sieve 
or tammis; moisten this with the broth and season with 
a htile mushroom catsup. Care must be taken not to 
make the soup too thick, by adding a larger quantity of 
meat than is necessary. If the soup has to be warmed 
up again, it must not be allowed to boil. 

Odtf.— When it is possible, the blood of the hare should 
be preserved in a basin until the soup is about to be serv- 
ed ; then pour the blood to it by degrees and stir it weU 
till it is thickened, but take care it does not curdle. This 
makes the soup of a black colour. A few scollops may 
be set aside for adding to the soup before serving. 

Take two or three hares, cut them into 
Anoiher. pieces and put them with a small shin of 

beef, or a cow-heel, into a kettle with , six 
seers of water, some herbs, a large onion and a blade of 
mace; simmer gently over a charcoal fire until the gravy 
is strong; then take out the back and legs, cut the meat o£F, 
return the bones, and continue stewing till the meat is 
nearly dissolved. Then strain the gravy, and put a glass 
of port wine to every quart of soup, add pepper and salt ; 
give it a boil up with the meat for a few minutes, and serve. 



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AND COOKERY. 73 

Obs. — ^An Indian bare will not make more than a basin 

of lK)1]p. 

Skin and clean out the inside of three 
Queen Sanp^ fowls or chickens ; let them be washed in 
warm water ; stew for an hour with sufficient 
strong veal broth to cover the meat^ and a bunch of parsley. 
Take out the fowls, and* soak the crumb of a small loaf 
in the liquor ; cut the meat off ; take away the skin and 
pound the flesh in a mortar, adding the soaked crumb 
and the yolks of five hard boiled eggs ; rub this through 
a coarse sieve or tammis, and put into it a quart of cream 
that has been previously boiled. 

Take three quarts of veal broth^ put it 
Lobster Soup, into a stewpan with some onions^ celery, 
carrots, parsnips^ a bunch of sweet herbs, 
three anchovies, or a red herring, stew gently for two 
hours, strain, then add to the soup the meat of three 
lobsters cut small, and thicken with butter rolled in flour ; 
if there is any spawn, bruise it in a mortar, with a little 
floor and butter, rub it through a sieve and a^d it to the 
soup. Let it simmer very gently for ten minutes ; it must 
not boil, or. its red colour will be lost : turn it into a 
tureen, add the juice of a lime with a little essence of 
anchovy. 

Obs, — ^The stock for this soup may be made of fish 
instead of veal gravy. 

9 

Half an ounce of vermicelli or maccaroni 

Maeearoni or is enough for each person. First break it 

Vermicelli into its proper length, then wash it in clear 

Soup, water to remove any dirt or stale flavour; 

strain and put it into some boiling broth 

that has been flavoured with a stalk of celery. Make some 

good consomme with a shin of beef and a couple of calves' 



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74 INDIAN BOHfiSnC ECONOMY 

feet or half a dozen sheep's trotters^ five seers of water, 
carrots, turnips and onions, sliced, six of each, some sweet 
herbs, black pepper, salt, and a small spoonful of sugar ; 
simmer all very gently for five or six hours ; then strain 
and set it to cool ; remove the fat, add the maccaroni or 
vermicelli, and give the whole a w&rm up. Serve with a 
French roll or croustades. Italian paste may be prepared 
in the same manner. 

Boil the eggs until quite hard, throw them 

Egg Balls into cold water, remove the white and pound 

for Soup, the yolks in a mortar, working them with the 

yolk of a raw egg to bind, roll them up firmly 

into small sized balls and boil them. 

Oh. — Salt, pepper, cayenne, chopped parsley, and flour 
may be added. 

Boil two roots of large sized beet, rub off 
JBeet-root the skin with a towel and mince finely with' 
Soup* two or three onions* Add five pints of good 
rich gravy soup, then stir in thr^e table- 
spoonfuls of vinegar and one of moist sugar ; let it boil. 
If not thick enough, add a little arrowroot or flour. Throw 
in some veal force meat balls rolled in flour. 

Take four or five onions and four cloves 
Mulligataw- of garlic, slice them very fine, and put them 
ney Soup, into a stewpan, with a quarter of a pound of 
butter. Take two chickens, or a rabbit, a 
fowl, some beef, or mutton, and cut them as for fricassee ; 
season with a little white pepper ; lay the meat upon the 
onions ; cover the stewpan closely, and let it simmer for 
half an hour. Having prepared the following ingredients 
well ground or pounded in a mortar, add them with two 
quarts of clear gravy, and let it simmer for half an hour, 
adding during the last five minutes, the juice of a lime 
with a little flour or surrowroot. 



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AND COOKERY. * 76 

Inffredienia,* 

Turmeric 1 Tolah. Salt 1 Tolah. 

Cajenne Pepper.... .....1 Massa. Fenugreek \ Tolah. 

Coriander Seeds 4 Tolahs. *Currj pak leaves, four or five 

Black Pepper 1 Tolah. to be added whilst boiling. 

Cut up a large fowl, or four pounds of the 
Anoiier. breast of mutton or veal into slices^ put the 
trimmings into a stew pan with two quarts of 
water, a few corns of black pepper, and some allspice; 
when it boils, skim it clean, and let it boil gentlj an 
hoar or more; then strain it off; take some of the bits 
of the meat and fry them of a nice brown in butter, with 
three or four sUced onions; when they are done, put the 
broth to them, put it on the fire, skim it clear, let it 
simmer half an hour, then mix two spoonfuls of curry 
powder and a little flour or arrowroot with a tea-spoon- 
fol of salt, and a sufBciency of water to thicken the soup, 
and let it simmer gently till the meat is quite tender; and 
when it is ready, a few curry pak leaves, dried, may be 
added to flavour it. 

Cut up a fowl in slices, with four large onions 
Another. and . half a dozen cloves, put into a stewpan 
with two table-spoonfuls of butter; and when 
melted, and the meat and onions are nearly browned, add 
three table- spoonfuls of curry powder or the ingredients 
for No. 1, with a tea-spoonful of salt and a cup of tyre, 
or two spoonfuls of Bruce's Madras MuUigatawney paste. 
Stew gently until a rich smell issues from the pan; then 
add three pints of good broth, veal or mutton, and let it 
simmer for twenty minutes. Thicken with a little flour 
or arrowroot mixed in cold broth or butter, with the 
juice of a lime, a few minutes before serving. A few pak 
leaves may be added. 



* Native name, Kodia neem. 



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76 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Clean and cut up the bird, separate all the 

Pea-fowl joints, put into a stewpan with four quarts of 

Mulliga- water, a few corns of black pepper, and some 

tatoney* allspice ; when it boils, skim it clean, and let 

it boil gently for two hours or more ; then 

strain it off. Take some of the bits of meat and fipy 

them of a nice bro¥ni in' butter with three or four sliced 

onions ; when they are done, put the broth to them, put 

it on the fire, skim it clean, let it simmer half an hour, 

then mix two spoonfuls of curry powder, and a little flour 

or arrowroot with a tea-spoonful of salt, and a suf&ciency 

of water to thicken the soup, and let it simmer gently 

till the meat is quite tender, and it is ready. A few 

pak leaves may be added to flavour it. 

Take a handful of cut nolecole, carrots, tur- 
Meagre nips, celery or any other vegetables ; blanch, and 
Soup, fry them with a large proportion of onions, in 
butter or ghee ; dredge with flour, and put 
them with fish stock ; and let it simmer till the vegeta- 
ble dissolve. Have ready bread or vegetable to put into 
the soup. 

Slice, very thin, twelve large onions, one 

A Meagre turnip, two carrots, and two heads of celery ; 

Onion Soup, fry them in half a pound of butter until quite 

brown; add four quarts of boiling water, four 

anchovies, four blades of mace, a few pepper corns, some 

salt, and two rolls of white bread or a small loaf. Boil 

all together till reduced to a pulp; strain, set it on the 

fire, skim and thicken with the yolks of six eggs, serve 

with fried bread or French roll. 

Take six table-spoonfols of clean ghee. 

Another Soup or melt the same quantity of butter in a 

Meagre, stewpan; add, sliced, three or four onions, 

a couple of heads of celery, two or three 

turnips, some cabbage, spinage, parsley, thvme or any other 



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AND COOKEUY. 77 

herbs; set them over the fire to stew gently for half an 
hour; then add by degrees two quarts of water^ and sim- 
mer until the vegetables are quite tender; season with 
mushroom catsup^ pepper and salt. Serve with slices of 
toast at the bottom of the tureen. 

Prepare meat^ vegetable, or fish stock, and 
Ogiter Soup, season it well without salt. Boil down a few 
oysters for thickening, and, if necessary, some 
white meat or fish, and panada farce may also be made of 
the fish. If the oysters are very large, they must be cut 
in two, as every thing in the soup should be nearly the 
same size; rub the thickening through a tammis with a 
httle , of the soup ; every quart of the soup will require • 
about half a pint of oysters. All fish soups may be flavored 
with ketchups, anchovy, lemon pickle, soy, &c. &c. 

One tail is sufficient to make soup for four 
Ox-tail Soup, or five persons ; divide the tail at the joints 
and soak tliem in warm water ; if the 
bones are partially sawed across they will give more strength ^ 
to the soup. Put into a stewpan the slices of the tail 
and fry them a little; then add a few cloves, with a couple 
of large onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, some black pepper 
and a blade of mace; cover the whole with water, and 
as it boils, keep removing the scum whilst any rises; then 
replace the cover close and set the pot on the side of the 
fire to sinmier gently for two or three hours until the 
meat is tender, when remove it and cut it into small pieces, 
laying them on one side ; strain the broth through a cloth 
or sieve ; add a glass of wine with a couple of spoonfuls 
of mushroom catsup, Harvey sauce, or soy ; return the 
meat into the soup and give it a boil up. If you wish 
the soup to be thick, take a couple of spoonfuls of the 
clear fat that has been removed, mix it into a paste with 
flour and add the warm broth by degrees, stirring it quite 
smooth, and let it simmer for a short time; or add, a 
tittle arrowroot with the wine and sauce. Have ready 



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78 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

< some nicely cut carrots, turnips, and small onions, prepared 
and boiled previously, which add to the soup a minute 
or two before serving. 

Obs. — Two or three slices of bacon or ham, laid at the 
bottom of the stewpan with the meat, will increase the 
flavour of the soup. 

Take a pint of split peas or dh&Il, steep 
DAdll or split them in cold water for an hour or two, 
PeasSoujo. put them into a saucepan with a quart 
of water, and boil them until they can 
be pulped through a sieve or coarse cloth; then add them 
to some good broth that has been seasoned, with a little 
ham, or the root of a salted tongue and a head of celery, 
and boil toge&er for a few minutes. Serve up with fried 
bread and powdered mint in a separate plate. 

Take lean bacon or ham (half a pound) 
Anothif way. cut into slices, water four quarts,, split peas 
or dh&ll one pint which have been soaked 
for two hours, one head of celery, carrots, turnips and 
onions sliced two of each, add pepper and a littlt salt ; put 
the whole into a stewpan and set it on the fire; when it 
boils take it off, then let it simmer by the fire three or 
four hours until the peas or dh&ll are quite tender, when 
serve with toasted bread. 

Take two ounces of rice, pick it clean and 
^e Soup, wash it in several waters till no dirt remains. 
Blanch it in boiling water and 'drain it. Then 
take some nice broth, season it well, throw ihe rice in, 
and let it boil; but not so as to be much done; for 
if it breaks, the appearance is spoilt. 

Peel and wash well four dozen sticks of rhu- 

JiAuiarb barb, blanch it in hot water three or four 

Soup. minutes, drain it on a sieve, and put it in 

a stewpan with two ounces of lean ham, and 



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AND COOKERY* 79 

a good bit of butter* Let it stew gently over a slow fire 
till tender; then put in two quarts of good conso'mme, 
boil about fifteen minutes, skim off all the fat, add two or 
three ounces of bread crumbs ; season with salt and cay« 
enne pepper, 'pass it through a tammis, and serve up with 
fried bread. 

Make a stock with either veal or mutton. 
Turnip only be cautious that it is clean, and clear, 
Soup. not greasy. Let the turnips be only sufficiently 

boiled to rub smoothly through a tammis, 
coarse doth, or hair sieve; add a little sugar, and a suf- 
ficient quantity of arrowroot or pounded rice flour to 
thicken it; season with pepper and salt. Mushrooms, if 
fresh, may be boiled in stock, but they must be of the 
button sort, or the stalks of mushrooms very nicely 
cleaned. 

Prepare a stock of fish or meat, fia- 

Praum, Cray- voured with an onion, some parsley, a 

fish or Shrimp little thyme and black pepper, to each 

Soup. ^ quart allow a pint or more of fish, that 

have been boiled in a little water with 

salt and vinegar, remove and save the shells, pound up 

one half of the fish with the crumb of a roll or the same 

quantity of panada, and moisten this with the liquor in 

which the fish were boiled, by first pouring it over the 

shells in a sieve, then add gradually the stock seasoned 

with some anchovy, and lime juice; or vinegar. If not 

thick enough, mix a pat of batter, rolled in flour or 

arrowroot, set the soup on the side of the fire, add the 

remaining fish, chopped to a proper size, with the tails 

of the cray-fish, and spawn, if any. 

Skin and ^lit the head, then take the brains 

Sheets head out, and soak it in water all night; put 

Sovp. five quarts of water to it (after having taken 

it out of the water in which it was soaked) 



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80 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMT 

and boil till the scum rises to the top, which most be 
taken off ; then add an onion, carrot,* and turnip, and let 
it simmer for three hours, or till the meat is quite 
tender. Then take out the head, and thicken the broth 
with a little oatmeal, pearl barley, or rice flour, boil- 
ing it about ten minutes. 

Beef one seer, rice a quarter of a pound. 

Beef Soup. potatoes, turnips, and onions, sliced, of each 

three; add pepper and salt. Boil in eight 

pints of water until the scum rises, which must be taken 

off; then simmer until it is reduced to six pints. 

Are essentially neessary to some soups 
Force-meat and most made dishes. The chief art in 
or Farces compounding them consists in due propor- 
tions of the materials employed, and the care 
taken to make them well, so that no particular flavour 
preponderates; much depends upon the savouriness of the 
dish to which a zest is to be added : some only requiring 
a delicate farce, others a full and high seasoned. As Kit- 
chener observes, ''that which would be used for turkey 
would be insipid with turtle," therefore, the great neces- 
sity of attending to the proper seasoning proportions and 
consistency. 

"When the force-meat is made of fowl, there is one-third 
fowl, one-third panada, and one-third of marrow, kidney 
fat, veal udder or butter. This is the French method, but 
whatever kind of fat is used the proportion is a third, 
the seasoning should be the same as that used in the 
dish, with the addition of a little cayenne and mixed 
trufile or savory powder to raise it. "When the propor- 
tions are made, they are all to be put in a mortar with 
the minced sweet herbs that have been cooked in butter, 
white pepper with spices, and pounded together with a raw egg 
beat up and dropped in with a little water by degrees, ' 
until the whole forms a fine paste. Test it by rolling a 



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AXD COOKERY. 81 

little bit in flour, and poach it in boiling waler or the 
fryingpan; if it is too stiff, put a little more water into 
the mortar, and beat it again, and if too soft, add ano- 
ther egg, or more. The balls must never be made larger 
than a common marble, and should be either fried or 
boiled according to the sauce in which they are served ; 
previous to frying or dressing, roll them in a little fine 
flour. 

White' meats with ham, tongue, &c. are generally used 
for fowl^ veal, rabbits, and sometimes for*fish; the pro- 
portions never vary, being always by thirds. 

If two meats are used, such as fowl and tongue, these 
together only make one-third of the farce. Fish, fruit or 
vegetables, the same. The balls when made, may be kept 
in clarified dripping or butter, and warmed when required. 

To prepare force-meat, take your meat, clean it from 
all sinews, cut it in slices, pound it in a mortar, and 
make into a ball; then take a calfs udder and boil 
it; when it is done, clean it nicely, cut it also into 
slices, pound it in a mortar until it can be rubbed 
through a sieve. All that passes through must be 
made into a ball of the same size as the meat ; then 
make the panada as follows— soak crumbs of bread well 
in milk, then drain ofif all the latter, and put them into 
a stewpan with a little white broth; then take a little 
butter, a small slice of ham, some parsley, a clove, a few 
shallots, a little mace and some mushrooms; put these in 
a stewpan and fry them gently on the fire. When done, 
moisten with a spoonful of broth, let it boil gently for 
some time, and drain the gravy over the panada through 
a sieve, then place the panada on the fire, and reduce 
it, stirring it carefully. When dry, put in a small 
piece of butter, and let it dry further, adding the 
yolks . of two eggs ; let it cool on a clean plate and 
use as wanted* in the same proportions as the two 
other articles. 

Crumbs of bread soaked in milk, and strained, may 



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\ 



8S INDIAN Bonsnc ICOXOHY 

be nsed instead of panada, and fat or butter for the 
calves' udder. 



Pound some veal in a marble mortar, rub 
For Turtle, it through a sieve with as much of the 
JUoei Turtle, udder as 70U have veal, and about a third 
^e. the quantity of butter. Put some bread 

crumbs into a stewpan, moisten them with 
milk add a little chopped parsley and shallot; rub them 
well together in a mortar, till they form a smooth paste. 
Put it through a sieve, and when cold, pound and mix 
all together with the yolks of three eggs boiled hard ; sea* 
son it with salt, pepper, and curry powder, or cayenne ; 
add to it the yolks of two raw eggs, rub it well togeth- 
er, and make small baUs. Ten minutes before the soup is 
ready put them in. 

Take the liver, two ounces of beef suet 
Stuffing for chopped fine, some parsley, a little thyme or 
Hare. the peel of a ripe lime cut yery thin and 

smaU, pepper, salt and grated nutmeg, two 
table- spoonfuls of crumbs of bread, a little milk, the white 
and yolk of an egg well beaten; mix the whole together 
and take care that it is of a proper consistency ; it must 
not be too thin; put it into the hare and sew it up; a 
shallot rubbed down smooth, or half a clove of garHc, will 
improve the flavour. 

Take two ounces of lobsters, prawns, shrimps, 
Tuh Force' oysters, or of any fish, clean and chop it up, 
meat. put it into a mortar with two table-spoon- 

fuls of fresh butter, some bread crumbs soak- 
ed in milk, the yolks of two eggs boiled bard, one an- 
chovy, some grated lemon peel, and parsley chopped fine; 
season with pepper, salt and allspice, and bind the whole 
with the white and yolk of an egg, or more if necessary. 



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• ANB COOKXRY. 83 

Take foui table-spooufuls of clean picked 

StvgmgfoT mairow or beef suet, the same quantity of 

Tealy Tver- bread crumbs^ a tea-spoonful of chopped pars- 

iby, lofwlj ley, thyme, a , small white onion, half a nut- 

ifc. meg, grated lemon peel, pepper, salt, and the 

yolks of two eggs; mix it well in a mortar; 

when ready secure it in the veal or poultry, either with 

a skewer, or sew it in with thread. 
If made into balls or sausages, roll them into a proper 

shape^ dust them with flour and fry them of a nice brown; 

they are* an excellent garnish in this way for roast poultry ; 

cutlets, &c. 

These may also be used with white sauce, but then the 
balls must be boiled; put them into boiling water, and a 
few minutes will do them. 

Take two or three ounces of beef suet and 

jMoiherfor the same quantity of crumbs of bread that 

VeaL have been moistened in milk ; chop the suet 

very fine together with parsley, marjoram or 

thyme, grated lemon peel, ground mace pepper and salt ; 

pound these well in a mortar and add a little butter, uniting 

the whole with the yolk of eggs. A shallot may be added.* 

Ob9. — Ham, tongue, grated or potted, may be added to 

this farce, to render it more savory. 

Prepare the farce the same as for roast 

Stuffing for turkey. Clean a dozen or more of oysters 

hiikd Turkey, free from beard and add to the stufBing ; 

fill the bird with this and sew it up nicely. 

It may be served with oyster sauce, parsley and butter 

or plain melted butter ; sometimes roast turkey and capons 

are stuffed with pork sausage meat. 

Goose (nr Chop very fine about two ounces of 

Buck stuffing, onions, of green sage leaves about an ounce 



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84 



INDLA.N DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



(both unboiled)^ four ounces of bread crumbs, the yolk aud 
white of an egg, and a little pepper and salt. 

Boil four eggs for ten minutes, and put 
Egg Balls, them into cold water ; when they are quite 
cold, put the yolks into a mortar with the 
yolk of a raw egg, a tea-spoonful of flour, the same of 
chopped parsley, a spoonful of salt, and a little black pepper, 
or cayenne; rub them well together, roll them into small 
balls (as they swell in boiling) ; boil them a couple of jninutes. 

Materials used for Forcemeat^ Stuffing, ^e. 
Spirits of 



Common thyme. 


Lemon thyme. 


Orange thyme. 


Sweet marjoram. 


Summer and 


Sage. 


Tarragon. 


Chervil. 


Winter Savory. 


Basil. 


Bay-leaf. 


/ 


Bomet. 








< 


Fresh and Green, 


or in dried Powder, 


Truffles and Mo- 


Allspice. 


Dressed tongue. 


Capers and Pic- 


rells. 




Ham. 


kles. 


Mushroom pow- 


Nutmegs. 


Bacon. 


(Minoed, or pow- 


der. 






dered.) 


Garlic. 


Maoe. 


Shrimps. 


Zest. 


Soup herb pow- 


Cloves. 


Oysters. 




der. 








Leeks. 


Curry powder. 


Lobsters. 




Lemon peel. 


Cinnamon. 


Crabs. 




Onions. 


Cayenne. 


Prawns. 




Eshallot. 


Ginger. 


Anchovy. 




Savory powder.* 


Black or White 
pepper. 




, 




Substances. 




Flour. 


Boiled onions. 


Mutton. 


Parboiled sweet 


Crumbsof potatoes. Parsley. 


Beef. 


bread. 


Mashed potatoes. 


Spinach. 


Veal suet or 


Veal minced and 


Yolks of hard 




Marrow. 


pounded. Pot- 


Eggs. 




Calfs udder or 


ted meats, &c. 






brains. 





♦ Stvory powder, dried parsley, winter savory, sweet maijoram, lemon thyme, of 
each two ouuces : lemon poaL cut very thin and dried, and sweet ba*il, an ounce of 
each; pound the whole and pass through a sieve, and keep in a bottle closely stopped. 



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AND COOKEKY. 85 

Liquids. 
Meat gravy, lemon juice, syrup of lemons, essence of 
anchovy, the various vegetables, essence of mushrooms, cat- 
sup, the whites and yolks of eggs, wines, and the essence 
of spices. 

In the highest state of perfection, they 
To dry Sweet should be cut just before flowering, as they 
Herbu have then the finest flavour and perfume. 

Take care they are gathered dry, and cleaned 
well from dirt and dust. Cut off the roots, separate the 
bunches into smaller ones, and dry them in a warm place 
in the shade or before a common fire ; the sooner they are 
dried by these means their flavour will be best preserved 
rather than by drying them in the heat of the sun, which 
deprives them of their colour, the retaining which is the 
best test afforded of their being properly preserved ; after 
which put them in bags and lay them in a dry place. But 
the best way to pr^erve the flavour of aromatic herbs, 
is to pick off leaves as soon they are dried, and to pound 
them and sift through a fine sieve ; keeping them in well 
closed stopper bottles with brown paper pasted round them. 

BROTHS. 
Take a kunckle of veal, wash it clean, and 
Teal, crack the bones in two or three places ; put 

it into a stewpan and cover with cold water; 
watch and stir it up well ; the moment it begins to simmer, 
skim it carefully, then add a little more cold water to make 
the remaining scum rise, and skim it a^ain : when the scum 
has done rising and the surface of the broth is quite clear, 
put in, cut and cleaned, a moderate sized carrot, a head 
of celery, two turnips and two onions ; cover it close, set 
it by the side of the fire, and let it simmer very gently 
(so as not to waste the broth) for four or five hours, ac- 
cording to the quantity of . meat ; strain through a sieve 
or tammis ; if to keep, put in a cool place. 



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Ob INDIAN DOUESTIC ECONOUT 

Obi»— This is the foundation of all sorts of sonps^ brown 
or whitCj made of beef| mutton or veal. 

Clean and divide the chicken into quarters. 
Chicken Broth, after having removed the skin and mmp ; 
add a blade of mace, a small onion sliced, 
and ten white pepper corns, with a quart of water. Simmer 
till the broth be suffidentlj reduced and of a pleasant 
flavour, remove the fat as it rises, season wit)i salt, a little 
chopped parsley may be added. 

Put on the broth in a clean saucepan. 

To clarify beat up the white of an egg, add it to the 

Broth. broth and stir it with a whisk ; when it has 

boiled a few minutes, strain it through a 

tammis or napkin. 

Broth, if carefully skimmed, will be clear enough with- 
out clarifying, which iu a great degree impairs the flavour. 

Is the fat skimmings of the broth pot, 

Pot'tqp which when fresh and clear, answer as well as 

butter for basting all meats, with the exception 

of game and poultry, but if used for common firys, &c., 

require to be clarified* 

Is that in which poultry or meat has been 

Pot liquor boiled, and may be easily converted into a 

plain wholesome soup with the addition of 

the trimmings and parings of meat, game or poultry, that 

you may happen to be using. 

Take a pound and a half of the neck or 
Mutton Broth loin of mutton, remove off the skin and 
for the sick, fat, and put it into a saucepan, cover it 
with cold water a quart to a pound of 
meat, let it simmer very gently and skim it well, cover 
it up and set it over a moderate fire where it may remaia 



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AND COOKERY. 87 

gently stewing for aboat an hour, then strain it off. It 
should be allowed to become cold, when all the fatty par- 
ticles floating on the surface become hard and are easily 
taken off? the settlings falling to the bottom. 

Take two pounds of mutton; put it in a 
Mulian Broth, stewpan, and cover it with cold water ; when 
the water becomes lukewarm^ pour it ofi^ 
akim it weH, and then put it back with four pints more 
water, a tea-spoonful of salt^ a table-spoonful of grits or 
coarse flour, and an onion; set it on a slow fire, and when 
you have removed the scum, put in two or three peeled 
turnips cut in half, let it continue to simmer slowly for 
two hours, and strain through a clean cloth or sieve. 

OU. — ^You may thicken this broth with rice flour, rice, 
pearl barley, wheat flour, sago or arrowroot. Sprinkle a 
Uttle chopped parsley into it. 

Scald the head in hot water, and scrape 

Sieq/siead off aU the hair with a sharp knife; when 

Broti. cleared of the wool divide it like a calf s- 

head, then put it into the saucepan with 

water sufficient to cover it, a couple of onions, a little 

vinegar and some salt; as the scum rises, take it off. 

When the water begins to boil let it after only simmer 
until the head is thoroughly done — set the broth to cool, 
remove all the fat, and strain it, then put it over the fire 
witli an onion quartered, a carrot cut into slices, a small 
turnip, and a little parsley. The moment it boils sprin* 
kle in one quarter of a pound of rice, washed and dried. 
Season to your taste, and let the soup stew until the rice 
is done— the same quantity 'of pearl barley may be substi- 
tuted for rice; if a thick barley soup be desired, add a 
little arrowroot or a mashed potatoe. 



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CHAPTER VI. 



FISH. 



Fish of every kind are in the best season ' some time 
before they begin to spawn, and are not good for some time 
after they have done spawning. 

Sea fish should be boiled in clear water, to which salt 
most be added in the proportion of two table-spoonfuls to 
a gallon. To make your fish firm and to keep it of a good 
colour, always boil it in clear fresh water, and be careful 
that it is nicely cleaned and washed and no particle of blood 
remaining about it ; then put it into the kettle with salt 
and water, and as soon as it boils fast, remove any scum 
that may appear, and slacken it, letting it boil gently so 
that it may be done throughout ; else the outside will be 
done too much, whilst the inner wiU be raw. The time it 
will take to boil must depend upon the size of the fish, and 
the cook here must be the judge. Fish should never be 
kept in the water after it is once ready, but remove, and 
kept warm by steam ; this may be done by placing it in a 
cloth over the kettle, or else in a dry stewpan in a Bain 
Marie ; by these means only its flavour and quality can be 
preserved. 

The Pomplet, black and white, is the most esteemed on 
the western coast of India, and is not unlike a small tur- 
bot, but of a more delicate flavour. The black seems to 
be considered by epicures as the finest. The other fish 
are Tockcore (scarce), Sabb or salmon fish, Bobal, the seer 
fish, mullet, soles, and some others all very good. The 
fiumbalo is the favorite with the natives, and caught in 
immense numbers ; they are dried for consumption as well 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKEKY. 89 

as the Pomplet, and furnish a principal article of food. 
Cray fish, crabs, oysters, limpets, prawns and other shell- 
fish are canght in great abundance. Turtle are sometimes 
brought to market from the adjacent islands. 

In Calcutta, fish are equally plentiful at particular sea- 
sons, and are most abundant at the latter end and com- 
mencement of the year, when the following are procura' 
hie; Becktee, Tobeesah or mango fish, Moonjee or mul- 
lets, Booe, Cutla, Mirgael, Shoil, Salleah, Baunspattah, 
Quoye, or carp, Mangoor, Cochea or eels, Baleah, Pairsah, 
Byue, Khankeelah, Bholah, Singhee, Phankal, Chungnah, 
Chingree or prawns, Kaikra or crabs, turtle and others of 
inferior note. 

See that your fish is perfectly fresh, clean 
F«A, to pre- and dry it well, then rub a little moist sugar 
9erve, and salt over the throat fins and belly, hang 

it up in a cool place with a cloth round 
it. Fish also cut into strips and hung out in the sun 
to drj, after being rubbed with sugar and salt, will keep 
for a length of time, provided it is not allowed to get 
damp. Two spoonfuls of sugar, with a little salt, are suf- 
ficient for a fish of eight or ten pounds. If to be kip% 
pered, a little saltpetre is to be mixed into the sugar, 
and to be rubbed, finished, and hung as other kippers. 

Take any small fish, make a good strong 
^ieUe for mixture as follows : — (Put into a stone pan 
any small or jar a layer of fish, and then one of the 
fiih. mixture, and so on alternately to the top.) 

Two pounds of salt, three ounces of bay salt, 
one pound of saltpetre, two ounces of prunella with a few 
grams of cochineal ; pound all in a mortar. The fish should 
be nicely cleaned^ and wiped dry before salting ; press them 
down hard, and cover close. 

Clean your fish well, cut it into slices, or 
Broiled. divide it in half if necessary, dry it thorough- 

ly in a clean cloth, rub it over with sweet 

M 



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90 INDIAN BOMESnC ECONOMY 

oil, or thick melted butter, and sprinkle a little salt over 
it ; put your gridiron over a clear fire at some distance ; 
"when it is hot wipe it clean, rub it with sweet oil or 
lard, lay the fish on, and when done on one side, torn 
it gently and broil the other; when in a hurry, dry and 
flour the fish and chalk the gridiron, and when there is 
any disposition to stick, loosen them with a knife, turn 
them, rubbing the gridiron clean. 

Beat up two eggs in half a pint of milk ; 
Batter for add to this six table-spoonfuls of flour, and 
frying fsL mix the whole together gradually; dip the 
fish in it just before putting into the fry- 
ing-pan. This batter is better for being prepared an hour 
or two before required ; beat it up again previous to 
the fish being dipped into it; or dip the fish in milk, 
and shake it, whether whole or in slices, in a floured 
cloth, and put them into the frying-pan well covered with 
fat, pot-top is the best, giving a finer colour than oil or 
any of the other fats ; when they are done, place them 
on a hot cloth or sieve to drain. 

Clean the fish well, then take either some 

Native bat- of the flour of gram, rice, or mussoor (dhoU), 

ter for fry- mix in it some garlic, onions, green ginger 

ing fsL and salt well pounded, also some tyre and 

turmeric, which apply to the fish, and fry 

it in ghee. 

Force any sized carp or fish with high 
Bate, seasoned farce, brush it over with egg and 

butter, lay in a deep dish, and strew in 
sweet herbs and spices, some chopped anchovies or essence, 
with wine and stock. Baste it with this while baking, 
and when ready, take the sauce and reduce it over the 
fire, . add tarragon or lemon vinegar, cayenne and salt, 
with a little sugar according to the size or quantity. 



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AND COOKERY* 91 

After having well cleaned your fish, brush 
Another. it all over, inside as well, with egg and 

butter ; then sprinkle it with salt, pepper^ 
and pounded allspice, and some chopped sweet herbs, 
sach as you can procure ; roll, the fish nicely up in plan* 
tain leaves, and tie them round, put in a deep dish and bake. 

Obi. — Murrell and Marsaier may be dressed in any of 
the above ways, or indeed all our fine Indian fresh water 
fish. 

Is a mode of dressing fresh water fish of 
Water almost every description ; indeed other fish, such 

Souciy as soles, flounders, pomfret, &c. may be similarly 

dressed. They must be fresh^ cleaned, and trim^ 
med. Put them whole in a stewpan and cover with water 
if small, if large they must be cut in pieces ; boil aU the 
parings, add parsley leaves and roots cut into shreds, season 
with pepper and salt, skim it carefully when it boils ; take 
care the fish is not overdone; nothing else is to be put 
into it, as its excellence rests in its simple cookery. Send 
it up in a deep dish or tureen with its gravy, which should 
be rich and clear, and serve with brown bread and butter. 

This fish is generally procurable in the large 

Corp. rivers, mostly all the year round, which they 

leave at the commencement of the rains to 

spawn, and are found in the gravelly beds of the tributary 

streams, of a very large size* 

Scale and dean your carp, reserving the liver 
To boil. and roe ; take half a pint of vinegar or more, 

according to the size of your fish, add as much 
water as will cover it, a little horse-radish root (the Moo- 
risga), an onion or two cut into slices, a little salt, and 
»me thyme, marjoram or other sweet herbs; boil the fish 
in this liquor, and make a sauce as follows : — Strain some 
of the liquor the fish has been boiled in, and put to it 
the liver minced, a pint of port >vine or chrtt, two or 



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9fi INDIAN DOMESTIC XCONOMY 

three heads of shallots chopped, or yonng green omons, 
a table-spoonful of anchovy sauce, or else two anchovies 
pounded, some salt, black pepper, and cayenne, and a table- 
spoonful of soy. Boil and strain it, thicken ifc with butter 
rolled in flour, and pour over the carp hot. Oanush it 
with the roe fried, cut lemon and parsley. 

Obs. — Carp eae not so fine flavoured when full of roe, 
they are then considered out of condition. 

Put your roes into fresh water for half an 
Carp Roes. hour, change the water, and let them be placed 
on the side of the fire to whiten, then put 
them into another saucepan with boiling water and a little 
salt, let them boil and take them off the fire. Have in 
another pan, four or more spoonfuls of well seasoned stock. 
Put in the roes, let them simmer up once or twice, skim, 
thicken with a little flour, and squeeze a little lime juice 
over them. Serve hot. 

When the fish has been properly cleaned and 
To Steiv. washed, lay it in a stewpan with half a pint of 
port or claret, and a quart of good gravy, a 
large sliced onion, some dozen or so of whole black pepper, 
the same of allspice, and a few cloves, or a bit of mace ; 
cover the fish kettle close, and let it stew gently for twenty 
minutes, or according to the size of the fish. Bemovethe 
fish and put it on a hot dish, strain the liquor and thicken 
it with fiour, and season it Vith pepper and salt, anchovy 
sauce, mushroom catsup and a little chilli vinegar; give 
this a boil up and pour it over the fish. If there be more 
sauce than the dish will hold, send the rest up separately. 

There are of this kind of fish, two descriptions ; 

£eh. a long pointed-nosed eel, and a round-mouthed 

one. The latter is esteemed most by the natives, 

and sometimes is so fat as to be disagreeable and ranoid ; 

. the others are never so* 



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AND COOKERY. 93 

Clean them well, cut them into pieces of 
To Fry, three or four inches long, and then score across 
in two or three places. Season with pepper and 
salty and dust them with flour, or dip them into an egg nicely 
beaten up, and sprinkle them with finely grated egg crumbs ; 
fiy them in fresh lard, dripping or ghee, and let them 
dry before the fire; dress the roe in the same way. 

After they are cleaned and prepared, score 
BraiL and dip them into melted butter; sprinkle over 

them finely minced parsley mixed with pepper 
and salt and crumbs of bread; curl and broil them. 

Clean them well, skin, wash, and cut off their 
&«/. heads, curl and put them in boiling salt and 

water with a little vinegar, garnish with parsley- 
sauce, parsley and butter. 

Prepare them as for frying, adding chopped 
Sj^ch cock, parsley with the egg and crumbs, broil them 
over a clear fire, or fry them. The sauce is 
melted butter and parsley, or catsup in melted butter. 

Clean and skin the eels, wipe them dry, and 
Toi^ew. cut into pieces about four inches long; take 
two onions, a bunch of parsley and some thyme, 
a little mace, pepper, and a pint of gravy and two glasses 
of port wine, and the same of vinegar; let all boil together 
for ten minutes ; take out the eels, reduce the sauce a little, 
strain and thicken with a little flour mixed in water; add 
two spoonfuls of mushroom catsup and one of essence , of 
anchovies; put in the eels and stew gently till tender. 
Oi«. — Eels may be roasted with a common stuffing if large. 

Take your eels, skin, wash and trim off the 

Ed pie. skin; cut them into pieces three inches long, 

and season well with pepper and salt (leave 

oat the heads and tails). Add a little clear broth and 



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91 IKOUN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

cover it with paste; rub the paste over with a paste brush 
or feather dipped in the yolk of an egg^ bake it, and when 
done, make a hole in the centre and pour in through a 
funnel the following sauce:— The trimmings boiled in half 
a pint of white stock, seasoned with pepper, salt and lemon 
juice, thickened wth a little butter rolled in flour ; strain, 
and add it boiling hot. 

After it has been perfectly cleaned, tie it 
CodJUhto up and dry with a cloth, put a good proper- 
boil. tion of salt in the water, and when it boilsj 

remove the scum, put in the fish and keep 
it boiling very fast for twenty or thirty minutes. Serve 
with the roe cut in slices and fried; garnish with parsley 
and horse-radish sauce, melted butter, oyster, or anchovy 
and butter. Mustard is used by some persons. 

Cut the fish either in fillets or slices; fry 
To stew in them either white or brown, and add equal 
slices, quantities of rich stock and white or red wine, 

a large spoonful of butter rubbed in flour, 
some spices, sweet h^rbs, and salt ; lay in the fish, and let 
it stew very slowly. When there is just time to cook 
some oysters, put them in with their juice. If brown, add 
a little catsup ; if white a little lemon — ^garnish with parsley, 
the roe, liver, lemon or pickled cucumber. 

Obs. — Or as stewed carp, they may be dressed. 

Cut a fresh cod into slices or steaks, lay 

To crimp them for three hours in salt and water, adding 

cod. a glass of vinegar ; when they may be boiled, 

fried, or broiled. 

Obs. — Any other large fish may be done in the same way. 

Wash them well several times ; pull off all 
Cod sounds, the black and dirty skin ; blanch or soak them 
in warm water till cold, then boil in milk 
and water^ and serve on a napkin with egg sauce. 



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AND COOKERY. 95 

Prepare as for boiling ; only, they must 
Boasted or not be quite done. When cold, make • a 
baied. force meat of bread crumbs, butter, salt, nut- 
meg, white pepper, and some chopped oys- 
ters ; and beat up the yolks of two eg^s to bind it. Lay 
over the sounds, roll them up, and fasten with a small 
skewer ; baste them with melted butter, and roll them in 
finely grated bread crumbs with pepper and salt; roast 
them in a Dutch oven or bake them; turn and baste them 
with melted butter, and strew over them bread crumbs 
as before. When done, and of a nice brown, serve them 
with oyster sauce in a dish. 

After boiling them as above, drain and dust 
Broiled. them with flour, rub them, over with butter, 
season with white pepper and salt, and broil 
them. Serve with the following sauce put over them : 
a table-spoonful of catsup, half a one of soy and a little 
red pepper with melted butter; heat and pour over them. 

On the Western Coast they are only of a 
Cra6g» middling size, and not much esteemed: in- 

land, they are miserably small, and seldom 
worth the dressing for table. 

Wash them well, tie their claws, and put 

To bail them on in boiling water and salt. Boil for 

Crabs or twenty minutes or half an hour, according 

Lobsters, to their size: rub them over with a little 

ghee or butter, and lay them upon their 

daws till they become cold. 

After the crabs are boiled, break the claws. 

Dressed pick out all the meat from them and the 

Crais. breast, taking the roe along with a little of 

the inside. Keep the shells whole, mince up 

the meat, season it with grated nutmeg, pepper, salt, and 

wine; mix in some bread crumbs and butter, according 



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9b INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

to the size of the crab ; put it in a saucepan to heat, stir- 
ring it all the time. "When thoroughly heated, fill the 
shell, but see that they have been washed clean; put a 
little puff paste round the edges. Brown them in an oven. 

Pick all the meat from the bodies and 

To butter Crabs, claws, mince it small, and put it into a 

Lobsters or Cray saucepan with two or three table-spoon- 

JisA. fuls of white wine, one of lemon pickle, 

and three or four of rich gravy, a little 

butter, salt, pepper and grated nutmeg, thicken with the 

yolks of two eggs beat up, and when quite hot, put into 

the shells. Garnish with an edging of bread. 

Take out all the meat of either a large 
Cutlets of crab or lobster, mince it and add to it two 
Crabs or ounces of butter which has been brown- 

Lobsters. ed with two spoonfuls of flour, and seasoned 

with a little pepper, salt and cayenne. Add 
about half a pint of strong stock, stir it over the fire 
until quite hot; put it in separate table-spoonfuls on a 
large dish ; when cold, make them into the shape of cut- 
lets, brush over them the beaten yolk of eggs, dip them 
into grated crumbs, and fry them of a light brown colour 
in clarified ghee or beef dripping, place them on a dish 
with a little fried parsley in the centre. 

The thickest part must be chosen and 
Salt-fish pie. put in cold water to soak the night before 
wanted ; then boil it well, take it up, take 
away the bones and skin, and if it is good fish, it will 
be in fine layers ; set it on a fish drainer to get cold. In 
the meantime, boil four eggs hard, peel, and slice them 
very thin, the same quantity of onion sliced, then line the 
bottom of a pie dish with force-meat or a layer of pota> 
toes sliced thin ; then a layer of onions, then of fish, and 
of eggs, and so on till the dish is full; season each lay- 
er with a little pepper ; then mix a tea-spoonful of made 



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AND COOKERY. 97 

mustard^ the same of essence of anchovy, a little mushroom 
catsap in a gill of water; put it in the dish; then put 
on the top an ounce of fresh butter, cover it with puiF 
paste and bake it one hour. All fish for making pies 
should be dressed first; this is the most economical way, 
as what is boiled, one day will make excellent pies or 
patties the next; if you intend it for pies, take the skin 
off and the bones out, lay your fish in layers, and season 
each layer with equal quantities of pepper, allspice, mace^ 
and salt, till the dish is full. 

Cod sounds for a pie should be soaked at least twenty- 
four hours, then well washed and put on a cloth to dry ; 
put in a stewpan two ounces of fresh butter, four ounces 
of sKced onions, fry them of a nice brown, then put in a 
small table-spoonful of flour, and add half a pint of boiling 
water. When smooth, put in the cod sounds, and season 
them with a little pepper, a glass of white wine, a tea- 
spoonful of essence of anchovy, and the juice of half a 
lemon ; stir it well together, put it in a pie-dish, cover it 
with paste and bake it one hour. 

Obs. — God sounds are seldom brought to India unless 
by order ; they are packed salted in small kegs, and keep 
very well. They cost in England from seven to ten shillings 
the keg. The sounds require washing and soaking previous 
to being boiled or dressed, and are served with egg sauce over 
them. 

Boil four eggs hard ; when quite cold, care- 
lobiter or fully open and take out the yolks ; mash them 
CrayJUh with a fork; then add two tea-spoonfuls of 
talad. mustard, and the same quantity of salt, some 

white pepper, and a little red; mix these 
vdl together; then add four dessert spoonfuls of vine- 
gar, and one of lemon pickle ; to this mixture when quite 
smooth, add the spawn of the fish and half a pint of cream. 
Cut the meat (of the boiled fish) into bits, and stir it in 
the sauce with a white onion nicely minced. Cut your 

N 



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98 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

lettuce with any other salading and place upon the lobster^ 
and garnish with the whites of the egg sliced. 

Make a stuffing of bread crumbs, suet, 
Murrell baied.fvixsley, lime or orange peel and egg; fill 
the inside of the fish; dredge it well with 
flour; and place it in a deep dish. Pour in at the side a 
tea-cup of rich gravy with a table-spoonful of vinegar, a 
lump of fresh butter, some pepper and salt; put the whole 
into a tolerably brisk oven, and baste the fish with some 
of the gravy while baking, or roast it in a degchee. 

Oba, — The fish may be tied up in a plantain leaf and 
baked, being smeared over with butter previous to dredging 
it with flour. 

Is brought to India from £urope and America, 
Salmon hermetically sealed, pickled, and salted. The 

fresh salmon in canisters may be eaten either 
cold or hot. After opening the canister in which the salmon 
remains, if you intend serving it hot, pour off all the gravy 
and save it for sauce; put the canisters into a saucepan of 
water and let it boil. When the salmon is warm, turn 
it carefully out on a napkin and serve. Prepare the sauce by 
adding a little milk and a roll of butter, with a sufficiency 
of arrowroot or flour to thicken; anchovy sauce may be 
added, but it is better left for persons to help themselves. 
Cold salmon merely requires to be turned out of the canister, 
and served garnished either with fennel or sprigs of parsley. 
Hot salmon when either whole or in large pieces, is usually 
served with lobster or shrimp sauce, and cucumber sliced 
raw and dressed with pepper, salt, vinegar, and oil. 

Put on a fish kettle with fresh water enough 

Salmon to well cover the salmon you are going to dress, 

bailed, or the salmon will neither look nor taste well 

(boil the liver in a separate saucepan); when 

the water boils, put in a handful of salt, take off the 

scum as soon as it rises; have the fish well washed, put 



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AND COOKSAT. 99 

it in> and if it is thick, let it boil very gently about a 
quarter of an hour to a pound of salmon. 
Obs. — The same with all other large fish. 

. Clean the salmon well, and cut it into 
FresA Salmon slices about an inch and a half thick, dry it 
braUed. thoroughly in a clean cloth, rub it over with 

sweet oil or thick melted butter, and sprinkle 
a little salt over it. Put your gridiron over a clear fire at 
some distance ; when it is hot, wipe it clean, rub it with 
sweet oil or lard, lay the salmon on, and when it is done 
on one side, turn it gently and broil the other. 

Are found in great abundance all along the 
Sardines Malabar Coast. They are taken in casting net?. 
The Portugese at Goa preserve them by dry- 
ing ; they are also fried like other small fish, in ghee, 
batter, oil, or crumbs of bread mixed with the yolk of an egg. 
The sardines in canisters imported from France are pre- 
served both in butter and oil : the former is generally pre- 
ferred, as the latter acquires soon after opening a rancid 
flavour ; before eating they require washing in warm water, 
or may be fried in plantain leaves, or dressed in a light 
batter and served hot. 

Let the fish be quite freshly boiled, shell 

Potted them quickly, and just before they are put 

Prawns, into the mortar chop them a little with a very 

sharp knife, pound them perfectly with a small 

quantity of fresh butter, mace, and chillies. 

Boil them in plenty of water, add salt in 
'Prawns to the proportion of a tea-spoonful to a quart, put 
dress. them in when it is boiling, clear off all the scum 

quick as it rises; they will be done in from 
six to eight minutes ; turn them into a colander or sieve 
and drain them well ; spread them on a dish to cool, and 
keep in a cool place until they are served. 



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100 INDIAN DOUESTIC ECONOMY 

This is a simple process. It is not generally 
SArimps to known to housewives, being usually performed 
bail. before the articles are offered for sale. Pre- 

pare a saucepan of water, and let it boil brisk- 
ly ; throw in a couple of handfuls of salt and stir it, and 
after removing the scum, throw in the prawns or shrimps ; 
they will be speedily done enough and float to the surface ; 
take them up and empty the whole into a colander ; as 
soon as the water is drained off wrap them in a dry cloth, 
throwing amongst them a good sprinkling of salt whilst 
hot ; cover them up and allow them to remain until cold. 

When boiled, take them out of their shells, 
SArimpi to and season them with salt, white pepper, and a 
pot. very little mace and cloves ; press them into a 

pot ; lay a little butter over them, and bake in 
a slow oven for 'ten minutes ; when cold cover with clari- 
fied butter. 



For making these use Brioche or puff paste, 
Vol-au- roll it half an inch in thickness, and cut the 
VenL vol-au-vent either according to the shape of your 
dish, or with a fluted cutter about two inches 
in diameter ; have ready a baking sheet, sprinkle it over 
vrtth water, and put your vol-au-vents on it, egg them 
over with a paste brush, cut the tops round with the point of 
a knife, or cutter, dipped in hot water, making a ring up- 
on the top of each but not deep ; then bake them in a hot 
oven, which will take from fifteen to twenty minutes, take 
them out and remove the top carefully (without breaking), 
as also the soft inside, leaving them quite empty, when 
they are ready for use. 

Oi*. — ^These may be filled with preparations of fish, roes, 
oysters, lobsters, game, &c., but if made for sweet dishes, 
they must be glazpd with pounded sugar, in which you 
may place cream^ marmalade, plums, &c. 



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AND COOKERY. 101 

BoU oat puff paste a quarter of an inch ihkk, 
Oytter cut into squares with a knife, sheet eight or 
Patties, ten patty pans^ put upon each a bit of bread 
the size of half a walnut* roll out another layer 
of paste of the same thickness, cut it as above, wet the 
edge of the bottom paste and put on the top; pare them 
round to the pan, and notch them about a dozen times 
with the back of the knife ; rub them lightly with, yolk of 
^ %g; bake them in a hot oven about a quarter of an 
hour. When done, take the thin slice off the top; then 
with a small knife or spoon, take out the bread and the 
inside paste, leaving the outside quite entire. Then parboil 
two dozens of large oysters, strain them from their liquor, 
wash, beard, and cut them into four, put them into a stew- 
pan with an ounce of butter rolled in flour, two table- 
spoonfuls of good cream, a little grated lemon peel, the 
ojster liquor, free from sediment, reduced by boiling to 
one half^ some cayenne pepper, salt, and a tea-spoonful of 
lemon juice, stir it over a fire for five minutes and fill the 
patties. 

OS*.— Hermetically sealed oysters may here be used, 
first seasoning the gravy with nutmeg, pepper and salt, 
and thickening it with a little butter rolled in flour or 
arrowroot. 



Allow a dozen for each shell, and more if 
Oysters to very small; wash them in their own liquor; 
Scollop, cook them with small button or minced 
mushrooms, parsley, shallot, and some whole 
pepper; brown and dust in a little flour; add the liquor 
of the oystera and stock, and reduce them to a sauce. 
Take it off the fire; put in the oysters; to these add the 
joice of the lemon, fill the shells, cover with crumbs and 
batter, put them into the oven till of a fine colour, dish 
and serve. They may be served in their own shells and 
broiled; or for boiling blanch them in their own liquor,- 
do not let them boil, pour it off and add a bit of but- 



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102 INDIAN DOMESTIC SCONOMT 

» 

tet, pepper, minced parsley, and shallots; fill the shells 
as above, and broil them. 

Stew the oysters slowly in their own li- 
Another. quor for two or three minutes, take them 

out with a spoon, beard them, and skim the 
liquor ; put a bit of butter into a stewpan ; when it is 
melted, add as much fine bread-crumbs as will dry it up; 
then put to it the oyster liquor, and give it a boil up. 
Put the oysters into scollop shells that you have butter- 
ed and strewed [with bread-crumbs ; then a layer of oys- 
ters, then of bread-crumbs, and then some more oysters; 
moisten it with the oyster liquor, cover them with bread- 
crumbs, put little bits of butter on the top of each, and 
brown them in an oven. 

0&. — ^Essence of anchovy, catsup, cayenne, grated lemon 
peel, mace and other spices, &c. are added by those who 
prefer piquance to the genuine flavour of the oyster. 



Glean and beard the oysters, dip them in 
Oyeter butter or a beaten egg. Crumb them over, 

CuUeU* and fry to a nice brown colour either in 

ghee or beef dripping. 

Prepare your vol-au-vents. Put a ladle 

Fetits VoUaU' of white sauce into a stewpan with a little 

Vents aux less in quantity of the liquor from the 

Hnitres. oysters, a tea-spoonfol of the essence of 

anchovies, a small blade of mace, two or 

three pepper corns, and boil ' the whole down till thick, 

have ready two dozen moderately sized oysters, blanched 

and bearded, if large dfvide them into four; remove the 

mace and pepper corns, throw in the oysters with a little 

salt, sugar and lime juice, make it just warm over the 

fire, for if allowed to boil the sauce will be thin and the 

oysters hard, fill the vol-au-vents and serve on a napkin. 



I 



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AND COOKERY. 103 

Prepare some puff paste, roll it out se- 
SUioles aux veral times as thin as a wine glass, and cut 
EuUres. it out with a tin cutter about four fingers 
in diameter, lay about a tea-spoonful of the 
following preparation on each piece, wet the edges round 
and turn one edge over on the other, close it well, then 
egg and bread-crumb them, and fry in plenty of ghee or 
lard for about five minutes. 

Take two dozen oysters (save the liquor) and divide 
them into four. Put a dessert-spoonful of chopped onions 
into a stewpan with the same quantity of butter over the 
fire, fry them, but do not let them brown, then add a 
tea-spoonful of flour with three table-spoonfuls of oyster 
hqttor and eight of white sauce, boil it until thickisb, 
season with a little cayenne, salt and nutmeg, stirring it 
the whole time, then add the oysters with the beaten yolk 
of three eggs, and keep stirring until the eggs have set, 
when immediately turn the whole into a dish to cool. 

Make the same preparation of oysters as 
Ai^iUettes for rissoles aux huitres, only thickening the 
aux HuUres. sauce with an extra egg. Form them into 
thin croquettes, roll them in egg and bread- 
crumbs, place them on small skewers, egg and bread-crumb 
them again, fry them in hot ghee, and serve with crisp 
fried parsley. 

Boll out some puff paste about one quar- 
Tetits pdUs ter of an inch thick, cut out as many pieces 
of %orU. as you please with a fluted cutter or a thin 

claret glass, mix the remainder of the paste 
and roll it out half as thick as the former, and cut out the 
same number ; rub a baking sheet over with a brush dipped 
in water and lay the pieces separately upon it, then lay 
some force-meat in the centre, which may be seasoned with 
curry powder, or fowl, game, fish, lobster, or oysters, as 
you may choose^ then cover them over with the pieces of 
paste first cut, press the edges evenly round, and mark 



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104 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

them with the edge of a knife or small spoon« Brush the 
tops only over lightly with a little yolk of egg^ put them 
into a hot oven and bake for twenty minutes. 

Are made in the same way as the petits 

Petites Bau- vol-au-vents, but the paste must be rolled out 

cAies only half the thickness, and the cutter should 

be fluted, but not larger than a company's 

rupee; they require the oven a little hotter than the vol- 

au-vents. 

06s* — ^Tliey may be filled as the last. 

Take half a pound of the flesh of any des- 
Petite^ Sou- cription of poultry^ cut it into small pieces 
ch^ A la and pound it well in a mortar, with a small 
puree de quantity of lean ham, only sufficient to fla- 
FolaUle. vour it, put about half a tea^spoonful of fine- 
ly chopped onion, or one of eschalots, into a 
stewpan with half an ounce • of butter, shake it over the 
fire and stir it well, then thicken it with a little flour or 
arrowroot, then add the pounded meat previously mixed 
with four table-spoonfuls of white sauce and half a pint of 
rich stock, boil the whole well, seasoning it with white 
pepper, salt and sugar, pass it through a tammis by rub- 
bing it with a spoon, then put it into another stewpan, and 
warm it with a spoonful or two of liaison, fill the bou-> 
ch^es, and serve hot on a napkin. 

Make some good rich sauce with any game, 

Petites Bou- put about half a pint into a stewpan, then 

ch^ee de cut up into small squares the flesh from the 

GiUer. breast of florican, partridge, or rock pigeon, 

that have been dressed, sprinkle it slightly 

with arrowroot, throw it into the sauce but do not let it 

boil, season with a little sugar and salt^ fill the boucheea 

and serve. 



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AND COOKE&Y. 105 

The^e are prepared precisely as for the 

Petiies BaucA^es petites bouch^es & la pur^e d^ volaile* 

a la puree de only using the flesh of game and game 

Gibier. sauce, instead of poultry and white sauce. 

The largest and finest oysters are to be chosen 
Fried. for this purpose; simmer them in their own li- 
quor for a couple of minutes ; take them out, and 
lay them on a cloth to drain; beard tbem, and then flour, 
egg, and bread-crumb them; put them into boiling fat, 
and fry them a delicate brown. 

When the oysters are prepared by simmering 
Opier Paw- in their own liquor, cut them across in thin 
der. slices; dry them crisp that they may be re- 

duced to fine powder, or pack and use them 
for sauces, as truffles, or morrels. 

Oysters three dozens, salt three quarters of 
Another. an ounce, pound, press through a hair sieve, 
add dried wheat flour sufficient quantity to make 
a paste about seven and a half ounces, roll out to the thick- 
ness of half a crown, dry, pound, sift, put into bottles and 
seal the corks. Three drachms will make half a pint 
of sauce. 

Take any quantity, and simmer them slowly 
Ofitere, to ten minutes in their liquor with mace, whole 
pieile. pepper, and salt; take up the oysters and put 
them into wide mouthed bottles; add an equal 
quantity of vinegar to the liquor; boil it in an iron or 
earthen vessel; pour it over the oysters, adding a dozen 
grains of allspice to each bottle ; put in a little pounded 
sugar with a table-spoonful of brandy when they cool to each 
bottle; cork them tightly and cover with dammer. Have 
your bottles and every thing in readiness for putting them 
up before they are prepared, as half an hour or less exposure 
to the air will make them keep a month more or less. 





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106 INDIAN DOMESTIC SCONOMY AND COOKBET. 

0b8, — If you find you have not liquor sufficient to cover 
the oysters^ add equal parts of vinegar and. water, in which 
a few oysters have been rubbed up. 

In the last edition of Domestic Cookery^ 
Turtle, to under the title of " Turtle at Sea/' Miss Roberts 
dreis. has described the manner in which it is dressed 

on board East Indiamen as follows: — "The true 
flavour of the turtle is best preserved without mixture of 
other meat; any addition being quite unnecessary, except- 
ing for the purpose of making the turtle go further. Kill 
and divide the turtle in the usual manner, selecting the 
coarser portions; stew them down into soup with a bunch 
of seasoning herbs, onions, pepper, and salt. If there 
should be any eggs in the turtle, let them stew in the soup 
for four hours; strain and thicken the soup, and serve it 
up with the entrails cut into small pieces, a proportion of 
the finer parts, and also of the green fat, all cut into small 
pieces. The juice of half a lemon, and two glasses of ma* 
deira, merely warmed up in the soup, are the proportions 
for three pints. The coarse part and entrails will take six 
hours stewing to make the soup ; the fine parts two hours, 
and the green fat one. The callapee is made of the fine 
parts cut small, stewed or baked, and served up with a por- 
tion of the soup reduced to a very thick gravy with small 
eggs, force meat balls, and slices of lemon/' 



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CHAPTEE VII. 



BOILING, ROASTING, BROILING, Etc. 

This process, generally considered so simple, 
BoUing* is very seldom performed to perfection even by 
those cooks who are considered tolerably pro* 
fieient in their art, and often from carelessness and want 
of attention to a few common rules. The native cook con* 
siders that when he has put the meat into the pot deluged 
in water, on as strong a fire as he can make up, that the 
principal business is accomplished, and all that remains is 
to remove the meat at the time it is supposed to be suffi- 
ciently dressed, and in this consists the whole mystery of 
boiling. The few following rules, if carefully attended to 
(and which may easily be explained to a native), would 
soon render it a simple process. 

Put your meat in cold water and heat it gradually until 
it boils, when a scum will rise which must carefully be 
removed; for if it is allowed to fall on the meat, it gives 
a dirty appearance. The quantity of water is to be pro- 
portioned to the meat: about one quart to a pound of 
the latter. 

The meat must always be covered during the process, 
and the water kept at a gentle simmer; the scum from 
time to time being removed until it ceases to rise, when 
the meat will be perfectly clean, and have a delicate ap- 
pearance. 

The time allowed for boiling is generally fifteen minutes 
to the pound of meat from the water first coming to the 
boil, and beyond this point it should never be allowed to 
pass so as to degenerate into steam ; for the slower the 



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108 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

meat boils, the more tender it will be, whereas if kept 
boiling fast^ it makes it tough and hard. 

Never allow the meat or poultry to remain in the water 
after it is sufficiently done, as it loses its flavour. 

The cover of the saucepan must fit close to prevent the 
steam evaporating, and smoke from insinuating itself under 
the lid and flavouring the meat. 

The liquor in which meat or poultry has been thus care- 
fully boiled, may easily be converted into soup. (See direc- 
tions respecting soup, last para.) 

Pork, veal, and all young meat must be thoroughly dress* 
ed ; beef and mutton is usually preferred a little underdone, 
but is not so wholesome as meat well dressed and retaining 
all its juices. 

In boiling vegetables the native cooks are very careless, 
serving them up in a half raw state, or else overdresses, 
from their inattention to any regular rule; and vegetables 
that have been raised at great cost and care are continual- 
ly put on table so soddened and overdressed that they 
are not fit to be eaten. To prevent this, never allow the 
cook to have them much beyond the time ^ necessary for 
dressing, otherwise to save themselves trouble, they com- 
mence getting them ready the first thing in the day, and 
then let them remain soaking in the water to be wanned 
up just when wanted ; of course their flavour, goodness, 
and colour being entirely destroyed. Greens are an excep- 
tion to slow boiling; they require to be dressed very quick- 
ly over a brisk fire with a large quantity of water, and 
carefully skimmed. The time for greens, green peas, cauli- 
flower, and Jerusalem artichokes, is twenty minutes; broad 
beans and artichokes, half an hour ; turnips and brocoli fif- 
teen minutes ; beet root and carrots according to the size. 
The best way to judge if these are sufficiently done, is to 
try them with a fork. 

In the simple boiling of meat as in stew, ragouts, fricas- 
sees, and the variety of dishes derived from them, the fire 
must be so kept under, that the contents of the boiler or 



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AND COOKEEY. )09 

ftewpan shall bat gently simmer, and never boil up^ other- 
wise the meat will be hard and tasteless. 

A very little fuel will be found adequate to the general 
purposes of good cookery. The great art of preparing food 
in a stewpan is principally in the first browning of the meat, 
if a brown sauce is to be made ; and the subsequent appli- 
cation of the smallest quantity of fire, to keep up a very 
gentle simmering of the liquid ingredients. 

Beceipts in Cookery, however closely followed, will never 
be successful unless the greatest attention be paid to the 
deanliness of every culinary vessel used. 

Is only to be learned by practice ; its 
Boasting perfection lies in the joint being thorough- 

ly dressed, the juices all retained and fra- 
grant, the outside of a uniform brown colour, and the 
fat not melted away. The spit must be clean, and the 
le8s appearance of its having passed through the joint, the 
better and nicer it will look when served. Previous to put- 
ting it on the spit, see that it is carefully jointed and the 
bones divided in a neck or loin, so that the carver may 
be able to help either without trouble. The cooks and 
butchers are very careless in this matter ; breaking and 
anaslring the bones instead of dividing the joints clearly 
vith a knife or saw ; skewers and strings are very neces- 
saiy here to enable the joint to be properly fixed on the 
6pit as well as to keep it evenly balanced whilst turning. 
Tbe fire must be so prepared as to act equally on all parts 
of the joint, and proper attention paid to the basting ; the 
gravy carefully collected as it drips into a pan beneath, and 
should any ashes fall in it, they must be immediately re- 
mo¥ed, as the meat may otherwise become tainted with 
the smoke arising from the fat falling on the live cinders, 
and the dripping discoloured. 

Do not put the meat too near the fire at first lest it be- 
eoDke scorched and the outside hard, giving the meat a disa- 
peeable taste. This is most likely to be the case where 



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110 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

the meat is dressed over an imperfect fire with green wood^ 
and in the open air ; a consequence not to be avoided at 
times by a sojourner in the East. The fire must, of course, 
be proportioned to the size of the joint : a larger one re- 
quiring a stronger fire than a lesser, but still both should 
be dressed by a clear heat, arising from glowing charcoal. 

The time meat takes for roasting is similar to that of 
boiling, though much depends on the state of the fire, the 
nearness of the meat to it, the size of the joint, and the 
attention paid to its basting ; which, whilst it keeps the 
meat moist, at the same time renders the action of the fire 
inore powerful upon it. When the steam rises from the 
meat, it shows that it is perfectly wanned through, when 
it draws towards the fire, it is sufficiently done. If you 
wish to froth it, baste it with butter or dripping, and dredge 
it very lightly with flour ; be careful not to use too much, 
or it may be sprinkled over with bread-crumbs, sweet herbs 
dried and powdered, with various other ingredients. 

Is very little understood by native cooks 
Frying but it only requires a few directions, 

given in a clear and distinct manner, 
to have the process far better conducted than is usual- 
ly the case, and may be easily explained through the head 
servant or to the cook himself. The secret consists, as fol- 
lows, in the pan being perfectly clean, and free from all 
taint ; to insure this, fry a little fat or ghee in it and then 
wipe it out clean ; next, have the fire clear and bright, see 
that the butter, ghee, oil or fat is perfectly fresh and sweet; 
the least impurity in either is sufiScient to destroy the fla- 
vour, and salt prevents its becoming brown. If either of 
these substances become burnt, a dirty appearance is given 
to the article fried. Suet that has been clarified, is ui ex- 
cellent article to be used, but, whatever it is, if dripping, 
oil, ghee, or butter, it must be perfectly hot before the 
article to be fried is put into it; without this precaution, 
fish, potatoes, &c,, can never be crisp or brown, as it de- 



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AND COOKERY, 111 

pends upon the degree of heat at which this is first put 
into the pan. 

Cutlets that arp dressed in bread-crumbs, should always 
be put on a sieve or other apparatus so as to drain off all 
the fat, and served crisp and dry, the sauce added after. 
The top of a small bamboo basket will answer for a sieve 
here. The fat, oil, ghee, or butter, in which^ plain arti- 
cles have been fried, may be set aside and used again for 
the same purpose. 

The gridiron should be as clean as polish 
Broilinp. can make it, then rub it over with a lit- 

tle suet, to prevent the meat from being 
marked. Have ready a clear and brisk fire free from smoke, 
or it is impossible to give an inviting appearance to the 
grill; place the gridiron upon it, and heat it sufficiently, 
but not so as to bum the meat; when it is placed upon it, 
let it broil gradually, and remove the moment it is done. 
The grill should always be served as hot as possible. 

Gridirons are sometimes made double, in which the chop 
or steak is confined aud turned on the fire. The fiuted 
gridiron, in which the concave bars terminate in a trough, 
arc useful for preserving a small portion of the gravy, but 
the old plain gridiron is most common in India, and only 
requires the directions given to be followed, for economy, 
comfort, and taste.' 

Ois. — Never sprinkle salt over any article to be grilled, 
bat add it after* 

The cook, whether Native or Indo-Portuguese, requires 
to be looked after and made to keep all his cooking uten- 
sils perfectly clean ; which, if of copper, must be fresh tin- 
ned at least once a month, and when earthenware vessels 
are used for cooking, which are much the safest, they should 
be renewed every third, or fourth day, or a week at farth- 
est. It is his business to keep the cooking room clean and 
in order; the vessels dry and ready for immediate use: 
and to enable him to have them in such a state, as well as 



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118 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. 

for straining soups or gravies, or covering over meat, or wip- 
ing up any uncleanliness, he should be furnished with clean 
towels daily, making him give those used the day previous 
to the washerman on his receiving the other; and when 
he has finished his business for the day, either himself or 
his assistant should clean all the utensils and instruments, 
and prepare the cookroom for the following morning. 

Large earthenware pots containing water should be close 
at hand both for culinary purposes and cleansing the cook* 
ing vessels; wood ashes being the best article that can be 
used with water for the purpose, if metallic ones, and ex- 
posure to the sun the cleanliest way of drying and purify- 
ing them, far better than by a greasy towel. Cleanliness in 
his person is one of the essentials in a cook, and this must 
be insisted upon, and to insure his being so, he should be 
made to present himself for orders every morning wanted 
or not. 



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CHAPTEE VIII. 



SAUCES. 

Pound four anchovies in a mortar with a 

Anchovy little butter, and stir it into half a pint of 

Sauce. espagnole or melted butter; a little lemon 

juice or vinegar may be added — or stir in 

a table-spoonful of essence of anchovy in half a pint of 

melted batter. 

Pound the anchovies in a little wine or 
jUoiicr. vinegar, and work them into melted butter 

or any other plain sauce. 

Fare, core, and slice some apples ; boil them 

Jgple. in a little water with a bit of lemon peel; 

when tender, mash them, add to them a bit 

of butter and some moist sugar, heat and serve in a 

sauce-boat. 

0£f. — Imitation apple sauce is made from the green 
fruit of the Papaw, in the same way. 

Cut into small pieces half a pound of 
BUeekamel or veal and a quarter of a pound of lean ham ; 
JFiHe Sauce, put it into a saucepan with 8 or 10 white 
pepper corns, a shallot or small onion, 
tvo cloves, two blades of mace, a bay leaf or peach, some 
parsley, and a quart of veal broth, mutton, or water; let 
it boil until it is strong and well flavoured; strain and 
thicken with a little arrowroot rubbed smooth in some of 
the gravy; boil it up and mix in very slowly a pint of 
good cream.' 

p 



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114 INDIAN DOMESTIC SGONOtfT 

Take two ounces of butter, three pounds 
AnoiAer, of veal cut in small slices, a quarter of a 

White. pound of ham^ a few white mushrooms, two 

small white onions, a little parsley; put the 
whole into a stewpan and put it on the fire until the 
meat is made firm; then add three spoonfuls of floar 
moistened with some boiling hot thin cream, and a ladle 
of consomm^; keep this sauce rather thin, so that whilst 
you reduce it> the ingredients may have time to be stew- 
ed thoroughly; season it with a little salt, and strain it 
through a tammis. 

Take a tea-cupful of finely grated horse 

Hone radish, radish, one table-spoonful of salad oil, two 

of vinegar, half a spoonful of mustard, and 

half a pint of cream; all these to be well mixed together. 

Peel and slice the onion as for sauce 
Brown Onion (cucumber or celery in equal proportions 
Gravy. may be added) ; put them into a stewpan 

with a spoonful of butter, set it on a 
slow fire and shake it about till the onions are lightly 
browned; gradually stir in half an ounce of fiour, add a 
little broth, and a little pepper and salt; boil up for a 
few minutes, add a table-spoonful of claret or port wine, 
and some mushroom catsup; lemon juice or vinegar 
may be added to sharpen it with; rub it through a tam- 
mis or sieve* If this sauce is for steaks, shred an ounce 
of onions, fry them a nice brown, and put them to the 
sauce you have rubbed through a tammis. 

Boil in a pint of water the crumbs of 
Bread Sauce, a roll or a slice of bread, an onion cut 
into slices, and some whole black or white 
pepper; when the onion is tender, drain off the water, 
pick out the pepper-corns, and rub the bread through a 
sieve or quite smooth; then put into a saucepan with a 
gill of cream, a little butter and a small quantity of salt^ 
stir it till it boils. 



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AND COOKXRT. 115 

Divide a small onion into quartersi boil it 
Jfidher. in half a pint of new milk with a few pep- 

per-corns, strain the milk over a sufficient 
quantity of crumbs of white or brown bread> roll up a 
table-spoonful of butter in a tea-spoonful of arrowroot, 
mix all together and stir it until it boils ; serve in a sauce 
tureen or otherwise. 

Pound a little sugar, put it into an iron. 

Browning spoon with as much water as will dissolve it, 

for Sauces hold it over a quick fire until it becomes of 

or Soups. a dark brown colour, or take a little flour 

with a bit of butter, put into an iron ladle 

or spoon, and hold it over a quick fire as for sugar browning. 

Obs. — This is far the best, the sugar browning im- 
parts a better taste. The richest browning may be made 
with mushroom catsup, port wine, claret, or toasted bread. 

Wash the brains very well twice, put 
Brain Sauce, them into a basin of cold water with a 
two ways. little salt in it, and let them soak for an 
hour; then pour off the cold and cover 
▼ith hot water, and when cleaned and skinned, put them 
i&to a saucepan . with plenty of cold water ; when it boils 
remove all the scum very carefully, and gently boil for 
ten or fifteen minutes. Now chop them, but not very 
fine, put them into a saucepan, with sage or parsley, pre- 
pared as directed, with a couple of spoonfuls of thin melted 
bntter and a little salt ; stir them well together, and as soon 
as they are well warmed (take care they don't bum), 
akin the tongue, trim off the roots, put it in the middle of 
a dish, and the brains around it ; or chop the brains with 
a shallot, a little parsley and four hard*boiled ^gs, and 
put them into a quarter of a pint of white sauce. 

Take a table-spoonful of capers, and two 
Ciper Sauce* tea-spoonfols of vinegar, mince one-third 
of them . very fine^ and divide the others - 



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116 INDUN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

in halves, put them into a quarter of a pint of melted 
butter or good thickened gravy, stir them the same way 
as you do for melted butter or it will oil. 

A dessert spoonful of olive oil or cream, 
Hone raduh a dessert spoonful of mustard (powder), a 
Sauce. table-spoonful of vinegar^ and two table- 

spoonfuls of scraped horse radish, a little 
salt mixed well together and served in a sauce-boat. 

Peel some apples, cut them into quarters, 

Jj[>ple Sauce take out the core ; then put them into a st^w- 

far Geete and pan with a little brown sugar and water; 

roaet Fork. when they are melted, stir them well with 

a spoon, then add a little butter and 

serve up. 

The apples must not be stirred too much or they will 

loQse their acidity and become brovm ; some persons add 

cloves or nutmeg. 

Dissolve six anchovies in a glass of port 

Quin'e JUk wine, bruise six shallots, and boil them in a 

Sauce. quart of walnut ketchup with cloves, mace, 

and long pepper ; let it cool and mix in the 

anchovies with half a pint of port wine. All sauces ought 

to be put up in small bottles. 

Put a piece of butter of the size of a 
Sauce Tiquante walnut on the fryingpan, and add one table- 
for fried fah. spoonful of vinegar and a shallot chopped 
very fine* 

Bruise the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs with 
Sauce for the back of a wooden spoon, or rather pound 
Lohetere. them in a mortar, with a tea-spoonfal of water 
and the soft inside and the spawn of the lobster, 
rub them quite smooth with a tea-spoonful of made mustard, 
two table-spoonfuls of salad oil, and five of vinegar ; sea- 
spn it with a very little cayenne pepper^ and some salt. 



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AND COOKBRT. 1 17 

Choose a fresh hen lobster ; pick out the 
Miter Sauce, spawn and the ted coral, put into a mortar^ 
adding to it half an ounce of butter, pound 
it quite smooth and rub it through a hair sieve with the 
back of a spoon. Cut the meat of the lobster into small 
squares or break it to pieces with a fork, put the pounded 
spawn into as much melted butter as you think will do, 
and stir it together till it is thoroughly mixed. Now put 
to it the meat of the lobster and warm it on the fire, take 
care it does not boil, which will spoil its colour, and its 
red will immediately fade. 

Some use strong beef or veal gravy instead of melted 
butter, adding anchovy, cayenne, catsup, lemon juice, pickle 
or wine, &c* 

Ohs. — You must have a hen lobster on account of the 
spawn ; see that it has not been taken away ; the goodness 
of your sauce depends upon its having a full share of the 
spawn, to which it owes its colour and flavour. 

Take twelve or fifteen tomatas ripe and red, 
Love aj^le take off the stalk, cut them in halves, squeeze 
Sauce. them just enough to get all the water and seeds 

out, put them in a stewpan with a capsicum 
and two or three table-spoonfuls of beef gravy, set them 
on a slow stove for an hour, or till properly melted ; rub 
them through a tammis into a clear stewpan with a lit- 
tle white pepper and salt, and let them simmer together 
a few minutes. 

Take as many ripe tomatas as you please. 
Sauce to skin and remove the seeds, then mash the 

hep. pulp through a cloth, boil the watery parti- 

cles away until you have reduced it to about 
one half; to a pint of this liquor add four ounces of green 
ginger chopped or pounded very fine, also twenty cloves of 
garlic bruised, two tolahs weight of salt, two wine-glasses of 
nnegar, and half an ounce of red pepper ; give the whole 



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118 INDIAN B0H£8TIC XCONOMT 

a boil up or ^ put it in the sun for four or fire days in a 
wide-mouthed bottle well corked. It is then fit for use 
and wiU be found a very agreeable addition to soup or cold 
meat ; if you wish to keep it for soup or stews, then add 
wine instead of vinegar, put into small bottles well corked 
and keep in a cool place. 

Put a table-spoonful of chopped onions into 
Ge^weie a stewpan with one of butter, and fry a light 

Sattce. brown ; then add four glasses of claret or port 
wine, a blade of mace, two or three cloves, 
some thyme, parsley, and a peach leaf or two, boil these a 
few minutes, then add a quart of brown sauce with a ladle 
of consomme, place ihe whole over the fire and reduce it 
until rather thick, then add a table-spoonful of chopped 
mushrooms, let them remain a minute or two, and then 
strain the sauce into a fresh stewpan, season it with two 
spoonfuls of essence of anchovies, cayenne pepper, a little 
sugar and salt, stir the whole quite smooth and remove as 
it is about to boil. 

Obs. — If you have no brown sauce ready, substitute beef 
or other gravy, and thicken with brown roux. 

Make a marinade with the following vege- 
Genoese Sauce tables, sliced carrots, onions, roots of ^vs- 
far eieioed fish, ley, a few mushrooms, a bay, or peach 
leaves, some thyme, a blade of mace, with a 
few cloves, put these into a stewpan, and fry with a little 
butter until the onions are reduced ; then add half a pint of 
wine with the same quantity of brown sauce, and consom-^ 
m^ as in the last receipt; or sufficient to stew the fish in^ 
whe|i dressed remove the fish without breaking, strain the 
gravy into a fresh stewpan, add a couple of table-spoonfols 
of anchovy or more according to the quantity, with a quarter 
of a pound of butter rolled in flour to thicken it. Squeeze 
in a little lime juice, and work the whole over the fire 



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AND COOKEKY. 119 

until smootli and thick; remove the skin' from the fish if 
Iwge, place it in a dish, and cover it with the sauce^ 

Put a piece of butter into a stewpan 
Italian Sauce, with two spoonfuls of chopped mushrooms, 
ujAite. one of onion and some parsley; turn the 

whole over the fire some time and shake 
in a little flour, moisten it with a glass of white wine and 
as much good consomm^ or both ; add salt, pepper, and a 
little mace pounded fine, let it boil well; then skim away 
the fat and serve it up. A higher flavour may be given 
to it whilst boiling by putting in a bunch of sweet herbs, 
which take out before it is served. 

Put into a saucepan two slices of ham, a 
Brown. handful of minced mushrooms and a sliced 
lemon without the seeds, a spoonful of minced 
shallot blanched and wrung in a cloth, half a clove of garlic, 
and a gill of oil; when nearly ready take out the lemon, 
add a spoonful of minced parsley, a spoonful of espagnole, 
a glass of white wine, a little pepper; reduce, and take 
out the ham. 

Take a stewpan that will hold four quarts ; 

Strong iovou" lay a slice or two of ham or bacon at 

ry gravy or the bottom with two pounds of beef or 

broiwn Sattce, veal, a carrot, an onion with four cloves, 

a head of celery, some parsley, lemon, 

thyme, and a little lemon peel, some mushroom catsup, 

four or five spoonfuls with a glass of wine ; pour on this- 

half a pint of water; cover it close and let it simmer 

gently for half an hour, when it will be almost dry. Watch 

it carefully, and let it get a nice brown colour, turning 

the meat to brown on all sides ; add three pints of boiling 

water, and boil gently for a couple of hours; you have 

then a rich gravy for any purpose. 

Obs. — If you require a thick gravy, mix two table- 
spoonfuls of arrowroot, or three of flour with a ladle-ful 



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120 INDIAN DOMESTIC £CONOVT 

of the gravy; stir it quick, and add a quart more of the 
grarj well mixed ; pour it back into the stewpan^ and 
leave it to simmer^ stirring it every now and then. Re- 
move any scum that may appear when just ready to strain 
through a tammis or coarse towel. 

Warm three table-spoonfuls of butter or 
WAiie JBonx. more over a slow fire^ then drain off all 
the butter-milk, or wat^r, shake in by de- 
grees with a dredger, flour sufficient to form it into a thin 
paste, keep stirring over the fire, at a proper distance for 
a quarter of an hour, and take care not to let it lose its 
colour. 

Is prepared in a similar manner, as to 

Brown Boux forming the paste, when it is to be slowly 

fried, and then removed over a sharp fire 

until it has become of a light brown colour ; it most not 

be burnt. 

Break the yolks of three eggs in a basin and 

Liaison. beat them up with eight spoonfuls of cream, or 

six of new milk ; strain it, and it is ready for use. 

Clean nicely and divide into small pieces 
Celery Sauee. the white part of three or four heads of 
celery; boil it in some white stock; season 
with a little white pepper, salt, and nutmeg; when it is 
tender add a piece of butter rolled in flour and three table- 
spoonfuls of cream ; warm it but do not let it boil ; pour 
it over boiled turkey or fowL 

Its flavour is a strong concentration of 

Chervil Sauce, the combined taste of parsley and fennel^ 

but more aromatic and agreeable than 

either, and is an excellent sauce with boiled poultry or 

fish; prepare it as directed for parsley and butter. 



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AND OOORBRT. 121 

Pound together an ounce of scraped horse 
Coid Meat radish, half an ounce of salt, a table-spoonful 
Sauce. of made mustard, four cloves of garlic, half 

a drachm of celery seed, and the same quan- 
tity of red pepper, adding a pint of Burnet or Tarrogan 
vinegar ; let it stand in a wide-mouth stoppered bottle for 
a week or ten days, and then strain through a sieve or coarse 
cloth. 

Boil three or four eggs a quarter of an hour, 
Effff Sauce. put them into cold water, take off the shells, 
cut the eggs into small pieces, mix them with 
melted butter, and heat them well. 

Pound two cloves of garlic with a piece of 

OarUc Sauce, fresh butter about as big as a nutmeg, rub it 

through a double hair sieve or cloth, and stir 

it into half a pint of melted butter or beef gravy, or make it 

With garlic vinegar. 

Prepare the peas as by receipt (French 

Crreen Fetit mode) ; then take ^ few cabbage and cos let- 

Pins a la Pay tuces, a good handful of parsley, and a few 

Sauce* green onions; wash them clean and break 

them with your fingers instead of chopping 

them ; drain the lettuce, parsley, and onions ; and sweat them 

with the peas over a very slow fire ; you need not put any 

other moistui^ than the butter : take care to stir the stewpaii 

repeatedly to prevent the vegetables from burning; when 

they are done enough, add a little pepper and salt, reduce 

the liquid, and add flour and butter to thicken it as for 

peas dressed in the common way. 

Wash 'half a handful of young, fresh ga- 

Uint Sauce, thered green mint, pick the leaves from 

the stalk, mince them very fine, and put 

them into a sauce-boat with a spoonful of moist sugar and 

four of vinegar. 

% 



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122 INDIAN DOMESTIC BCONOMT 

Obs, — This is usually served with hot lamb^ and is equally 
agreeable with cold roast^ or saddle of mutton. 

Is made as truffle sauce, or with wine and 
Morel Sauce stock or glaze and melted butter; when the 
morel powder is used, small dice of mush- 
rooms may be added. 

Clean and wash half a pint of mush- 
MusAroom rooms, put them into a saucepan with half 
Sauce. a pint of veloute or any other rich sauce, 

white or brown, with or without cream, 
a little pepper, salt and mace, an ounce of butter rubbed 
with a table-spoonful of flour; stir them together^ and 
set them over a gentle fire to stew slowly till tender ; skim 
and strain it. 

06i. — Mushrooms require slow simmering, and ought 
always to be weU cooked before they are put into ragouts 
or sauces. 

Take half a pint of good beef g^a^7, three 
Mock Oyster table-spoonfuls of anchovy sauce, two of 
Saiice. mushroom catsup, one of vinegar, and one 

of white wine ; mix ; then take the yolk 
of two eggs well beaten up, some corns of black pepper, 
a small quantity of mace, mix the whole together adding a 
large cup of hot new milk, and stir into it a pat of butter 
that has been well rolled in arrowroot or fine flour, and 
boil the same carefully. 

Wash the liver of a fowl or rabbit, and boil 
Liver and in as little water as possible for five minutes. 
Parsley. chop it fine or pound it with a small quantity 
of the liquor it was boiled in ; wash about one* 
third of the bulk of parsley, put it to boil in a little boiling 
water with salt in it ; drain and mince it very fine, mix 
it with the liver and put it into a quarter of a pint of 
melted butter; warm it, but do not let it boil. 



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AND COOKERY. 188 

Boast four large onions, peel and pulp 

Onm Sauce, them into a rich stock with salt^ cayenne^ 

and a glass of port, a little vinegar or the 

juice of half a lemon, simmer and beat up with a bit of 

butter. 

Take half a dozen of large white onions, 
Ftiie Onion peel and cut them in halves, lay them in 
Sauce, water for a short time, and then boil until 

tender ; lay them on a chopping board, 
chop and braise them, put them into a clean saucepan with 
some batter and flour, half a tea-spoonful of salt, and some 
cream or good milk, stir it till it boils ; then rub the whole 
through a tammis or sieve, adding cream or milk to make 
it of the consistence you wish. This is the usual sauce 
for boiled rabbit, mutton, boiled goose, or tripe. 

Beard the oysters, put them into a sauce- 
Ojfiter Sauce, pan with their liquor strained^ and a large 
piece of butter, a few black pepper-corns, 
a little salt, red pepper, and a blade of mace ; simmer 
gently for ten or fifteen minutes, but do not allow them 
to boil; roll some butter in a little flour or arrowoot 
aod melt it, adding a little milk ; pick out the pepper corns 
and mace from the oysters, and pour upon them the melted 
butter. 

Beard the oysters, strain the liquor, 
0yster9,to steta add it to some rich brown gravy thick- 
im brown Sauce, ened with flour and a little butter, add 
• some white wine according to the number 

of oysters, boil it, and put in the oysters and stew them 
gently for about a quarter of an hour ; before serving add 
a Kttle lime juice or vinegar ; a few sippets of very thinly 
crisp toast may be put round the dish. 

Beard and scald the oysters ; strain the 

WUie Sauce. liquor and thicken it with a little flour and 

butter ; add some sail;, white pepper, and 



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IM INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

two or three table-spoonfuls of cream ; squeeze ia a little 
lemon juice ; simmer gently, but do not let it boil. 

Goose Sauce. See Apple or green papaw. 

Wash some parsley very clean and pick 
Parsley Sauce, it carefully ; put a tea-spoonful tff salt, into 
half a pint of boiling water ; boil the parsley 
about ten minutes ; drain it on a sieve ; mince it quite 
fine, and then bruise it to a pulp ; put it into a sauce-boat, 
and mix with it, by degrees, about half a pint of good 
melted butter. 

Take half a pint of veal gravy, add to it 
Sauce for two or three leaves of basil, a small onion 

Wild Ducks, and a roll of orange or lemon peel, and let 
it boil up for a few minutes ; strain it off. 
Put to the clear gravy the juice of a Seville orange or 
lime, half a tea-spoonful of salt, some pepper, cayenne, 
and a glass of red wine ; send it up hot. 

Peel the onions — large white are the 
Onion Sauce, best — and put them on the fire in cold 
water; when it boils, pour off the water 
and fill up with fresh hot water — and repeat if necessary — 
to remove out the strength of the onions; lastly, boil in 
milk and water ; when quite soft, squeeze the onions be- 
tween two plates, place them on a chopping board and 
chop them quite fine, or rub them through a coarse sieve; 
add . melted butter with cream or milk with pepper, and 
salt to taste. « 

Bruise a stick of cinnamon, set it over 
Pudding Sauce, the fire in a saucepan with just as much 
water as will cover it, give it a boil and 
then put in a couple of table-spoonfiils of fine sugar pounded, 
a quarter of a pint of Mrhite wine, some thin pared lime 
peel and three or four peach leaves, boil all together gently, 
strain, and send it up hot. 



I 



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AND COOKERY. J 25 

Two glasses of sherry or madeira; a table- 
Anotker, spoonful of poanded sugar^ a little mace and 
grated lemon peel^ mix with a quarter of a pint 
of thick melted butter; nutmeg may be added. 

Melted butter made thick with flour sweet- 
Another. ened with syrup, and flavoured with lime juice 
and essence of lemon. 

Pound a table-spoonful of capers and 
Kelly's Sauce, one of minced parsley as fine as possible, 
then add the yolks of three hard eggs, rub 
them well together with a table-spoonful of mustard ; 
bone six anchovies and pound them; rub them through 
a hair sieve and mix with two table-spoonfuls of oil, one 
of vinegar, one of shallot ditto, and a few grains of cayenne 
pepper; rub all these well together in a mortar till tho- 
roughly incorporated; then stir them into half a pint of 
good gravy or melted butter, and put the whole through 
a sieve or tammis. 

Boil the liver of the fish and pound it 
Liver Sauce in a mortar with a little flour, stir it into 
for FuL some broth or some of the liquor the fish 
was boiled in, or melted butter, parsley 
and a few grains of cayenne with a little essence of anchovy, 
give it a boil up and rub it through a sieve; you may 
add a little lime juice or lemon cut in dice. 

Pare ofif the rind of a lime or of a sour 
Lemon and orange as thin as possible, so as not to cut 

Liver Sauce. off any of the white with it; now take off 
all the white and cut the lemon into thin 
dices, pick out the pips and divide the slices into small 
squares, add this and a little of the peel minced very fine 
to the liver prepared as for liver and parsley sauce, and put 
them into the melted butter and warm them together, but 
do not let them boil. 



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126 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Steep a quarter of a pound of rice in a 

Rice Sauce. pint of milk^ with onion^ pepper, fee, as 

bread sauce; when the rice is quite tender 

(take out the spice) rub it through a sieve into a clean 

stewpan; if too thick, put a little cream or milk to it. 

This is a very delicate white sauce, and may be served 
instead of bread sauce.. 

Cut some onions into small dice; fry 
Bobert Sauce. them of a fine brown ; moisten them with 
^ some spinach sauce or dust them with flour 
and moisten them with some veal gravy; skim it that the 
sauce may look bright; put in a little pepper and salt, 
and, just before you send up, mix a spoonful of mustard. 

Babbit Sauce. See onion. 

Bagout Sauce. See beef gravy brown sauce. 

Take the yolk of two fresh eggs boiled 
Salad Sauce. hard, mash in a plate with a silver fork; 
then add a salt-spoonful of salt and two 
spoonfuls of mustard; rub the whole well together, add by 
degrees three spoonfuls of sweet oil or fresh cream; thea 
two of good vinegar, stirring it well the whole time antil 
quite smooth: a spoonful of anchovy sauce is sometimes 
added; but is no improvement if the salad is to be eaten 
with cold meats, though it may be, if with fish, prawns, 
or lobsters. 

Bruise down the yolks of two hard eggs 
Scotch Sauce in a basin ; add a large spoonful of mus- 
for raw Salads, tard ; rub them together with a table-spoon- 
ful of ketchep, one of tarragon and two of 
white wine vinegar, and a tea-cupful of thick cream; these 
are all to be well incorporated together, and, when the 
salad is nicely cut and ornamentally dressed in the salad 
dish, pour the sauce equally all over it. 



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AND COOKERY. 127 

German salad Sweet oil and vinegar mixed together in 

SoMce. equal proportions quite smooth. 

A quarter of a pint of claret or port- 
Sauee for wine, the same quantity of mutton gravy, 

venisan or and a table-spoonful of currant jelly ; let it 

iare. just boil up, and send to table in a sauce- 

boat, or serve up with a little red currant 
jelly dissolved in port-wine or claret. 

May be made with equal parts of tama- 
Siarp S/iuce rind jelly and clear gravy; or half a pint 
of best white wine vinegar and four table- 
spoonfuls of pounded sugar ; set it over the fire, skim it 
carefully, and strain through a cloth and serve it hot. 

Pick and remove all the stalks ; wash 
Spinach Sauce, and drain the leaves ; stew them without 
water till they will beat to a mash ; put in 
some butter and a little milk; simmer and stir over a 
dow fire till the sauce be of the consistence of thick melt- 
ed butter. Add a little pepper and salt while dressing. 

Sorrel, like spinach, shrinks very much 
S&rrel Sauce, in dressing. Pick and wash it clean, put 
it into a st^wpan with one ounce of but- 
ter ; cover close and set over a slow fire for a quarter of 
sn hour ; then rub through a coarse hair sieve ; season 
vith pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a small lump of sugar; 
squeeze in the juice of a lemon and make the whole 
thoroughly hot. 

Take a pint of beef gravy thickened, a 
Turile Sauce, wine-glassful of madeira, the juice and peel 
of a lime, a few^ leaves of basil, a clove of 
girUc, a few grains of cayenne pepper, and a little essence 
of anchovy ; let them simmer together for five minutes, 
sid strain through a tammis. 



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128 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Take of green sliced mangoes^ salt, sa- 
Tapp^9 Sauce, gar and raisins each eight ounces ; red chil- 
lies and garlic each four ounces ; green gin- 
ger six ounces; vinegar three bottles; lime-juice one pint. 
Pound the several ingredients well; then add the vinegar 
and lime juice ; stop the vessel close, and expose it to the 
sun a whole month, stirring or shaking it well daily ; then 
strain it through a cloth, bottle and cork it tight. 
04*.— The residue makes an excellent chutney. 

Prepare half a pint of dear gravy, roll 
Sauce for grills, a table-spoonful of butter in the same quan- 
tity of flour or arrowroot ; take two table- 
spoonfuls of mushroom catsup, one spoonful * of mustard, 
a small quantity of chopped capers, the juice of a lime 
with some of the peel grated, salt, black pepper, and either 
a chopped green chilli, or cayenne pepper„ simmer together 
for a few minutes, pour a little over the grill, and serve 
the rest in a sauce tureen. 

Obe, — A tea-spoonful of anchovy and a little wine may 
be added. 

Take half a pint of clear gravy, cut into 
Sauce for game^ it the thin peel of a lime, a few leaves of 
ducky snipe, 8fc, basil, or sage, with a small sliced onion, let 
it boil until the gravy is flavoured, then 
strain it off. Add the juice of the lime, some cayenne 
pepper, a glass of red wine, pepper and salt. Send it up hot. 
Obs. — ^This sauce may be served with all kinds of water 
fowl, and is preferable to dressing the bird at table as is 
commonly the case. Wild fowl being liked by some per- 
sons under-done, and without sauce. Snipe particularly so. 

Gravies should always be served in a covered sauce tu- 
reen quite hot. 

JDolicios Soya Take fresh soy eight ounces, chilli vi- 
Sauce. negar one pint, garlic vinegar one quarter 



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AND COOKXET. 129 

of an ounce^ ^rrup eight ounces^ port wine or Yin de Tinto 
one pint^ salt fonr ounces, tart acid one ounce, mix the 
whole well together. 

For soup, fish, meat, steaks, &c. 

Clarified. Veal or beef gravy is to be clarified with 

whites of eggs. 

Most joints will afford sufficient trim- 
Gravy ybr mings, &c. to make half a pint of plain 
roaatmeat, gravy, which you may colour with a few 
drops of browning about half an hour before 
yon think the meat will be done; mix a salt-spoonful 
of salt with a full quarter pint of boiling water; drop 
this by degrees on the brown parts of the joint; set a 
dish under to catch it ; (the meat will soon brown again) 
8et it by as it cools, the fat will settle on the surface; 
when the meat is ready, remove this and warm up the 
gravy and pour it into the dish. 

May be made with the parings and trim- 

Gravjffor mings ; or pour from a quarter to half a 

boUedtneat pint of the liquor in which the meat was 

boiled into the dish with it, and pierce the 

inferior part of the joint with a sharp skewer. 

These are procured in all parts of India 
Mushroom during the rains, and to make your own 
Calsup. catsup will not only be found economical but 
it will be far stronger and better than can ever 
be purchased. Take as many as you please of large flap 
mushrooms that are of a reddish brown ins^e ,(peel off 
the top skin or not, but wipe them clean) ano^lay in ihfi 
bottom of a deep dish; sprinkle them over ml), clean 
salt; then add another layer of mushrooms and mc^^, sal^, 
and so continue until the dish or pan is* full; ist thsjp. 
remain for about eight or twelve hours ; then i^iash up 
the whole; strain off the juice to each pint, aijd ha^ 



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180 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

an ounce of black pepper and about forty or fifty cloves; 
put the whole into a stone jar and place the jar covered 
over in a saucepan of water, and let, it boil until about one- 
third or one-half has evaporated ; then set the whole by to 
cool and settle ; when strain it off clear into pint or half 
pint bottles, adding to each pint a table-spoonful of brandy ; 
if you have any claret that has been opened or otherwise, 
you may add a wine glass to each pint or more as you 
please — it preserves the catsup better in this country. 

Having prepared the mushrooms as above. 
Another. strain them through a cloth and put the 

juice into a clean saucepan and boil the 
whole gently, taking off all the scum as it rises; when 
boiled down to about one-half, add a little wine in the 
proportion of a glass to. each pint; remove it from the fire 
and put into a jug to cool and settle ; when strain it off 
clear and bottle, putting into each a few cloves previous 
to corking, which should be well secured by wax or dammer. 

Six seers or twelve English pounds will 
Mustard. give, if the seed is fresh, three pints of good 

clear oU; this is the- best for pickles and is pre- 
ferred by all natives for the purpose. To prepare the 
seed so as to remove the husks or skin more effectually 
than is usually done, it is necessary to soak it in water 
for a couple of days; changing it once or twice, then put it 
out in the sun to dry; after which have the seed only 
bruised with a grinding stone and the husks removed by 
a winnowing fan which will make the seed clean and fit 
for grinding and other domestic purposes. Mix (by de- 
grees, by rubbing together in a mortar) the best flour of 
lyiustard with vinegar, white wine, or cold water in which 
scraped horse-radish has been boiled; rub it well together 
till it is perfectly smooth, and only make as much as will 
be used in a day or two. Mustard is sometimes made 
by mixing it with cream, sherry, or madeira wine, or dis- 
tilled or flavoured vinegar instead of horse-radish water. 



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AND COOKERY. 131 

Obs. — The French mix tlieir mustard with wines and 
vinegar^ flavoured with various sorts of sweet herbs. 

Take four ounces of butter; put it into 
Melted But- a small clean saucepan over the fire with 
ter. four or five table-spoonfuls of milk; thicken 

it with a tea-spoonful of the finest flour, or 
with arrowroot not quite so much, else it will be too 
thick ; then add a small wine glass of water ; hold it over 
the fire ; shaking it round (all the same way) till it begins 
to* simmer; then let it stand and boil up. It should be 
the thickness of cream. 

Oi#. — Instead of the milk add four spoonfuls of mush- 
room catsup, and you have an excellent sauce for fish, 
flesh, or fowL If the butter oils pour it backwards and 

forwards from the butter boat to the stewpan until it is 
smooth again. 

Take any quantity of butter ; put it 
Clarified But- into a saucepan over a clear fire ; as soon 
ier or Ghee, as it boils, the process should be conduct- 
ed gently ; take off the butter-milk and 
then gently let it simmer until the watery particles are 
all evaporated and removed; when nearly cool pour off 
the butter, carefully leaving any sediment behind. This 
preparation will keep good for years, only see that the 
vessel in which it is to be put is dry and clean. 

Put two ounces of fresh butter into a 
Butter burnt. frying ^an; when it becomes of a dark 
brown colour, add a couple of spoon- 
fuls of vinegar with a little pepper and salt, serve for 
boiled fish or poached eggs. 

Beat and strain ten or twelve eggs; put 

Buttered a piece of butter into a saucepan : keep turn- 

Egg9, ing it one way till melted ; put in the beaten 

eggs and stir them with a spoon until they 



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18£ INDIAN IK>Vl8TIc]][lC0N01fT AND COOKXKT. 

become quite thick ; serve upon buttered toast. They may 
be eaten with fish^ fowl, or sausages. 

Chop half a dozen hard boiled eggs ; put 
Another. them into a saucepan with half a tea-cupful 

of cream, two ounces of butter, a little mace, 
salt, and pepper; add a little shallot or chiTes minced 
or the same quantity of white onion; stir it till quite 
hot^ but it must not boil. 



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CHAPTER IX. 



BEEP, 



When oldy has a coarse gram, the fibres are tough and 
of a dark colour, with a deep red tinge ; young meat is 
quite the reverse. The flesh of ok beef, to be good, will 
have a smooth open grain, of a light red, and feel ten- 
der ; the fat rather white than yellow. An ox that has 
not been over-worked, of a middling age and stall-fed, 
famishes finer beef than even a cow. The grain of cow 
beef is closer than that of an ox, and not of so bright a 
red ; the fat whiter. The meat of bull beef has a strong 
scent, is much darker and coarser in the grain and of a 
deep red, with coarse yellow fat. Old meat is always 
tough, and if the animal has been much worked, no 
feeding, keeping, or preparation will make the meat 
tender. 

Obi, — ^The baron of beef, so famed in old English hos- 
pitality and now rarely produced at any but civic feasts, 
being the most substantial dish of all, is^ the same joint 
in beef that a saddle is in mutton, and is always roasted. 

Take four pounds of beef or veal ; cut 
Alamode Beef it into^ pieces of about four ounces each ; 
(rr V%al. dip them into common and equal quantity 

of shallot vulvar ; then roll them in the 
following seasoning : grated nutmeg, black pepper and all- 
spice, two or three cloves and some salt, all of which have 
been pounded; add to this parsley, lemon thyme, maijo- 
ram, and any other sweet herbs shred fine ; put into the 



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134 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

stewpan some fine suet or beef lard, with any dressings 
from the meat, and let it melt over the fire. Dredge the 
meat with flour and put into the stewpan with three or 
four onions stack with spice, and two or three cloves of 
garlic to every two pounds of beef ; shake, turn, and look 
to it constantly until it is well browned on all sides ; add 
a large cut carrot to every pound of meat, and a pint 
of browned boiling water, some salt, pepper, and allspice ; 
fix the top of the stewpan down with common flour or 
Atta paste, and set it on a slow fire to simmer gently 
from three to four hours ; when done if it is not thick 
enough, take out a little of the stock, and when cool, 
thicken wij;h some ground rice flpur, and give it time to 
cook. 

Obs. — Wine or acids may be added ; it is usual in London 
to serve this up with endive, beet, or any other salad. 

Take the bone out of a small round of 
Alamode Beef beef ; rub it well with four ounces of salt- 
another way. petre and half a pound of moist sugar ; 
then place it on a board or dresser and 
cover it with another board, putting over it some very heavy 
stones ; let the juice drain from the meat for twelve hours ; 
then rub the meat well with common bay salt, and a few 
cut limes with a little spirit, if you please, for three or 
four consecutive times, morning and evening, according 
to the weather, and longer, if possible; then clear the brine" 
from the meat and fillet it up firmly. Prepare a stuffing 
of chopped parsley, thyme, two or three anchovies or a 
spoonful of anchovy sauce, mace, black pepper, and a little 
butter, with a sprinkling of allspice ; make holes every 
here and there over the meat and put in the stufiiug ; put it 
in a pan that will just hold it, and fill it up with cold water ; 
add some whole black pepper and cover with a common paste ; 
bake it for several hours ; when cold take ofi^ the crust and 
all the fat, and serve it up in the pan. 



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AND COOKEBT. 133 

The pieces generally selected for this 
Beef Collared purpose are the thin flanks^ short ribs, and 
and served in leg boned, all the coarse sinews being re- 
various ways* moved and may be prepared in the fol- 
lowing way : If the collar is to be roasted, 
sprinkle the meat with garlic or any seasoned vinegar; brush 
it with egg, and stew over some sweet herbs, cooked oysters 
or mushrooms or any force meat, or lay slices of bacon in 
tl)e middle and season highly; then braise it partially 
and roll and tie it up nicely with a bandage of cloth ; dip 
it in vinegar and if the weather permits, hang it up for three 
or four days, and cook it in a saucepan, or braise it and let 
it cool in the cloth. It may be larded and roasted and served 
with gravy, or brush it with egg sprinkled with crumbs, 
mushrooms, &c. Glaze and serve it as other roast meats, 
or it may be served cut in slices when cold. 

Take a shin, or leg of beef, boned ; remove 
Another way, all the coarse sinews and nerves ; stew until 
quite tender ; cut the meat into small pieces ; 
season with some sweet herbs, pepper and salt, four table- 
spoonfuls of mushroom catsup, the same of wine ; put it into a 
Etewpan and cover with the liquor in which the beef was 
dressed; set it on a slow fire to simmer gently for half an 
hour; then add slices of hard boiled eggs or pickled 
cucumbers; mix the whole together and put it into a 
moold. When cold, turn it out. 

When salted or corned, is to be dressed in 
Edge bone the same manner as a round, and the same 
accompanying vegetables ; it may also be roast- 
ed and forced with oysters, mushroom, &c. 

Obs. — The soft fat-like marrow which is found on the back 
is best when hot, and the hard fat near the end^ when cold. 

When salted are called the brisket and various 
&'i« other pieces are dressed in tlie same way ; but seldom 

roasted in India. 



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188 niDIAN DOHBflTIC SOONOMT 

Skewer it up tight of a proper shape ; tie a broad 
Bound. band round it to keep the skewers in their plaoes ; 
pat it into plenty of cold water, and carefiilly take 
the scum off as it rises. Let it boil until all the scum ii 
removed, and then put the pot, in which it is, on one side 
of the fire to simmer slowly until it is done. A round 
of fifteen pounds will take about three hours. 

Obs, — Serve with any boiled vegetables as a garnish, such 
as carrots, greens, &c. Peas pudding or suet is a good ac- 
companiment. The outside slices may be used for potted beef. 

Should be cut from the best part of the rump 
Steaks from half to an inch thick. There is a great 

art in cutting them nicely ; and as they are 
used in this country mostly fresh, they require to be beat 
with a light roller for some time. Many cooks prick them 
all over with a fork ; but this deprives them of much of their 
flavour, although it makes them appear tender. 

The time of cooking cannot be precisely laid down, as 
tastes vary so much in that point. A little garlic, onion, 
or shallot juice may be put into the dish or it may be 
rubbed with assafoetida. Those who are fond of a good 
steak, will order that never more than one is to be served 
at the same time, and then brought hot and hot from the 
kitchen. 

Cut the steaks off the rump, or ribs of a 
Grilled or fore-quarter ; have a very clear fire and the 
broiled. gridiron clean and perfectly hot; lay on the 
steaks with meat tongs, turning them constantly 
until they are done enough : sprinkle a little salt over them 
before taking off the fire; serve perfectly hot, with a plain 
gravy and sliced onions raw or fried, or rub a little batter 
over the steaks the moment of serving. The fat to be served 
with the steaks must be done separately, that the dripping of 
the grease may not smoke the meat. 

Obs. — ^A gridiron that has its bars fluted is the best for 



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AND COOKIRY. 137 

dressing them on^ as the gravy is preserved aad runs into 
a trough at the end. 

Cut the steaks the same as for broiling ; 

Fried. prepare in the same way ; put some butter or 

ghee into a frying pan, and when it is hot, 

lay in the steaks and keep turning until done enough ; serve 

iiot with mushroom, oysters, brown or any other sauce. 

OS*. — If fried onions are to be served with them, they 
most be dressed after the steaks are removed from the pan, 
or else with brown onion sauce separately, as some persons 
kave an objection to them. Frying steaks is the custom most 
geoerally praetise>d in this country, and as the meat is more 
equally dressed, evenly browned and the gravy preserved, per- 
haps it is preferable to broiling. 

Cut the steaks from off a rump, or any 
Sieak Pie. other good part of the beef (beat them with 
the rolling pin) fat and lean together about 
kalf an inch thick; put over them salt, pepper, and par- 
boiled onions, minced or grated bread seasoned with pep- 
per, salt, and pickled cucumber minced ; roll them up or 
p«ck them neatly into the dish, or lay the beef in slices; 
add some .spoonfuls of gravy and a tea-spoonful of vine* 
gu; cover with a puff paste and bake it for an hour. 
08*. — ^In Devonshire, slices of apple and onions are add- 
ed; when it is called squab pie. 

Cut rump steaks, not 'too thick ; if fresh 
Tnddin^. they must be beaten with a roller or chopper ; 

cut them into thin pieces; then trim off all 
&e skin, sinews, &c. ; have some onions peeled and chop- 
fine, also some potatoes peeled and cut into slices a 
T of an ,inch thick; rub the inside of a mould or 
in with butter ; cover it with paste ; season the steaks with 
tepper, salt, and a little grated nutmeg; put in a layer of 
s, then of potatoes, and so -on till it is full, occasional- 
crinkling some of the chopped onions; add to it four 

s 



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138 INDIAN DOMESTIC lOONOMT 

spoonfuls of mushroom catsup, a little lemon pickle^ and a 
wine glass of broth or water. RoU out a top and close it 
well by wetting the rims, and pressing them together to 
prevent the water getting in; dip a clean cloth in hot wa- 
ter; sprinkle a little flour over it and tie up the pud- 
ding; put it in a large pot of boiling water and boil it 
two hours and a half; take it up; remove the cloth; turn 
it down in a dish, and when wanted take away the ba- 
son or mould. 

Oi*.— This pudding may be niade in half the time by 
first partly dressing the steaks, vegetables, &c., in a stew- 
pan, with this advantage of being able to add any other 
seasoning you please, such as oysters, artichokes, bottoms, 
&c. Mock oyster sauce may be served with it. 

Is the prime part for roasting: when to be 
Sirloin of used, it should be washed, then dried with a 
Beef clean cloth, and the fat covered over with pa- 

per, tied on with thread; care must be taken 
to balance the meat properly upon the spit, but if not 
exactly right it is better to make it equal by fastening on 
a leaden headed skewer; then pierce it again with the spit. 
It is just to be basted with a httle butter or dripping; 
and afterwards with its own fat, -all the time it is roasting. 
Just before being taken up it must be sprinkled with a 
little salt; then dredged up with flour, and basted till it 
is frothed. When taken from the spit, a little boilmg salt 
and water should be poured along the bone to mix with 
the gravy ; garnish with scraped horse-radish, and slices of 
Yorkshire pudding. 

Ols, — A. sirloin will take about one quarter of an hour 
for each pound weight roasting. 

Cut them through the broad way and skewer 

Kidneys them flat ; lay them in a marinade of oil, vine- 

fried. gar, sliced onions, chopped parsley and pepper; 

do them slowly over a clear fire, and baste with 

A little butter ; have some minced parsley to strew over 



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ANt) COOKttRT. 1, 

the edges; sprinkle a liUle fine salt, over them and laj L 
the centre of each a bit of fresh butter, and serve very hot« 

Cut across and fry them, and finish as stew- 
Slewed. ed steaks with onions, mushrooms, &c. ; or cut 

them in pieces and serve in a sauce with ket« 
chup, lemon pickle, &c. 

Parboil, skin, and cut the palates into strips^ 
Palates. or simmer them in stock until the skin will 

come off; then stew them in stock with pep- 
per, salt, a glass of wine, and seasoning; let them simmer 
slowly until quite tender, or when they are cut into strips, 
fry an onion in butter, and add the palates and a few sweet 
herbs ; moisten them with some highly seasoned stock, and 
when ready add a little mustard. 

Take the steaks from the middle of the 
Italian Steaks, rump where tender ; rttb them with pound- 
ed mace, pepper, and salt ; put them into 
a stewpan, and close the top with coarse paste; put it 
over hot ashes for three or four hours. 

Ohs. — ^An k-la-blaize pan will answer the purpose better. 

Prepare exactly as for beef stock or gravy. 
Extract. but instead of water use wine. Cape, Mar- 

sala, in fact any white wine may be used; 
simmer very slow with the top of the pot covered with fire, 
that the steam may not evaporate. 

Obs, — Both this and the beef gravy may be made with 
a leg of beef only, the ends of the marrow bone must be 
sawed off, and to prevent the marrow from flowing it must 
be removed. It may be cooked in a jar in an oven or 
bain-marie. 

Take a sirloin and carefully cut out the 

lillet of Beef inside or fillet from underneath, leaving 

braised. only a small . portion of fat at the sides, 

(lard it lengthwise with small lardoons of 



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140 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

fat bacon)^ prepare and cut into slices, four onions, one 
tuinip, one carrot, one head of celery, one leek, a hand' 
ful of parsley, a sprig of thyme, and four peach leaves, 
moisten the whole with a cup of fresh made ghee or olive 
oil, lay your fillet in a deep dish, cover with the vegetables 
and let it remain for twelve hours. Then place the iSUet on 
a light spit, spread the vegetables on two or three sheets of 
paper, and tie it carefully round with a twine, so that the 
vegetables may not drop off whilst roasting. Oil the paper, 
or baste it with warm ghee that it may not bum. Boast 
it a<:cording to its size for an hour or longer, then re- 
move the vegetables, brown it lightly with a salamander 
and it is ready to be served with a sauce pur^e, or otherwise. 

Obs. — ^The sirloin may be boned and then stewed with 
the same kind of vegetables as are used for preparing the 
fillet, by putting them into a stewpan with a pint of water, 
put over a brisk fire, keep stirring it the whole time until 
reduced to a glaze, then put in the beef, fill the stewpan 
with water, skim it while boiling, and let it simmer for three 
or four hours. Take it out and serve with a good flavoured 
sauce, and such stewed vegetables as may be in season. 

Break the bones of a leg or shin of beef; 

Qlaze. cover it with cold water, and set it near the 

fire to heat gradually till it nearly boils, for 

about an hour ; skim it carefully white any scum rises ; pour 

in a little cold water to throw up any scum that may remain ; 

let it come to a boil again, and skim it carefully. When the 

broth appears clear let it boil for eight or ten hours, and then 

strain it through a sieve into a pan, and let it cool (the meat 

'may be used for potted beef). Next day remove all the fat 

from the top of it, and pour it through a taramis or sieve aa 

gently as possible into a stewpan, taking care not to let any 

particle of the settlings at the bottom go into the stewpan, 

whicli should be well tinned, if made of iron. Add a quarter 

of ail ounce of whole black pepper to it ; let it boil briskly 

with the pan uncovered on a brisk fire ; if any scum arises, it 



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AND COOKJERT. 141 

must be removed with a skimmer. When it begins to 
thicken and is reduced to about a quarts it must be re- 
moved to a smaller stewpan ; set it over a gentle fire till it 
is reduced to the consistency of a thick syrup, and take c€tre 
it does not burn, as the least inattention, and your labour 
is lost. Take a little of it out in a spoon, and let it cool ; 
if it sets into a strong jeQy, it is done enough ; if it does 
not, boil it a little longer till it does. It is best preserved 
in small fiat earthen pots, or else if you prefer it in the form 
of cakes pour it into a dish a quarter of an inch deep ; when 
it is cold turn it out, and divide into pieces of an ounce 
and a half, or an ounce each ; put them out in the sun to 
dry, and when hardened t keep in a canister or dry place. 
Obs. — If it burns it acquires a very disagreeable acid 
flavour. 

A stewed brisket cut into slices, and served 
Harricot. with the same sauce of vegetables as directed 

for Harricot mutton. 

Take a round of beef ; rub it well with three 
Hunters. or four ounces of saltpetre ; put a board with 

heavy weights upon it to express the juice ; 
eight hours after, rub the beef well with the following mixed 
ingredients : Allspice three ounces, cloves two, black pepper 
one, two pounds of salt, and half a pound of brown sugar ; put 
it into a large pan, and have the meat well rubbed every twelve 
hours ; squeeze over it a dozen limes, cut in halves, with a 
glass of brandy ; when your beef is ready, cut small two or 
three potinds of beef suet ; put one half in the bottom of the 
dish under the beef, and the rest upon the top ; cover it with 
a coarse paste of common flour and bake it. When cold take 
off the crust, and pour off the gravy, which preserve. 

Cut a pound of lean meat into thin slices ; 
Tea* put it in two pints and a half of cold water ; 

set it over a very gentle fire to become gra- 
dually warm ; remove the scum as it rises ; let it continue 



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142 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

simmering gently for an hour ; strain it through a napkin, 
and let it stand ten minutes to settle, and then pour off the 
clear tea. 

Obs. — ^The meat, if boiled till tender, may be used for 
potted beef. Beef tea may be flavoured by the addition of an 
onion and a few corns of black pepper. 

Chop some boiled white cabbages, or the 

Bubble and heart of any other with some potatoes ; 

Squeak. season with salt, pepper, and a little butter, 

and some slices of cold boiled salted beef. 

Put the fried cabbage and potatoes into a d'sh, and by round 

it the slices of beef fried ; serve very hot 

Obg. — ^The meat is best when under-done. 

Take three pounds of well boiled salted 
Potted Beef, beef, pick out any gristles or skin, mince 
it fine. Pound the meat carefully in a stone 
mortar with a little butter, till it is a fine paste ; season it by 
degrees, while you are beating it, with black pepper, and 
allspice or cloves pounded, or mace or grated nutmeg ; put 
it in pots ; press it down as close as possible, and cover it, 
a quarter of an inch thick, with clarified butter or beef 
suet ; the latter is best for India. 

Obs. — The less gravy or butter, and the more labour ^ven 
to pounding, will be the better, if you wish it to keep. 

Put on in cold water a brisket of beef ; 
Hamburg. when it boils, skim it well ; take out the 
beef, and let it cool, and then rub it well 
with three handfuls of salt, and an . ounce of saltpetre ; 
beat it well with a rolling pin for twenty or thirty mi- 
nutes ; put it into a pickling tub ; strew over a handful 
of salt; let it be four days, turning and rubbing it occa- 
sionally ; put a little more salt and let it lie four days 
more ; after which, sew it in a cbth and let it hang 
twelve days in smoke j grate and use it. 



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AND COOKERT. 143 

Obs. — As meat will only in the cold season allow of its 
being so long in the salt^ add^ if it is to be afterwards smoked^ 
half a drachm or thirty drops of creosote to a wine glass 
of brandy, and rub it over the meat ; this is an excellent 
preservative^ and if used in curing pork for boilings gives 
it all the flavour of being, smoked. 

Rub on an ox's heart two ounces of common 
DulcA. salt, half an ounce of saltpetre, an ounce and 

a half of coarse brown sugar, and a little salt, 
turn and rub it for nine days ; then hang it in the kitchen 
to dry : it will become quite hard. When required for 
use cut off a piece, boil, and when cold grate it for spread- 
ing on bread and butter; it may be served with curled 
butter over it. 

Cut any pieces of tender lean beef into 
ScotcA Col- slices; brown some butter and flour in a 

lops, saucepan : put in the beef M'ith some salt, 

pepper, and a finely minced onion ; (half 
a minced apple, or some green papaw is an improvement); 
add a little hot water; cover the pan closely and stew 
till tender. 

Cut a piece of beef into small bits ; sea- 
Goibils, son them with pepper, salt, grated lemon 

peel, and nutmeg, some parsley and shallot 
finely chopped; fry them brown in butter, and stew them 
till tender in a rich brown gravy, adding a table-spoon- 
ful of vinegar and one of port wine ; put thickly over 
them grated bread seasoned with pepper and salt, and a 
little butter, and brown them with a salamander. 

Cut off the meat with a little of the 

To dress tie fat into strips three inches long, and half 

inside of a an inch thick ; season with pepper and 

cold sirloin, salt, and dredge them with flour, and fry 

them brown in butter; then simmer them 



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144 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

in a rich brown gravy ; add mushroom catsup^ onion, and 
shallot vinegar, a table-spoonful of each ; garnish with fri- 
ed parsley. 

Cut the steaks very tliin ; cover them with 
Olives. farce, which may be seasoned high with 

mushrooms; roll up tight and tie them firm, 
fry quick in beef dripping, and stew them in stock, and 
add ketchup, butter, and flour, or dip them in egg and 
crumbs; fry and serve on an oyster ragout. 

Take beef, chop and mince it very small. 

Mince Collqps to which add some salt, and . pepper ; put 

of Beef. some ghee into a frying-pan, and slice some 

onions into it, and fry them ; * add a little 

water to it, and then put in the minced meat ; stew it 

well, and in a few minutes it will be fit to serve up. 

Mince fine two pounds of beef, and a 
£ee/ Sausages, pound of suet, or what is called hogs' 

leaf from the belly of a pig ; season high 
with pounded black pepper, salt, allspice, and winter sa- 
vory; mix, and fill the small intestines that have been 
well scoured and cleaned ; tie them in lengths, and hang 
them in the smoke for use. 

Scald three quarters of a pint of oys- 
Beef and Oys- ters in their own liquor ; take them out, 
ter Sausages, and chop them finely ; to every pound of 
beef add half a pound of suet, with an 
ounce of crumb, and an egg, a little garlic, sweet herbs, 
spices and salt ; fill them in three inches length, or pack 
closely into a jar ; when to be used, roll it into the form 
of small sausages ; dip them into the yolk of an egg beaten 
up ; strew grated crumbs of bread over them, or dust with 
flour, and fry them in ghee or fresh dripping ; serve them 
upon fried bread, hot. 

Obs. — Mushroom may be used instead of oysters or cray 



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AND COOKERY. 145 

fish, and if made only as required, will be better suited to 
this dimate. 

First wash them well and boil in plenty of 

Cow heels, or hot water till the hoofs come oS, and the 

Ox'feet, to hair can be peeled oflf and scraped clean ; 

dreee. wash them well again in fresh water, and 

boil till all the bones separate easily. 

To pot them, cut them into small pieces ; 
Cow heeU, add a little of the liquor ; heat it, and season 

potted. with some salt, pepper, and vinegar ; put it 

in a mould, and when it becomes cold turn 
it out. This is eaten with vinegar and mustard ; they may 
be served without being cut small, either hot or cold ; if hot, 
serve with thick parsley and butter. 

Cut them into small bits ; dip them into the 
Another. yolk of an egg beaten up, and rub them in 

bread crumbs seasoned with pepper, salt, and 
minced parsley ; fry them in ghee or butter; cut into thin 
slices a good dish of onions ; fry them in ghee and serve them 
hot, with the fried heels laid upon them. 

Ohs. — The liquor may be mfade into jelly or soup, or 
used to enrich sauces or gravies. 

Clean, prepare the cheek and put it into luke- 
Ox cheeky warm water ; let it lie three or four hours ; then 
etewed. put it into cold water, and let it soak for twelve 

more ; wipe it clean ; put it into a stewpan and 
just cover it with water ; skim it well when it is coming to a 
boil ; then put two whole onions, sticking two or three cloves 
into each, three turnips quartered, a couple of carrots sliced, 
two bay leaves or peach, and twenty -four corns of allspice, 
a head of celery 'and a bundle of sweet herbs, pepper and salt; 
to these add cayenne and a little garlic if approved of. Let 
it stew gently, till perfectly tender, about three hours ; then 
take out the cheek ; divide it into small pieces fit to help at 

T 



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146 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

table ; skim and/strain the gravy ; melt an ounce and a half of 
batter in a stewpan ; stir into it as much flour as it will take 
up ; mix with it, by degrees, a pint and a half of the gravy ; 
add to it a table-spoonful of basil, tarragon, or elder vinegar, 
or the like quantity of mushroom or walnut catsup or port 
wine, and give it a boil. Serve up in a deep, or ragout dish. 

Saw the bones even, so that they will 
Marrow banes, stand steady ; put a piece of paste over the 
ends ; set them upright in a saucepan, and boil 
till they are done enough. A beef marrow bone will require 
from an hour and a half to two hours. Serve fresh toasted 
bread with them. 

Brown sugar and common salt of each two 

Fiekling 9alU pounds, saltpetre eight oonces, renders meat 

salted with it very finely flavoured and red. 

Boil together for twenty minutes two 

Fickle for gallons of water^ three pounds of bay salt. 

Beefy Ham two pounds of common salt, two pounds of 

or Tongue, coarse sugar, two ounces of saltpetre, and 

two of black pepper bruised and tied, in 

a fold of muslin ; clear off the scum thoroughly as it rises ; 

pour the pickle into a tub or a deep earthen pan, and when it 

is quite cold, lay in the meat, of which every part must be 

perfectly covered with it. 

A good brine is made of bay salt and 
Do. in hrine. water thoroaghly saturated, so that none of 
the salt remains undissolved; into this brine 
the substance to be preserved is plunged and kept covered 
with it. In this vegetables, French beans, artichokes, 
olives, may be preserved. 

'' Meat preserved with Carson's salting ma- 

SaUinff. chine will keep in proportion to the strength 

of the brine with which it is impregnated. 



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AND COOKERY. 147 

If it be required to keep for a months use the receipt 
marked No. I ; if two months. No. 2 ; if beyond that time^ 
No. 3. Meat pickled with No. 1, will preserve the character 
of fresh meat, and No. i, corned meat ; so that by this instru- 
ment and process, persons on a voyage may have provision 
nearly fresh for a great length of time, as by forcing a little 
salt and water (for example) to the bone, particularly where 
there is a joint, and around the pope's-eye in a leg of mutton, 
the other parts will remain sweet without salt for many weeks, 
if hung in an airy place/^ 



. 'i 



(For making pickle or brine.J 

No. 1. 

Take of common salt, - - - - - 5 lbs. 

Molasses, 4 do. 

Water, 1 gaUon. 

Mix the whole together, and allow it to stand quiet for half 
an hour (or longer) ; then pour or strain off the clear liquid, 
taking care that no particle of salt or other substance pass 
into the machine ; this is very important, as such particles may 
stop the hole in the nipple ; but should a particle of salt or fat 
get into it, if the nipple be placed in hot water, the salt will 
be dissolved and the fat can be blown out. 

No. 2. 

Take of common salt, - - - - - 6 Bis. 

Saltpetre, i do. 

Molasses, • 4 do. 

Water, 1 gallon. 

Dissolve as above, using the clear liquor for the machine ; 
the salt not dissolved, to be poured or rubbed on the surface 
of the meat. 

No. 3. 
Take of common salt, - - - - 7 fis. 
Sironff Brine. Nitre or saltpetre, - - - - - f do. 

Water, - - 1 gallon. 



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148 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Dissolve, and use as No. 2, covering the meat witb salt, 
or place it in strong brine after using the machine. 

No. 4. 

Take of common salt, - - • 7 lbs. 

Sweet pickle Saltpetre, - - - - - - i do. 

for Tongue Coarse sngar, i do. 

and Hams, Water, 1 gallon. 

To be used the same as No. 2. If the ham, tongue, bacon, 
&c., is to be cured, smoked, it is only necessary to add to each 
quart of the above pickle a table-spoonful or more of Hackin's 
essence of smoke. 

Obs, — Essence of smoke is nothing more than a little ere* 
osote dissolved in spirits. 

The flesh of the bull and cow calf of this coun- 
Veal, to try is pretty mach the same, though the latter is 
choose. preferred for the udder. Choose the meat of 
which the kidney is well covered with white thick 
fat, the other parts should be dry and white ; if clammy or 
spotted the meat is stale and bad. If veal is in danger of not 
keeping, wash it thoroughly and boil the joint ten minutes, 
putting it into the pot when the water is boiling hot ; then 
wipe it dry and put it into a cool place. 

Take out the bone and fill the space with 

VUkt roasted. stuffing or force meat ; put some also under 

the flap ; serve it up with good melted batter, 

and slices of lime over it. It requires particular care to roast 

it a nice brown. 

This is considered the best part of the veal ; 

The loin. the clump end must be stufled like the fillet, 

and a toast may be put under the kidney ; the 

fat being as delicate as marrow. Serve with melted butter, 

the same as a fillet. 

Shoulder of Stuff as for fillet with force-meat and serve 
veal. as the same. 



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AND COOKEBT. 149 

Prepare and roast tlie loin^ pat two ladle- 
Loin qf veal fals of -white sauce i)ito a stewpan with a 
ausppetits quart of boiled peas (pre^riouslj dressed 
jwis. with a sprig of mint)^ a little salt, a tea- 

spoonful of sugar, let it boil up» then add 
two table-spoonfuls of butter^ with a little arrowroot^ shake 
the whole over the fire, pour it out into a dish^ and 
place the loin in the centre, serve quite hot. 

Obs. — ^The peas may be dressed in a thrown sauce, with 
a little chopped parsley, and served with a roast loin or 
breast of veal. 

Tie knuckle Is generaUy boiled plain, and sent up witli 
of veal parsley and butter. 

Having your veal nicely roasted, place 
Loin of veal a border of mashed potatoes round the 
alaPvrSede dish, take some sticks of celery cleaned, 
Celeri. cut off the tops and make a purde. Stew 

the bottoms in some consomm^ with a 
little sugar until tender, place them upright in the bor- 
der of potatoes with the. veal in the centre, and pour the 
pur^e of celery round, serve quite hot; the pur^e should 
be of the consistence of good cream. 

Neeh May be made into pie or broth. 

Veal of every part is to be made firm by 
To blanch means of boiling hot water : also lay the 
veal or flesh of any kind of fowl required to . be 
fowl. rendered firm, in hot water, allowing it to 

remain undisturbed at a short distance from 
the fire, plunging it afterwards into cold water* Especi- 
ally veal intended for cooking, or previously cut up into 
proper pieces for a fricassee, is to be kept for a quar- 
ter of an hour in boiling water at a distance from the 
fire, and then removed and washed in cold water. A leg 
or breast of veal must be set on the fire with cold water 



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150 INDIAN BOMESTIC ECONOMY 

to draw it a little : it must not however boil, as that ex* 
tracts much of its goodness. Bemove it from the fire; 
cover it over, and let it stand a quarter of an hour; after 
which it will be found' to have become perfectly drawn 
and whitened. Take it out; lay it in cold water; wash 
it and dry it with a clean cloth. 

Cut it in two and take out the brains; 
Calf 9 Aeadf to wash the head well in several waters, and 
boU^ soak it in warm water for ten minutes 

before dressing ; then put the head into a 
saucepan with plenty of cold water, and when it begins 
to boil, carefully remove the scum as it rises. It must 
be stewed very gently till it is tender, and serve with 
fine parsley and butter: the brains and tongue in a se- 
parate dish, the brains made into a sauce with chopped 
sage, cream, &c. 

Obs, — ^When cold, it is very tasteless, but serves to make 
an excellent hash ; the liquor in which it was boiled may 
be converted into soup. 

Take any of the head and tongue that 
Dressed Calfs remains, and cut into squares or slices ; 
headha9hed% sprinkle over it a little salt, pepper, and 
nutmeg, and dredge or powder it with a 
little fine flour or arrowroot. If any soup of the previ- 
ous day remains, make it up to a pint with good mut- 
ton broth, adding a glass of white or red wine with three 
spoonfuls of mushroom catsup; put the meat into it and 
give it a boil up; when it is ready squeeze in the juice 
of a lime. 

Obs. — A good cook will judge how much flour or arrow- 
root is necessary to thicken the quantity of gravy used, as 
much must depend upon the remains of the head, &c. 

Wash and clean it well; parboil it; take 

Roast. out the bones, brains, and tongue; make 

force-meat sufficient for the head, and some 



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Al^D COOKERY. 151 

balls with bread crumbs, minced 8uet^ parsley, grated ham, 
and a little pounded veal or cold fowl; season with salt, 
pepper, grated nutmeg, and lemon peel ; bind it with an 
egg beaten up ; fill the head with it, which must then be 
sown up or fastened with a skewer and tied. While roast- 
ing, baste it well with butter; beat up the brains with a 
httle cream, the yolk of an egg, some minced parsley, a 
httle pepper and salt ; blanch the tongue, that is, skin it ; 
cut it into slices and fry it with the brains, force-meat 
balls, and thin slices of bacon ; serve the head with white 
or brown thickened gravy ; place the tongue, brains, and 
force-meat balls round it ; garnish with sliced lemon. It 
will take one hour and a half to roast. 

Clean and blanch a calf s head ; boil it till 
Calf 9 head the bones will separate easily ; then bone and 
Bigarree. press it between two dishes to give it an ob- 
long shape ; beat well the yolk of four eggs, 
a little melted butter, pepper and salt ; divide the head 
when cold, and brush it all over with the beaten eggs, 
and stew over it grated bread ; repeat this twice ; with the 
grated bread that is put over one half, a good quantity of 
finely minced parsley should be mixed. Place the head in 
a dish, and bake it of a nice brown color ; serve with a 
sauce of parsley and butter, or one of good gravy mixed 
with the brains, which have been previously boiled and 
chopped, season with a little white pepper and salt. 

Simmer it in sugar and water till the bones 
Russian come out ; keep the cheeks whole ; cut the re- 
meihod. mainder in pieces ; put it all but the cheeks again 
into the stock ; stew it till it becomes like a 
jelly, and when there is just time sufficient to stew some 
raisins, have them ready cleaned and rubbed, and put them 
in whole ; vinegar and more sugar are to be added if neces- 
sary, to give it an agreeable taste. The tongue and brains 
are served up separately, with a little of the gravy thickened 
and seasoned with port wine and a little whole pepper. 



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158 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Wash and clean half a head, if large, or 
Totted calf* 9 the whole,' if small; let it lie a few houn 
head. to soak, changing the water occasionally ; 

then put it into a stewpan with the feet, that 
have been well cleaned, four onions minced, some parsley, 
thyme, salt, and cayenne ; put as much water as will cover 
it, and let it stew gently for three or four hours ; then take 
out the head and feet ; separate it from the bones ; mince 
and add some more pounded black pepper and salt ; then 
strain the liquor upon it ; stew for half an hour, and put 
it into moulds. 

Cut half a dozen slices off a fillet of veal. 
Veal olives. half an inch thick and as long and square as 
you can ; flatten them with a chopper, and rub 
them over with an egg, that has been beaten ; cut some fat 
bacon as thin as possible, the same size as the veal ; lay 
it on the veal, and rub it with a little of the egg ; make 
a little veal force-meat and spread it very thin over the 
bacon ; roll up the olives very tight ; rub them with the 
egg, and then roll them in fine bread crumbs ; put them 
on a small skewer and roast them at a, brisk fire. They 
will take three quarters of an hour. 

Cut some slices from the upper part of 
Veal Collops. the leg, and then prepare some grated bread* 

seasoned with cayenne pepper, and salt ; rub 
the slices over with the yolk of egg, and then dip them 
in the bread crumbs ; fry them in a stewpan in a small 
quantity of butter until both surfaces are nicely browned^ 
then place them on one side. 

Prepare a gravy with a tea-cupful of water, (consomme 
is best,} a small piece of butter rubbed in flour, half a 
dozen sprigs of parsley, some sweet herbs, two burnt onions^ 
three cloves, and a little mushroom catsup ; let these sim- 
mer on a slow fire for half an hour, stirring occasionally ; 
garnish with lemon. 

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AND COOKERY. 16S 

Prepare the cutlets, nicely flatten, and 
Fed CuUets. dredge a little fine salt over ; dip them in 
melted butter, and put them upon a hot 
gridiron over* a very clear fire, but not too hot; turn them 
quickly, to prevent the butter dropping, and to harden 
them ; to preserve the juice let them be well cooked, and 
of a fine colour; dish them on gravy, and gamiah with 
tofts of fried parsley, or crumbs. 

Cut thin ; beat them well ; lay them in vine- 
Cuileb garj mace, pepper, and salt for some hours ; fry 

fScatci.) them slowly a light brown, and pour into the 
pan a little seasoned stock, and let them sim- 
mer, and thicken with flour and butter. 

Mince it as fine as possible (do not chop 
Mimeed veal. it), put it into a stewpan with a few spoon < 
fuls of veal or mutton broth, a little lemon 
peel minced fine, a spoonful of milk or cream, thicken with 
batter and flour, and season it with salt, a table-spoonful of 
lemon pickle* or a little lemon juice. 

Cut the liver rather thin, but not too thin 
Fried Liver so as to harden in the frying ; chop a quan- 
and Bacon, tity of parsley ; season it with pepper and lay 
it thick upon the liver ; cut slices of bacon 
ind fry both together ; add a little lemon ] pickle to the gravy 
made by pouring the fat out of the pan, flouring, and adding 
boiling water. 

Cut three kidneys into thin slices, put a 
Veal Kidneys, spoonful of ghee or butter into a stewpan, 
and just as it begins to get brown, throw in 
ike kidneys, stir them about, and as soon as they get brown 
dkake in a dessert spoonful of flour, stir it well and add a 
vine-glaas of white wine, a quarter' of a pint of broth, some 
nail moshrooms, and let all boil together for five minutes ; 
with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and the juice of a small 

u 



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154 - INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY • 

lime ; if too thick reduce with a little broth, serve plain, or as 
for ris de veau en caisses, or in a croustade of bread of a light 
brown colour. 

Pound in a mortar cold veal and fowl with 
Croquettes of ' a little suet, some chopped lemon peel, lemon 
veal or fowl, thyme, chives, and parsley; season with nut- 
meg, pepper, and salt^ mix all well together; 
add the yolk of an egg well beaten ; roll it into balls, and dip 
them into an egg beaten up ; then sift bread crumbs over 
them, and fry in ghee or butter. * 

Mince some cold sweetbreads which have 
Croquettes of been dressed, and boil them in a white sauce 
sweetbread, orveloute; when quite cold, form thetn into 
balls, or into rolls about two inches long; 
fry and serve them with fried parsley in the middle. Or make 
the croquet meat into a rissole ; roll out a piece of thin puff 
paste ; enclose the meat in it ; brush it over with a beaten 
egg, and strew over it grated bread ; fry it of a light brown 
colour. 

Prepare cutlets of veal, fowl, or mutton; 
Cutlets of nicely flatten, and dredge a Kttle fine salt 

veal^fowl or over ; dip them in melted butter and put 
mutton, with them upon a hot gridiron over a very clear 
Love-apjple fire, but not too hot ; turn them quickly to 
sauce. prevent the butter dropping, and harden 

them to preserve the juice; then, cover them 
with the following sauce previously prepared : Take twelve ripe 
^ tomatas ; cut them into halves ; squeeze them just enough to 
get all the water and seeds out ; put them in a stewpan with 
a capsicum and two or three table-spoonfuls of beef gravy ; set 
them on a slow fire till properly melted; then rub them 
through a tammis into a clean stewpan with a little white 
pepper and salt, and let them simmer together a few minutes ; 
thicken, if requisite, with a little butter rolled in arrowroot 
or flour. 



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AND COOKERY. lo5 

Oh. — ^An onion^ with a clove or two, or a little Tarragon 
vinegar^ is sometimes added. 

Prepare and shape your cutlets nicely, 
Coteleties de veau cut off the skin or any unnecessary part, 
a la Sana/agon, dip them into beaten egg, then into a dish 
of bread crumbs, finely chopped parsley 
and eschalots ; flatten with your knife ; then dip them into 
boiling ghee, and then again into the bread crumbs, flatten 
again with your knife and boil them over a clear fire ; dress 
them in a tasteful manner, or with nicely mashed potatoes. 

Blanch some sweetbreads, cut them in 
Escalopes de Bis de slices a little thinner than the fourth of an 
veau en caisses. inch, place some ghee in a saucepan with 
two table-spoonfuls of finely chbpped 
young onions, lay the sweetbreads over, season with pepper 
and salt and place them over a slow fire ; when done add a ta- 
ble-spoonful of chopped mushrooms, the same of parsley, half a 
pint of brown sauce, a little glaze, half a pint of clear broth, 
some grated nutmeg and sugar, simmer, and keep shaking the 
whole well together for ten minutes; have ready some small 
paper cases, fill each three parts full, egg the top, sprinkle 
some bread crumbs over and place them in an oven for twen- 
ty minutes, pass a salamander over, and dress them taste* 
fully in a dish. 

MUTTON. 

The selection will, of course, depend upon its appearance ; 
a fine grain, with firm white looking fat, and a plumpness 
in the meat, not yielding to the finger like dough when 
pressed, is to be chosen. Butchers are constantly in the 
habit of blowing their meat to give it a fulness; such 
should always be rejected. It is not only a very dirty cus- 
tom, but the meat will never keep so long as it otherwise 
would, if dressed without this practice, and which a butch- 
er, unless particularly cautioned, is sure to do. The finest 
mutton is wedder of from five to six years old that ha» 



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156 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

been fed on grain^ and is generally priced at more than 
treble the common country meat. The flesh of ewe mut- 
ton is paler, and not of so high a flavour ; ram and goat 
mutton is larger, the flesh a deeper red and strong tasted. 
The joints principally brought to table in this* country 
are the saddle, hind, and fore-quarter, leg and loin. The 
saddle at large parties is sometimes cut with a portion of 
the hind legs attached, which, when dressed, though it may 
give it the appearance of being large and finer, is any thing 
but recommendable, from its unsightliness, as well as 
being very uneconomical. 

This joint should be hung as long as possible, 
Saddle of the kidneys being removed ; a few cloves of gar- 
Mutton. lie, stuck under the fat, improve its flavour. 
When to be dressed, divide the tail and skewer 
the pieces back in a ring on each side ; let the flaps also be 
turned under, and the joint carefully put on the spit ; be- 
fore it is dished, sprinkle it with salt, dredge it with flour, 
and froth it nicely. 

This joint is prepared and dressed the same 
Maunch of as the saddle ; a couple or more cloves of gar- 
mutton. lie may be stuck in the knuckle, and if neces- 
sary, a little pounded ginger and i)lack pepper 
rubbed over it. 

Obs* — ^To dress it like venison — after it has hung a sufficient 
time, lay it in a dish and soak it in port wine, turning it fre- 
quently; then paper up the fat and roast it, basting it with 
butter and the wine mixed together; serve with gravy and 
currant jelly sauce. 

Either of these joints may be roasted and 
Fore-quarter dressed in the usual manner, or if salted for 
or shoulder, a day or two and boiled, should be smother- 
ed with onion sauce ; this sauce is also 
sent to table sometimes with the roast shoulder. It is an 



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AND COOKERY. 157 

economical plan to salt the shoulder for boilings and dress 
the remainder either as a braise, chops, harricot, cutlets, &c. 

Maj either be roasted, boiled, stewed, cat 
Leg of Mut' into steaks, &c. If roasted, it is dressed as the 
ton, haunch or shoulders ; beet root is a proper ac- 

companiment. When to be boiled it should be 
put in a paste or cloth to keep it clean; serve with caper 
sauce, mashed turnips, or other vegetables. 

06s. — It is unnecessary for the purpose of this work to en- 
ter into the detaiLs of roasting and boiling the different joints, 
minutely. I consider it sufficient to mention the way in 
which they should be served and sent to table. 

Take a tender neck or loin of mutton ;. cut 
Harricot of into chops of equal thickness ; flour and fry 
mutton, them brown in a little butter, and drain them 
on a cloth ; spread over a dish or sieve ; then 
put them into a stewpan, and cover with gravy, which 
may be made in the fryingpan by the addition of a little 
boiling water ; add one large or a dozen small button onions, 
a couple of turnips cut into slices, and stew gently until the 
meat is tender ; then take out the chops and vegetables ; strain 
the gravy, removing all ' the fat ; put some butter into the 
stewpan with a little flour, and stir it until melted and 
smooth ; add the gravy to this by degrees, and stir together 
until it boils. Have ready some carrots and turnips cut 
into slices, with a few small onions parboiled ; add these to 
the meat ; season with pepper and salt, and simmer gently 
for a quarter of an hour ; then take out the chops -, lay them 
in a dish, and cover with the sauce and vegetables. 

Oba* — Beef steaks and veal cutlets may be dressed in the 
same way. 

Cut some young turnips into small sized 

White Sauce balls or any other shape ; blanch them in 

/of^rrtco/. boiling water; drain and stew them with a 

little sugar and a few table-spoonfuls of 



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158 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

clear broth over a quick fire; reduce them to a glaze, 
and then take them off; pour in four or five spoonfuls 
of broth or Bechamel ; season with salt, and^ if too thick, 
add a little cream, and cover the chops with the sauce. 

Shred as mlich garlic as you please; 
Giffot a rail, put it into five different waters with a lit- 
If^ff of Mut' tie salt ; boil it five minutes in each ; drain 
ton with gar- and place in the dripping pan under the 
lie, mutton whilst roasting; or else put the 

garlic with some of Ihe gravy into a stew- 
ing pan, and give it a gentle browning. 

Trim off all sinews, skin, and gristle; 
Hashed Mut- cut the meat into neat slices, and lay it on 
ton. a plate on one side; take the remainder of 

the joint bones, &c., and cover them with 
boiling water; add some pepper-corns, the same of all- 
spice, a few sprigs of parsley, half a head of celery cut 
into slices, with some lemon thyme ; let this simmer gent- 
ly for half an hour; slice a little onion; put it into a 
stewpan with a table-spoonful of butter, and fry it over 
a quick fire until a light brown; then stir in as much 
flour or arrowroot jis will make a thick paste, by degrees ; 
add the gravy you have made, and let it bo Q very gent- 
ly until it is of the thickness of cream; then strain it 
into a basin, and put it back into the stewpan ; season 
it with a spoonful of walnut or mushroom catsup, or 
pickled onions, girkins, capers, &c. ; (cover the bottom of 
a dish with sippets of bread) ; put in the meat, and let 
it simmer gently, but do not let it boil ; place it in the 
dish with the gravy over the sippets plain or fried, and 
serve. 

Cut the meat as directed in the last re- 
A plainer ceipt; sprinkle it with flour or arrowroot; 
make a gravy with the remainder, to which 
add a few slices of onions; when sufficient-> 



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AND GOOKEEY. 159 

ly done, season with pepper and salt and any pickle li- 
quor ; add the meat, and let it warm up, but not boil ; 
garnish with fried sippets cut into the shape of dice. 

Cut your mutton into chops ; beat them 
Maintenon flat with a rolling pin ; mash the yolk of a 
CuUeU. hard boiled egg, and mix with it chopped 

sweet herbs, grated bre^d, nutmeg, salt, and 
pepper ; cover the chops with it, and put e^ich into a 
piece of clean, well buttered paper ; broil them oyer a 
clear fire, turning them often ; serve in the paper or with 
brown gravy. 

Chopa to Trim your chops nicely ; sprinkle a little pep- 

broil, per and salt over them, and broil over a clear fire. 

Dress your chops ik la maintenon ; remove 
Fried in Po- the papers ; then cover with mashed boiled 
tatoe bat- potatoes, bound together with the yolk of 
ier. eggs ; fry them in hot ghee to a nice deli- 

cate brown. 

Cut your chops and trim them ; dip them 
Mutton into hot melted butter or warm ghee ; cover 
chops. with grated bread mixed with chopped parsley 
a little sweet marjoram, salt and pepper ! 
then dip the chops into the yolk of eggs beaten up, and 
sprinkle them with crumbs of bread ; fry them in butter, 
and serve with a thickened gravy. 

Cut the chops off a loin of mutton ; pare 
Another way. off the fat ; dip them into a beaten egg, and 
strew over them grated bread seasoned with 
pepper and salt, and some finely minced parsley ; fry them in 
a little butter, and lay them upon a sieve to drain near the 
fire : thicken about half a pint of gravy ; add a table-spoon- 
ful of mushroom catsup, and one of port wine ; put the chops 
into a dish with the gravy, and garnish with fried parsley or 
sliced lime, or as cotelettcs dc vcau. 



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160 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Take six or twelve kidneys according to 
Kidneys mth the quantity that yoa wish to dress ; remoye 
Champagne. the skins ; cut and mince them into small 
slices ; have a little bit of lean bacon cut 
into squares ; fry them with a very little bit of butter ; 
when the bacon is of a good colour, put in the kidneys, taking 
care to shake the pan frequently so as to fry them equally. 
When they are done, strew over them a little salt and pepper, 
some parsley chopped very fine, and a very small bit of shal- 
lot well chopped, also throw in a little flour ; stir up all with 
a spoon ; then moisten with a glass of white champagne, but 
do not let it boil, otherwise the kidneys will be hard and un- 
eatable ]— add a little lime and a little cayenne, and observe 
that this dish should be well seasoned. Put the kidneys first 
in the dish, and let the sauce have one boil to do the 
flour ;— miud that the sauce be properly thick to add to 
the meat, but not too much so* 

Cut the kidneys open in the centre, and 
Broiled Bd- remove the skin that covers them ; then keep 
neya. the two sides open with a small skewer of 

wood ; dust them well with pepper and a 
little salt ; dip them into melted butter ; broil the side that 
is cut open first ; then turn them that they may retain their 
gravy. Have ready some chopped parsley mixed with fresh 
butter, lemon juice, pepper, and salt ; put a little over each 
kidney, and serve on a hot dish. 

Cut the kidneys into very thin slices ; flour 
French ioay. and fry quickly until they are quite crisp ; 
while frying, add pepper and salt ; serve in a 
good brown gravy slightly flavoured with garlic. 

Cut apples or white pumpkin as for other 

SgiMl pie. pies, and lay them in rows with slices or pieces 

of mutton, pork or bacon ; shred two or three 

middling sized onions^ and sprinkle amongst them, adding 



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AND .COOKERY. 161 

salt, pepper and sugar, with a sofBciency of clear gravy or 
water; cover with a paste as usual. 

Take the skin from the brains without 
Sheeps^ brains, breaking them, and let them soak for two 
Jried. hours in lukewarm water; when they are 

quite white, put them into a stewpan half 
full of boiling water with half a pint of vinegar and some salt ; 
let them boU until they are firm, which they will soon be ; 
then put them to drain ; make a very light batter : cut and 
dip them into it» fry of a nice brown over a quick fire. They 
require a good deal of frying. Garnish them with fried 
parsley. 

Stew them gently until the bones come 
SA^ep/ Trot- out ; save the liquor they are boiled in for 
ters. stock; take out this bones, and stilff the 

skin with forcemeat; stew them m some of 
the stock for half an hour, which must be flavoured with 
onions, chopped parsley, pepper, salt, and a little mushroom 
ketchup or Harvey sauce. 

Wash and clean the hearts and lights, or the 
Haggis. pluck; cleanse and parboil them; then mince 

very small; add one pound of chopped suet, 
with two or three large onions minced, and four table-spoon- 
fuls of flour or oatmeal ; season highly with pepper and salt, 
and mix all well together; the bi^ or stomach being very 
clean (which it can only be made by continual fresh washings 
and soakings), put in the above ingredients, and press out all 
the air ; sew it up, and boil for two or three hours. A cloth 
that has been wetted and sprinkled with flour, may be used, 
or it may be boiled in a jar tied over. 

Take a large fat leg of mutton (lean meat 
MuUan ham. will not answer), two ounces of raw sugar, 
four ounces of common salt, and half a spoon- 
ful of saltpetre ; the meat is to be well rubbed with this, 

w 



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1C2 INDIAN DOHESTIC ECONOMY 

and then placed in a deep dish ; it must be beaten and turn- 
ed twice a day for three days; the scum which comes from 
the meat having been taken off, it is to be wiped and again 
rubbed with the mixture and the meat well rolled; this 
should be done for eight or ten days, and the meat should 
be regularly turned ; ftfter which it is to be exposed to smoke 
for ten or tWelve days, or dipped in pyroligneous acid. 

Obs. — Green mango wood is the best for smoking meat 
with. 

LAMB. 

When carefully fattened, this is light and suitable for 
delicate stomachs; the generality brought to market and 
offered for sale is far inferior to the mutton, and very sel- 
dom fit to be put on the table ; indeed, few Indian legs of 
mutton exceed in weight the leg of lamb at home. 

Roast a saddle of lapib or of small mutton 
Saddle of in the same manner with vegetables as direct- 
Lamb auz ed for a fillet of beef^ and brown it with a 
petUipois. salamander. Put a quart of boiled green peas 
into a stewpan with two ounces of butter, a 
tea-spoonful of sugar, a little arrowroot and six table- 
spoonfuls of cream, shake them round well over the fire, 
pour them in the dish, and dress the saddle over them. 

Place it in cold water and simmer gent- 
To boil a leg. ly, allowing a quarter of an hour or little 
more to each pound ; the loin cut into chops, 
and dressed may be put round it. 

It may be pre^^ared in different ways for 
To roast a leg. roasting ; such as larding with ham or bacon, 
or forced with oysters or mushrooms; bnt 
it is most usual here to dress the loin and leg together, 
and send to table with plain clear gravy and potatoes 
browned round it; mint sauce is generally served with roast 
or boiled lamb. 



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AND COOKERY, 163 

When roasted whole, either at or before 

Forequarter* sending to table^ the shonlder may be raised 

and a pat of butter laid between the meat 

with cayenne pepper^ lime juice and a table-spoonful of 

mushroom catsup. 

Q5^.^-A forequarter of kid is to be dressed in the same 
way ; both should be served quite hot, with mint sauce 
in a butter-boat. 

Half-roast it either in the regular man- 

SUwed brecat ner or in a stewpan, and give it a nice 

wUk cucum* brown appearance ; then add a sufficient 

hers. quantity of stock with sliced cucumbers^ 

sweet herbs^ pepper^ and salt ; stew it gent- 

ly without boilings and thicken the sauce before servings 

with flour or arrowroot. 

Obs. — ^The breast may be boiled plain, and served with 
mashed turnips or white beet-root. 

Cut the meat from the top and a little 
Shoulder of from the bottom (of a cold roast shoulder) 
muUon or so as to preserve the shape ; lay the shoulder 
Lamb a &> - in a baking dish and surround the joint with 
polonaise. mashed potatoes ; mince the meat cut off very 
fine, chop up an onion, put it into a stewpan 
with a little butter, and fry a light brown^ add a table- 
spoonful of arrowroot, a pint of brown sauce with half the 
quantity of stock, boil for a few minutes, add the minced 
meat, season with salt and some mushroom catsup, then 
add the beaten yolks of a couple of eggs, stir the whole well ; 
when the eggs have set put it over the shoulder, and egg' 
it well, sprinkle with bread crumbs and bake it in a mo- 
derate oven. Salamander a light brown, and serve with, 
a little seasoned gravy round it. 

Ofo.— A cold saddle may be dressed in the same way 
only when cutting off the meat, leave the flaps entire 
to preserve the shape. 



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164 



INDIAN DOMBSTIC ECONOMY 



Breast with 
green peas 
and brown 
sauce. 



Braize the whole breast ; when it is 
done take out the small bones^ flatten it 
between two dishes, and let it cool ; next 
cut it into the size of small chops, and 
Warm it in some of the liquor in which 
the breast has been braized ; lastly drain 
and glaze and cover it with the peas in the following 
manner : Take some very fine peas, which prepare (see 
French fashion) with a little fresh butter ; drain them ; 
then simmer them over a very slow fire with a small 
slice of ham, and a bunch of parsley and green onions ; 
when they are nearly done, take out the ham, parsley^ 
and onions ; finish dressing them with two spoonfuls of 
espagnole and a little sugar ; cover the meat with this. 
If you have no espagnole, put a tea-spoonfal of flour with 
the peas ; moisten with some of the liquor which has 
braised the breast of lamb or mutton ; reduce it, and 
season with salt and pepper. 

Boil your leg of lamb either in a cloth 
Leg of Lamb or paste ; when ready dress it over with 
h la Palestine, a pur^e rather thicker than usual of Je- 
rusalem artichokes. 

06s. — A boiled leg my also be dressed with a purfe 
of turnips or spinach. 

Foreguarter Boast your lamb, with a paper over it, have 

of Lamb ready a sauce prepared with the green tops 

aux points of asparagus, pour it round the lamb, and 

d' asperges. serve hot. 

Take a breast of lamb, which braize as 

Breast, with above ; stew the peas also in the same man- 

peas and' ner, but instead of using espagnole you 

white sauce, must use some tourn^, or else a small bit 

of butter, and a tea-spoonful of flour will 

answer the same purpose ; moisten with broth only. Thicken 



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AND COOKERY. 165 

the sauce with the yolks of two eggs to give a white 
appearance* 

Fry it plain ^ or dip it in an egg well 
To fry a beaten on a plate, and strew some fine stale 

breast. bread crumbs over it; garnish with crisp 

parsley, and serve with grill sauce. 

First boil it; score it in chequers about 
Sioulder, an inch square; rub it over with the yolk 

grilled. of an egg, pepper, and salt; strew it with 
bread crumbs and dried parsley, or sweet 
herbs ; broil it over a clear fire till it is a nice light 
brown colour ; send up some gravy with it, or nlake a 
sauce for it of flour and water weU mixed together, with 
an ounce of fresh butter, a table-spoonful of mushroom 
or walnut catsup, and the juice of half a lemon or lime. 

Take as many mutton or lamb chops as 
Hotchpotch, you please; cut off the fat; pr4>are car- 
rots, turnips, onions, green peas, celery, 
lettuce, in fact any vegetables (pepper and salt) ; cut into 
small slices ; place a layer of chops first in the stewpan ; 
cover with the mixed vegetables ; put on another layer of 
chops, and so on until the whole is added; then cover 
with water, and let it simmer for two /Or three hours gent- 
ly. The vegetables must be very well cooked, but not 
dissolved. 

Mince the lean of cold lamb or veal very 
Frieandel' fine; soak a large slice of crumb of bread 
lans, in boiling milk ; mash it and mix with it 

the minced meat, a beaten egg, some boil- 
ed chopped parsley and thyme, a little grated lemon peel, 
pepper and salt; make it into small flat cakes, and fry 
them in butter or ghee; serve up dry or with a little 
rich gravy. 



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166 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Select them of a large size aud very white ; 
Sweetbread pare the sinews aud the fat; throw the 

h lay Breux. sweetbreads into warm water and let them 
disgorge the bloody and make them as white 
as possible ; blanch tliem thoroughly, which is known by 
their becoming quite firm under your fingers ; as long as 
you feel a softness in them, they are not blanched through. 
Then set them to cool in cold water; lard them with ham 
chequer-like, very close to the level of the sweetbread; 
put the sweetbreads between layers of bacon, and stew 
them three quarters of an hour; next drain and glaze 
them, and serve up either with Veloute sauce or Espag- 
nole. 

Blanch them and put them a little while 
Lamb^ sweet' into cold water; then put them into a 
breads. stewpan with a ladle-ful of broth, some 
pepper and salt, a small bunch of onions, 
and a blade of mace ; stir in a bit of butter and flour, and 
stew half an hour. Have ready the yolks of two or three 
eggs well beaten in cream with a little minced parsley, 
and a few grates of nutmeg; put in some boiled aspa- 
ragus-tops to the other things ; do not let it boil after the 
cream is in, but make it hot and stir it well all the 
while ; take great care it does not curdle. Young French 
beans or peas may be added ; first boil of a beautiful green. 

Take any part of the forequarter or 

Lamb or Kid loin ; cut it into slices and season as fowl 

pie. or veal pie, or simply with mushrooms, 

spices, and sweet herbs ; artichoke bottoms 

and hard boiled eggs may be added. 

3kin and wash, then dry and flour ihem ; 

Fricasseed fry of a light brown in ghee or butter ; 

Lamb secrets, lay them on a sieve before the fire till 

you have made the following sauce ; thick* 

en almost half a pint of veal gravy with a bit of flour 



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AND COOKERY. 167 

and butter^ and then add to it a slice of lemon, a large 
spoonful of mushroom ketchup^ a tea-spoonful of lemou 
pickle^ a grate of nutmeg and the yolk of an egg beaten 
well in two large spoonfuls of thick cream ; put this over 
the fire and stir it well till it is hot and looks white ; do 
not let it bofl, or it will curdle ; then put with it the fry, 
and shake it about over the fire for a minute or two ; 
serve in a very hot dish. 

POEK. 
If young, the skin of pork is thin and the lean breaks 
with a pinch under the finger. If the skin is hard and 
thick, it is old ; though the old is best for hams. When ' 
fresh, the meat is smooth and dry; if soft and spotted, 
it is tainted; the fat should be clear and of a whitish 
colour, free from kernels, as in such a state it is un- 
wholesome. 

When the skin is left on the joint which 
Pork to is to be roasted, score it across in narrow 

roast. stripes, or in . diamonds about a quarter of 

an inch apart, before it is put to the fire ; 
rub a little sweet oil or ghee over the skin, particularly 
if the meat be not very fat, this makes the crackling 
cnsp and brown, and is the best way of preventing its 
blistering, which is always the case if put too near the 
fire. Fork may be stuffed with sage and onions as for 
ducks. Joints from which the fat has been pared will 
require less roasting than those on which the skin is 
retained. Brown gravy, apple, tamarind, or tomata sauce 
are the usual accompanimeuts to all roasts of pork, ex- 
cept a sucking pig, which is served with currant jelly, 
prune sauce^ or bread sauce with currants in it. 

Wash it well from the pickle, and scrape 

To boil a leg it as clean as possible; simmer it slowly, 

of pickled it must have half an hour to the pound. 

porL Skim the pot very carefully, and when 

you take the meat up, scrape and trim 



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168 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

it well ; if it is to be served with the skin^ score it in dia- 
monds or dice, and take out every other sqnare ; glaze 
or sift over fine sugar and set it in an oven, or glaze it 
with a salamander; serve with peas pudding. A hand or 
any other piece of pickled pork is served in the same 
way. If not done enough, it is uneatable; if too much, 
it loses its colour and flavour. 

To pickle. See receipt for beef, hams, &c. 

Trim the loin, remove the skin and cover 
Loin or neck it with paper, previous to roasting chop up 
of pork h la six large onions, put them into a stewpan 
Bourgingnote. with two table-spoonfuk of butter over the 
fire; when tender add a table-spoonful of 
flour or arrowroot with a ladle-ful of brown sauce; mix and 
boil the whole well, then add a tea-spoonful of chopped 
sage, some sugar and salt, stir in the beaten yolks of four 
eggs, when set remove immediately from the fire. Then 
spread it over the pork half an inch thick, place it in the 
oven for a few minutes and brown with a salamander, serve 
with a sauce prepared as follows : Brown sauce half a pint, 
consomm^ four table-spoonfuls, one of sage, two of mush- 
room catsup, a tea-spoonful of chillie vin^ar, a little su- 
gar and salt. 

Cut the chops about half an inch thick; 
Pork chops* trim them neatly ; put a fryingpan on the 
fire with a bit of butter ; as soon as it is hot 
put in your chops, tujming them often till brown all over. 
They will be done enough in about fifteen minutes; sea- 
son with a little finely minced onion, powdered sage, pep- 
per, and salt. 

Prepare the chops as the last receipt, dip 

Another way. them into a beaten egg, and strew over them 

bread crumbs, finely minced onions, powder- 



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ANT) COOKERY. 169 

ed sage, pepper and salt, and fry in a little butter or 
ghee^ and lay them upon a sieve near the fire to drain. 

As soon as it is killed, dip it into cold 
3b 9cald a water for a few minutes ; then rub it over with 
tucking pig* finely pounded rosin, and plunge it into scald- 
ing water for a minute; take it out, lay it 
on a board and scrape off all the hair; if any remains^ 
that part must be dipped in again ; when clean, wash it 
well in warm water and then in cold several times. Take 
off the feet at the first joint; slit open the belly; take 
out the liver, heart, and entrails ; wash the pig thoroughly 
in cold water ; dry it and fold it in a cloth ; the sooner 
after this that it is roasted the better. 

Stuff the belly with some bread, chopped sage 
To roast. leaves, butter, an egg, salt ^nd pepper, and sew 

it up ; skewer the legs back, and lay it near a 
brisk fire until thoroughly dry; as it becomes warm, rub 
it with some butter in a cloth all over ; then dredge it 
well with flour, and when roasted, scrape the flour off, and 
rub it again with the buttered cloth ; lay it on a very hot 
dish, and ^ cut it up ; mash the brains with a little gravy^ 
and some of the stuf&ng, and serve in a sauce-boat. 

Oi«.— -The plain way of sending a roasted pig to ta- 
ble, is simply with a lime in the mouth accompanied with 
currant, prunes, apple, sweet tamarind sauce, or bread sauce 
with currants in it. 

Prepare the pig exactly as for roasting ; lay it 
Bated. in a dish, and brush it all over in every part with 

the white of an egg well beaten, and put it in 
the oven to bake; when it will be nicely crisped. 

Wash, separate, and clean very thoroughly 

£rafon, to a large boar or pig's head, feet, and ears ; lay 

caUar. them into a good- brine 'for twelve hours or 

more with a little saltpetre* To make the col« 

z 



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J 70 INDIAN DOMESTIC KCONOMT 

lar larger, boil two ox heels with the head, feet and ears, 
until all the bones can easily be taken ottt; then lay the 
head fiat, and the feet and small pieces into the middle; 
roll it together while hot, and press it with a heavy weight 
until it becomes cold. Boil for half an hour in as much 
of the Uquor as will cover the brawn, a handful of salt, 
one ounce of black and white pepper mixed, and one or 
two bay leaves; when cold, pour it over the brawn. 

Obs,"^Iji India you are necessitated to omit the bay 
leaves; a few peach may be substituted. 

Take the blade-bone out of the shoulder 
Moei brawn, of a pig, and boil it gently two hours or 
more, according to the age of the animal. 
"When it is cold, season it very highly with black pepper, 
cayenne, salt, a very little allspice, minced onion, and 
thyme; let it lie a night in this seasoning; the following 
day make a savoury force-meat of pounded veal, ham, beef 
suet, minced parsley, thyme and an onion, a little lemon 
peel, salt, nutmeg, pepper, and cayenne; bind it with an 
egg beaten, and stuff where the bone has been taken out; 
put it in a deep pan with the brown side downwards, and 
lay underneath some twigs or sticks to keep it from stick- 
ing to the bottom. Four in a bottle of beer, and put it 
info the oven ; when nearly done, take it out and clear 
off ail the fat; add a bottle of madeira or other white wine, 
and two table-spoonfuls of lemon juice; return it to the 
oven, and bake it until it becomes as tender as a jeUy. 

Obs. — If the boar is an old one, it will require to be 
baked six or seven hours. This is eaten hot. 

Take the bones out of the head that has 

Brawn of been half cooked in a braise of half vinegar 

calfs head, and water, with a sufficient quantity of spices, 

sweet herbs, and two cloves of garlic; let 

it cool; put in two calfs and one cow's heel that have 

been boiled until the bones can be easily removed; dredge 



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AND COOKERY. 171 

atl eqnally over with fine salt; roll hard and bind it well 
with a cloth or roller tied round with tape^ and simmer it 
very slowly from three to four hours; it must not boil. 
Keep it in souse made of the liquor, vinegar, lime or 
lemon juice, some chillies or cayenne, with black pepper 
whole, and a sufficiency of salt; give this a boil up, and 
pour over it. 

A ham requires to be well soaked, and 
Ham, to bail. very gently stewed ; if it is suffered to boil 
up^ no simmering after will be able to re- 
cover it. It is best soaked in lukewarm water, and, if 
very dry, should remain in it at least twelve hours; wh^n 
it is sufficiently soaked, trim it very clean; put it into 
plenty of cold wat«r, and remove the scum. A ham of a 
middling size, of about fifteen pounds, will take from four 
to five hours, and if to be eaten cold, will be all the better 
for a little longer boiling; when done, remove the skin, 
and dust it well over with grated crust of bread, or glaze 
it; some cooks stick cloves over it. The knuckle should 
be ornamented with a frill of white paper. 

Put a quantity of suet into the pan in 
Earn, to hake, which the ham is baked, and cover the top 
with a coarse paste; the gravy in the dish, 
when the ham is properly baked, will be a thick jelly, and 
serve to flavour stock or soups, or may l)e converted into 
essence of ham. 

Ham may be broiled on a gridiron over 

Broiled ham. a clear fire, or toasted with a fork, taking care 

to slice it the same thickness in every part. 

Make a good rich stock, season it well 

Hampaaty, with mace, salt, pepper and sugar, thicken 

meat orJUh. it with animal jelly, isinglass or arrowroot ; 

border your dish with paste, dip sippets 

nicely prepared into well seasoned gravy, or cream, accord* 



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172 INDIAN D0MV9TIC fiOONOMY 

ing to whether you ase meat or fish; if made of game, 
dip them into a gravy with wine, lime juice and sugar, ky 
the bottom over with slice of ham and veal or fowl, game 
or venison, or fish with any force-meat balls to corres- 
pond, put in slices of marrow dipped in yolks of eggs well 
seasoned, sprinkle in a little lemon or citron peel with 
sugar, and pour in some of the prepared stock, and the 
remainder over the whole, bake and eat it cold. 

Cut a pound of the lean of cold boiled 
Potted ham ham or tongue, and pound it in a mortar 
or tongue. with a quarter of a pound of the fat or with 
fresh butter (in the proportion of about two 
ounces to a pound), till it is a fipe paste (season it by 
degrees with a little pounded mace or allspice) ; press it close 
down in pots, and cover it with clarified beef suet, a quar- 
ter of an inch thick ; let it stand in a cool place ; send 
it up in the pot, or cut out in thin slices; it is excellent 
for sandwiches. 

Dry your meat thoroughly; rub it well with 

Bacon, to equal parts of salt and saltpetre finely pounded, 
cure dry, and cover over with a board and heavy weights 
in a cool place; in twelve hours remove the 
weights, and rub each piece separately and thoroughly with 
dry salt, repeating the same daily; sugar and limes may 
be added : the proportion of sugar being ^ about two ounces 
to a pound of salt, with four limes. If the weather is cool, 
the meat should be turned and rubbed for ten or twelve 
days longer; when suflBciently salted, dry it well, and hang 
it up to smoke for ten days more. 

Oi«.*— The best method of smoking meat in India, is 
with green mangoe wood. 

Cover the quantity of bacon you please 
Bacon, to boil^ to dress with cold water ; let it boil gent- 
ly three quarters of an hour, if for one 
pound, and allow a quarter or more, for every other. 



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AND COOKERY. 178 

Take it up; scrape the underside well^ and cat or peel 
off the rind^ grate a crust of bread over the top, as di- 
rected for ham^ and put it before the fire ^for a few mi- 
nutes. It must not be kept there too long^ or it will 
spoil. 

O^^.^Bacon is sometimes so salt as to require soaking 
for a couple of hours before being dressed ; all the rusty 
and smoked part should be then cleaned off^ and the. un- 
derside and rind scraped as clean as possible. A couple of 
pounds is sufficient to serve up for ten or twelve persons. 

To preserve Wrap the bacon round with new hay bands, 

from rusting, and hang in a safe place from vermin. 

Bacon may be fried or broiled on a gridiron over 
£acon, slices a clear fire, or toasted with a fork, cut- 
/ried. ting it into slices (after it has been dressed) 

about a fourth of an inch thick; grate some 
crumbs of bread over it on both sides, and grill or toast 
the same. They are an agreeable accompaniment to poach- 
ed or fried eggs. 

Windsor beans should be served young 

Beans and and fresh gathered: boil them in salt and 

Bacon. water; when done, drain them, and lay the 

bacon over the beans without any sauce - 

the bacon should be nicely boiled. Send up separately 

in a sauce-boat chopped parsley in melted butter. 

06s* — ^Beans are likewise an excellent garnish to a ham ; 
serve them plain round it. Duffin beans are a very good 
substitute for Windsor, only they require the skins to be 
taken off before boiling. 

After having nicely stewed the peas, cut 

Bacon and the bacon into pieces an inch square, or any 

Peas. other fanciful shape; lay them in water for 

half an hour to take off the briny taste; 



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174 INDIAN DOMESTIC £CONOMT 

then fry them of a fine colour, and drain all the. grease; 
then stew the bacon with the peas for a few seconds. 

Cut the bacon very nicely, and fry it of 
Bacon and a light brown colour ; dish it on a hot plate ; 
effffs. wipe the fryingpan very clean, and let it be 

hot enough, not to allow the eggs to spread ; 
lay them in gently; lift the pan, as the least burning 
gives them an unpleasant taste; dish the eggs over the 
bacon, and garnish with crisped parsley. 

Put a thin slice of bacon at the bottom 
Fetittoes. of a stewpan, with some broth, a blade of 
mace, a few pepper-corns, and a bit of thyme ; 
boil the feet till they are quite tender. This will take 
full twenty minutes, the heart, liver and lights, will be 
done in half the time ; when they are to be taken out and 
minced fine. Put them all together into a steix'pan with 
some gravy; thicken it with some butter rolled in flour; 
season it with a little pepper and salt, and set it over a 
gentle fire to simmer for five minutes, frequently shaking 
them about. Have a thin slice ready of bread toasted 
very lightly, divide it into sippets, and lay them round 
the dish ; pour the mince and sauce into the middle of 
it, and split the feet, and lay them round it. 

N. fi.— Petittoes are sometimes broiled dipped in bat- 
ter, and fried a light brown. 

Take a pound of beef suet, a pound of 
Bologna Sau- pork, a pound of bacon fat and lean, and 
sages. a pound of beef and veal ; cut very small ; 

take a handful of sage leaves chopped very 
fine with other sweet herbs; season pretty high with 
pepper and salt; take a large well cleaned gut, and fill 
it; set on a saucepan of water, and when it boils, put 
it in, first pricking it to prevent its bursting; boil it 
an hour. 



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AND COOKERY. 175 

Mince six pounds of rump of beef very 
Jbu>ther. * fine, and two of bacon ; pound them ; mix 
With it six or eight cloves of garlic, and 
season high with spice, black pepper, and salt ; fill into 
large well cleaned skins; tie them in nine inch lengths; 
hang them in the smoke. They should be boiled and 
eaten cold. 

Mince bacon, veal, pork, and suet of each 
Jnother, one pound, two ounces of sage, and one of 

basil ; season with three cloves of garlic to 
each pound ; add herbs, such as thyme and parsley, all- 
spice, nutmeg, and salt ; pound them very fine, and fill 
into large skins nine inches long. The meat may be pre- 
pared a day or two before, with a little saltpetre, salt, and 
brown sugar ; boil and hang them in smoke, and eat them 
cold. 



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^ 



CHAPTER X 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR POULTRY AND GAME. 

It is the common practice with cooks in this country, 
when preparing poultry for table, to partially cut the 
throat of the bird, throwing it on the ground to flutter, 
and die ; this renders it tough. When fowls cannot be 
kept a sufficient time^ and are required for immediate 
use, cutting off the head at one stroke, and causing sudden 
death, will, if the bird is not an old one„ render it as tender 
as if kept for several days. The next process is the clean- 
ing ; and as the feathers are seldom plucked off, being of 
no value, and time generally the principal object, the bird 
is dipped in scalding water, and the feathers at once strip- 
ped off ; after which, it must be dried and drawn ; the 
inside removed at the vent, taking care not to injure the 
gall bladder, as it taints every part it touches, and which 
no washing will remove. 

Guinea fowls, as well as other poultry which require 
to be sent to table with their heads turned under the 
wing, must have them sewn on again, if killed as above 
recommended. Ducks and pigeons may be dressed as soon 
as killed ; the latter require their crops to be very care- 
fully washed and cleaned. 

A quick and clear fire is necessary for roasting poul- 
try ; wild fowl should be nicely browned, but not over- 
done, otherwise the flavour will . be destroyed. They, as 
well as tame poultry, require to be continually basted^ 
and sent to table properly frothed. 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. 177 

Are larded and stuffed as poultry, and 
Guinea Fowls roasted in the same manner, only they re- 
quire less doing ; the head must be turned 
under the wing like a pheasant ; when boiled, they are 
dressed as fowls. 

After the fowl has been drawn and sing- 
To bone a ed, wipe it inside and out with a clean cloth. 
Fowl or Tur- but do not wash it ; take off the head ; cut 
iey without through the skin all round the first joints of 
opening it. the legs, and pull them from the fowl to 
draw out the large tendons. Raise the flesh 
first from the lower part of the back bone, and a little 
also from the end of the breast bone, if necessary ; work 
the knife gradually to the socket of the thigh with the 
point of the knife ; detach the joint from it ; take the end 
of the bone firmly into the fingers, and cut the flesh clean 
. from it down to the next joint, round which pass the point 
of the knife carefully, and when the skin is loosened from 
it in every part, cut round the next bone, keeping the 
edge of*the knife close to it until the whole of the leg is 
done. Bemove the bones of the other leg in the same 
manner ; then detach the flesh from the back and breast 
bone, sufiiciently to enable you to reach the upper joints 
of the wings — proceed with these as with the legs, but be 
especially careful not to pierce the skin of the second joint ; 
it is usual to leave the pinions unboned, in order to give 
more easily its natural form to the fowl when it is dressed. 
The merry-thought and neck bones may now easily be cut 
away, the back and side bones taken out without being di- 
vided, and the breast bone separated carefully from the flesh 
(which, as the work progresses, must be turned back from 
the bones upon the fowl until it is completely inside out). 
After the one remaining bone is removed, draw the wings 
and legs back to their proper form, and turn the fowl the 
right side outwards. 

A turkey is boned exactly in the same manner, but as 

y 



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178 JVmAS B01CS8TIC KCONOMT 

it requires a very large. proportion of force*meat to fill it 
eotireljr the legs and wings are sometimes drawn into the 
body to diminish the expense of tiiis. If very securely 
trussed and sewn^ the bird may be either boiled or stewed 
in rich gravy, as well as roasted, after being boned and 
forced. 

First carve them entirely into joints ; 

To bone Fowls then remove the bones, beginning with the 

for fricasees^ legs and wings at the head of the largest 

curries and bone ; hold this with tiie fingers, and work 

pies. the knife as directed in the receipt above* 

The remainder of the bird is ^ too easily 

done to require any instructions. 

Turn the underside of the mutton up- 
2V hone a leg wards, and with a sharp knife cat through 
of mutton and the middle of the skin from the knuckle 
force. to the first joint, and raise it from the flesh 

on the side along which the bone ruiis, 
until the knife is just above it ; then cut through the flesh 
down to the bone ; work the knife round it in every part 
till you reach the socket ; next remove the flat bone from 
the large end of the joint, and pass the knife freely round 
the remaining one, as it is not needful to take it out ; dear 
off the meat when you again reach the middle joint ; loosen 
the skin round it with great care, and the two bones can 
then be drawn out without being divided. This being done, 
fill the cavities with the force-meat, adding to it a some- 
what high seasoning of eschalot, garlic and onion ; or cut out 
with the bone nearly a pound of the inside of the mut- 
ton ; chop it fine with six ounces of delicate striped ba- 
con, and mix with it, thoroughly, three quarters of an 
ounce of parsley and half as much of thyme and winter 
savory, all minced extremely small, a half tea-spoonful of 
pepper (or a third as much of cayenne), the same of mace, 
salt, and nutmeg, and either the grated rind of a small 
lemoa or four eschalots finely shred. When the lower part 
of the leg is filled, sew the skin neatly together where it 



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AND COOIKRT. 179 

has been cat open^ and tie the knuekle ronnd tightly, to 
prevent the escape of the gravj. Beplace the flat bone 
at the large end, and with- a long needle and twine draw 
the edges of the meat together over it. If it can be done 
conveniently, it is better to roast the mutton thns prepar* 
ed in a cr&dle spit, or upon a hanging or bottle-jack with 
the knnckle downwards. Place it at first far from the fire, 
and keep it constantly basted; it will require nearly or 
quite three hours roasting. Bemove the twine before it 
is served, and send it very hot to table with some rich 
lemon gravy. 

Spread a dean cloth upon a table or 

lb bone a dresser, and lay the joint flat upon it 

Moulder rf with tiie skin downwards; with a sharp 

tealj mnU knife cot off the flesh from the inner 

tan, or lamb, side nearly down to the blade bone, of 

which detach the edges first : then work 

the knife under if, keeping it always dose to the bone, 

and using all possible precaution not to pierce the outer 

akin. When it is in every part separated frcHn the flesh, 

looeen it from the socket with the point of the knife, and 

remove it; or without dividing the two bones, cut round 

the joint until it is freed entirely from the meat, and 

proceed to detach the second bone; that of the knuckle is 

frequently left in, but for some dishes it is necessary to 

take it out; in doing this, be careful not to tear the 

akin. A most excellent grill may be made by leaving 

sufficient meat for it upon the bones of a shoulder of 

mutton, when they are removed from the joint; it will 

be found very superior to the broiled blade-bone of a 

roast shoulder, which is so much esteemed by many people. 

^'To remove the back-bone clear from it 

To bane a first the fiesh in the inside; lay this back 

Hare. to the right and left from the centre of the 

bone to the tips; then work the knife on 

the upper side quite to the spme, and when the whole 



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180 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

P 

is detached except the skin which adheres to this^ sepa- 
rate the bone at the first joint from the neck-bone or 
ribs (we know not how more correctly to describe it)^ and 
pass the knife with caution nnder the skin down the ^mid- 
dle of the back. The directions for boning the thiglis of 
a fowl, will answer equally for a hare^ and we therefore 
refer the reader to them." 

To acquire this art, it is necessary, that 
Larding. the beginner should first see the process per- 

formed, after which, practice alone will lead 
to success. The instruments necessary are pins of various 
sizes made for the purpose ; one end like large tweezers^ 
holds the substance to be introduced, the other is sharp 
for puncturing the fowl or meat ; however, if the person 
is unacquainted with the art, it is better left undone; for 
unless the meat be nicely and equally covered, its appear- 
ance is totally spoilt, and unfit for the table. Ham, bacon, 
oyster, anchovies, truf3es, morels, mushrooms, parsley, le- 
mon peel, almonds, nuts, &c., are all used. Bacon for 
this purpose should be cured without saltpetre, otherwise 
it turns veal or poultry red; the firmest is most proper 
for larding. 

Alderman in Is either a roast or boiled turkey with 
chains the accompaniment of sausages around the 

dish, and which may be made of pork, ham 
or beef, and oysters. 

Take a hen or fine young cock; dean 

Turkey boiled, and truss it nicely ; wrap it up in layers 

toith celery of bacon in a cloth ; then boil it in plain 

sauce. water with a little salt, butter, and lemon 

juice; drain it and cover it over with celery 

or oyster sauce. A small hen bird boils better than the 

larger sort, and may be stuffed in a variety of ways, with 

herbs like veal stuffing, sausage meat, or bacon, and served 

with white sauce, or the above. 



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AND COOKERY. 181 

Fill the body of the turkey with oysters. 
Boiled if and let it boil by steam without any water; 
steam* when sufficiently done, take it up; strain 
the gravy that will be found in the pan, and 
which, when cold, will be a fine jelly ; thicken it with 
a little flour ; add the liquor of the oysters intended for 
sauce, also stewed, and warm the oysters up in it. 

A roast turkey may be stuffed in various 
MoastedTuT' ways; a veal stuffing being the most com- 
ity, mon. When you first put a turkey down 
to roast, dredge it with flour; then put 
about an ounce of butter into a basting ladle, and as it 
melts, baste the bird therewith ; keep it at a distance 
from the fire for the first half hour, that it may warm 
gradually; then put it nearer, and when it is plumped 
up, and the steam draws in towards the fire, it is near- 
ly enough; then dredge it lightly with flour, and put a 
bit of butter into your basting ladle, and as it melts, 
baste the turkey with it ; this will raise a finer froth 
than can be produced by using the fat out of the pan. 
A very large turkey will require about three hours to 
roast thoroughly; a middling sized one, of eight or ten 
pounds (which is far nicer eating than the very large one), 
about two hours; a small one may be done in an hour 
and a half. Turkey poults should be trussed with their 
l^s twisted under like a duck, and the head under the 
wing, like a pheasant. , 

Clean the fowl nicely; mix a little butter 
Boaei Fowl, with lime juice, pepper, and salt, and put 
into the inside ; cut off or turn up the rump ; 
fix it to the spit by skewers, and cover with paper ; when 
nearly done, unpaper, froth, and give it a nice brown. 
Towls may be stuffed with a farce and larded, or the bodies 
filled with a ragout of mushrooms, oysters, served with 
bread, egg, or any other sauce; a large fowl will take 
from a half to three quarters of an hour roasting. 



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I8f INDIAN DOMESTIC ECOXOMY 

Obs. — A turkey or large fowl may be boned and stuff- 
ed with a farce g[ sausage meat^ but so prepared takes a 
much longer time- roasting^ and must at first be placed at 
a distance from the fire. 

Fowls^ when to be boiled, should be 
Fowl, to boil. soaked an hour or two in milk and water ; 
then truss and fiour them well; tie them 
in a cloth ; put them in cold water, and let them simmer 
gently, removing all the scum that rises ; keep the sauce* 
pan closed, and boil from twenty to twenty-five minutes. 
They may be served with sauce of oysters, shell fish, 
mushrooms, liver, egg, parsley, celery, and any other ve- 
getable. A spiced rice-pudding may be put in the inside, 
but the vent and neck ' must be well secured previous to 
being boiled. 

Skin a cold chicken, fowl, or turkey ; 
Fowl or Turkey take off the fillets from the breasts, and 
pulled. put them into a stewpan with the rest 

of the white meat and wings, side bones 
and merry-thoughty with a pint of broth,' a large blade of 
mace pounded, a shallot minced fine, the juice of half a 
lemon, and a roll of the peel, some salt and a few grains 
of cayenne; thicken it with flour and batter, and let it 
simmer for two or three minutes till the meat is warm. 
In the meantime, score the legs and rump; powder them 
with pepper and salt; broil them nicely brown, and lay 
them on or round your pulled chicken* 

Obe. — ^Three table-spoonfuls of good cream, or the beaten 
yolks of a couple of eggs, will be a great improvement to it. 

Cut into slices a coupk of onions, a 

Brmeed roast head of celery, one carrot and a turnip, 

Turkey, Capon with some parsley and three or four peach 

or Ibwl. leaves, lay three sheets of paper on the 

table, spread the vegetaUes over, aikI 

moisten them with sweet oil. Have the bird kuMed as 



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AlO) COOKERY. 183 

for boiling, cover the breast with thin 8lices of bacon, 
lay the back of the bird on the vegetables^ slice some 
limes, which cover the breast with to preserve its colour, 
tie the paper round with string, spit it carefully and 
roast before a clear fire ; before so doing moisten the pa- 
per well with fine jj^hee to prevent its burning, and set 
the bird a moderate distance from the fire, it will take 
three hours to roast. 



Empty and clean a fine fowl, and be 
Turiisi Fowl. particular in washing the inside of it with 
very hot water; if you leave any blood 
in it the rice will be full of scum. Your rice having 
boiled a sufficient time in rick consomm^ (stock broth), 
season it with salt, and introduce some into the body of 
the fowl, which you next roast, well wrapped up in 
layers of bacon, and in paper ; it requires an hour to 
have it sufficiently done. Send it up with rice round 
the fowl, the same as you have used to put inside, only 
add to it two spoonfuls of very good bechamel, well sea- 
soned; do not let it be too thin, and pour a little ve- 
loute over the fowl. Take particular care to keep the 
fowl white. 



Prepare and truss the fowls; let them 
Frieaneei^ boil; skim and simmer i*i a vegetable braise 
FowU. seasoned with mace, lemon, zest, white pep- 
per, salt, onion, and carrot; if it is a small 
chicken, twelve or fifteen minutes will do it, as it should 
rather be tender than overdone. Take it up, and strain 
the stock; add a piece of butter rolled in rice or fine 
wheat flour; cook and work it till quite smooth; when 
properly cooked, cut up and put in the chicken and let it 
wana with a cupful of rich cream, but do not let it boil; 
when r^y to dish, put in a sufficient quantity of yolk of 
q^gs; to finish the thickening, cooked mushroom, oysters, 
or any nice vegetable may be added, and a little le- 



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184 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

mon juice. If it require more richness^ put in a small 
bit of butter ; garnish with slices of lemon. 

Cut up the fowl into eight or nine pieces. 
Another. put them into a stewpan and cover with water, 
add seasoning of salt, pepper, parsley and a 
blade of mace, boil for twenty minutes, then remove the 
fowl, strain the gravy through a napkin into a basin, dr^ 
the slices of fowl, put them into a stewpan with two 
spoonfuls of butter rolled in flour, add the stock and keep 
stirring it till > it boils, skim it well, then add a few button 
onions or handful of mushrooms, let it simmer till the 
onions are tender, then add yolks of two eggs, beat up in 
four table-spoonfuls of cream or milk, shake it well over 
the fire, but do not let it boil, dress the] slices on your 
dish and pour the sauce oyer them. 

Mince finely the white meat of a fowl, and 

Sissoles of some v^loute reduced, or bechamel ; season 

Fowl. it highly, and add, if you please, a little 

curry powder ; then let it cool ; when .cold, 

divide into small balls, and wrap them up in paste; fry 

and serve with fried parsley, or bake them in a quick oven. 

Cut the meat of a fowl or chicken into 
Croquetles small pieces, and season it well; put them in- 
of Fowl, to some bechamel, and let them cool; then 
form into oblong balls, and dip them into a 
beaten egg or very light batter, and then into crumbs of 
bread ; fry them of a light brown, and serve with crisp 
parsley. 

04*.— They may be made with any white meat, rabbits, 
poultry, sweetbread, or game. 

Mince some mushrooms ; cook them in 
JUince Fowl, butter, sweet herbs, mace, white pepper, le- 
mon, zest, salt, and a little cream ; when all 
is well cooked, take out the sweet herbs, and put in the 



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AND COOKERT. X95 

mince just to warm, with a little lemon juice ; garnish 
with slices of lemon, or dish in a vol-au*vent, croustade, rice 
border, or mashed potatoes. 

Cut the livers all of one size — the lobes 

KhvAab liver, of calves; pigs' or lambs' livers answer 

with oysters or very well — allow three oysters for every 

tray-fish. liver ; season them well in sweet herbs, 

spices, and salt ; dip them in yolks of egg, 

and roll them in crumbs with the othet ingredients ; thread 

them upon silver skewers, and broil them in a buttered 

paper, or in a case ; serve them with buttered gravy and 

lemon juice ; garnish with slices of lemon. 

If cray fish are used, put a little bit of anchovy in the 
claws of each, and thread them at proper distance with 
the other meat, as livers take very little cooking. They 
are equally well done, roasted on a bird*jack well basted ; 
the cray-fish are the better for being crisped in the oven, 
and well basted before they are put on the skewers. The 
large elaws and noses must be pared, and the tail-shell may 
be taken off. 

Prepare them as for boihng ; lard or not ; 
towU with mix nearly half a pound of butter with mace, 

Oysters, lemon, zest^ and salt, and put it into the 

fowls ; tie them close, that the butt.er may 
not escape ; cover a pan with bacon and braising ingredi- 
ents ; put in the fowl ; prepare in the meantime five or six 
dozens of oysters in a nice sauce, and dish them over it, 
garnished with sliced onions and oysters, fried in butter. 

Oi*. — Poultry may always be larded excepting for boil- 
ing ; if braised, the braise ought never to touch the lard, 
as it will make it fall. 

Cut them into joints ; put the trimmings 

Hashed gamt into a stewpan, with a quart of the broth 

Of rabbit, they were boiled in, and a large onion cat 

in four ] let it boil half an hour ; strain it 

z 

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186 INDIAN DOMESTIC ICONOMT . 

through a sieve ; then put two table-spoonfuls of flour in 
jk basin^ and mix it well by degrees with the hot broth ; 
set it on the fire to boil up ; then strain it through a fine 
sieve ; wash out the stewpan ; lay the fowl in it^ and pour 
the gravy in it (through a sieve) ; set it by the side of the 
fire to simmer very gently (it must not boil) for fifteen 
minutes ; five minutes before you serve it up, cut the stuff- 
ing in slices, and put it in to warm ; then take it out, 
and lay it round the edge of the dish, and put the fowl in 
the middle ; carefully skin the fat off the gravy ; then 
shake it round well in the stewpan, and pour it on the hash. 

N. B. — Tou may garnish the dish with bread sippets 
lightly toasted. 

Take a large fowl or a couple of fine 
Fowl or Chick" chickens, boiled or roasted, cut the meat off 
en talad. from the bones in small slices, have two or 

three sticks of white celery and cut them 
into slices an inch long, mix both together, cover it over 
and set it on one side, whilst you prepare the sauce. Break 
down the yolks of five hard-boiled eggs, with the back of 
a spoon into a smooth paste, add a large spoonful of made 
mustard with some salt, mix this together with four or five 
spoonfuls of vinegar, and lastly by degrees two table-spoon- 
fuls of sweet oil or cream, stir the whole for some time 
until the dressing is thoroughly mixed and smooth, when 
pour it over the meat and celery, just before serving. 

Obs. — ^If cream is used and the sauce is too thick, add 
a spoonful or two of water. 

Cut them in quarters; beat up an egg 
To dress cold, or two (according to the quantity you dress) 
with a little grated nutmeg and pepper 
and salt, some parsley minced fine, and a few crumbs of 
bread; mix these well together, and cover the fowl, &c., 
with this batter ; boil them or put them in a Dut.ch oven, 
or have ready some dripping hot in a pan, in which fry 



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AND COOKBRT. I8T 

ihtm a light brown colour; thicken a little gravy with 
some floor ; put a large spoonful of catsUp to it ; lay the 
fry in a dish, and pour the sauce round it. You may gar- 
nish with slices of lemon and toasted bread. 

To judge if an egg is fresh, put it into 
Ilggs, remaris on. a large basin of water ; if it sink imme- 
diately you may be sure it is good. Be* 
member that all eggs are not of the same size, and in 
nsing any quantity for cakes a litUe judgment is neces- 
sary. To preserve them for any time, lay. them in lime 
and water, the consistence of thick cream. Hard-boiled 
eggs will keep well for a journey, only remember, while 
boiling, when first put into the water, tx> move them about 
so that the yolk may not fall on one side, but be as near 
the middle as possible in the white. Eggs will also keep, 
if rubbed over with wax so as to close up the pores in the 
shell. * 

Whenever eggs are required for puddings, cakes, jellies, 
&c.» open each separately over another basin or dish be- 
fore adding to the rest, as one bad egg carelessly thrown 
amongst the others, will spoil the whole ; and always strain 
them after being beaten up. 

Pour a gallon of water over a pound of 

To jpreserve. unslaked lime; stir it well; the following 

day pour off the clear water into a jar, and 

put in the eggs as they are laid ; in this manner they will 

continue good for six months or more. 

Beat up the yolks and white of eight eggs, 
E^s brouilUs. with a little salt and pepper, until well mix- 
ed; then put them into a stewpan over a 
slow fire,/ and keep constantly stirring with a wooden 
spoon, that the brouiU^s may be quite smooth ; add a spoon- 
ful of consomm^ or white broth, with whatever articles you 
intend putting into it ; trufflesi mushrooms, artichokes, as- 
paragus heads; broth, &c. 



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188 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Boil hard one dozen of eggs; cat them 
Sgg8 en Sur- in halves^ and remove the yolks, which put 
j)me. into a mortar with three table-spoonfuls of 

butter, and pound well together, mixing a 
little cream, grated nutmeg, pepper, and salt, adding two 
raw e^s to make it bind ; then pare out the inside of the 
whites as thin as possible, and fill one half with the pound- 
ed egg; then mix some chopped parsley with a part only 
of the eggs sufficient to fill the remaining whites; make 
a dome in a dish of the remainder of the pounded ingredi- 
ents, and trim it all round with the stuffed eggs ; then put 
into an oven for ten minutes, and serve quite hot. 

Put in cold water, and when it comes 
E^ffs to boil, slowly to a boil, they will be done enough^ 
or put them in boiling water, and sim- 
mer slowly for two minutes; take them from the fire, and 
put them into a napkin several times folded for two or 
three minutes, less or more. Boiling quick hardens the 
white, and cracks the shell ; if an egg is only half coverr 
ed with water and boiled quick the yolk is too much 
done on one side, and too little on the other, and gives 
it an addled appearance, or if the egg is covered with 
water and boiled too quick, the white is quickly harden- 
ed, while the yolk is nearly raw. 

Be sure the fryingpan is quite clean (and 
Fried. remember that clear dripping or lard is better 

than butter or ghee to fry eggs in :) when the 
fat is hot, break two are three eggs into it ; do not turn 
them, l)ut while they are frying keep pouring some of the 
fat over them in a spoon; they will be done enough in 
two are three minutes; if they are done nicely they will . 
look as white and delicate as if they had been poached; 
take then> up with a tin slice ; drain the fat from them, 
and trim them neatly and send them up with bacon round 
them. 



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▲XD COOKEEY. 189 

The beauty of a poached egg is for the 
PoaeAed. yolk to be seen through the white^ which 

should be only sufficiently hardened to form 
a transparent veil for the egg. Half fill your stewpan 
with clear boiling water from the tea-kettle^ and strain 
it; break the egg into a cup, and when the water boils, 
remove the stewpan from the fire or stove, and gently 
slip the egg into it. Let it stand till the white is set; 
then put it over a moderate fire, and as soon as the wa- 
ter boils the egg is ready; take it up with a slice, and 
neatly round oflf the rugged edges; send them up on a 
toast, with or without butter; the toast should be a lit- 
tle larger than the egg. 

Boil six cloves of garlic five minutes, and 
Egg 9alad. pound them with a few capers and two an- 
chovies ; mix them very well with oil, salt, 
pepper, and vinegar, and dish it under hard boiled eggs, 
whole or cut in two. 

Choose some very fine bacon streaked 
Egg mince. with lean ; cut it into very thm slices, and 
afterwards into small square pieces; throw 
them into a stewpan, and set it over a gentle fire, that 
it may draw out some of the fat, when as much as will 
freely come, lay them on a warm dish ; put into a stew- 
pan a ladle-ful of ghee or lard ; set it on a stove; put in 
about a dozen small pieces of the bacon; then stoop the 
stewpan, and break in an egg ; manage this carefully, and 
the egg will presently be done; it will be very round, 
and little dice of bacon will stick to it all over, so 
that it will make a pretty appearance. Take cafe the 
yolks do not harden ; when the egg is thus done, lay it 
on a hot plate, and do the others. 

Beat and strain ten or twelve eggs; put 

Buttered a piece of butter into a saucepan, and keep 

Eggs. turning it one way till melted-; put in the 



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190 INDIAN D01IS8TIC XCONOMT 

beaten eggs and stir them round with a silver spoon until 
they become quite thick ; serve them on a dish with but- 
tered toast. They may be eaten with fish^ fowl or sausages. 

To roast must be done as a capon^ and 
Chickens. served with e^ or bread sauce. 

Pick, wash them clean, and dry them in 
Broiled or a cloth; cut them down the back: truss the 
grilled. legs and wings as for boiling; flatten them^ 

and put upon a cold gridiron ; when they 
become a little dry, put them in a plate, and baste with 
a little butte;; strew a little salt and pepper over the 
inside, which part should be laid first on the gridiron; 
baste them, and let them broil slowly. The livers and 
gizzards should be fastened under the wings. Serve with 
catsup or stewed mushrooms. 

Put into a stewpan half a pint of water, two 
Fricassee, table-spoonfuls of butter, a table-spoonful of flour, 
some salt, and white pepper; stir all together 
until it is hot, and add a chicken cut into joints and 
skinned, with a couple of onions minced and a blade of 
mace; stew it for an hour, and a little before serving, 
add the yolks of two eggs well beaten, with two table- 
spoonfuls of cream; stir it in gradually, taking care it 
does not boil. 

Obs. — ^Whenever egg and cream is added and used for 
a thickening, never let it boil, or else it curdles. 

Cut a roast fowl into small squares, fry a 
Bissoles de tea-spoonful of chopped onions in half an 
Volatile. ounce of butter ; but do not let them brown ; 
add half a pint of white sauce, and reduoe it 
to a proper thickness, put the fowl into the sauce, sea* 
son with a little salt, white pepper, sugar, chopped pars- 
ley and mushrooms, let it boil, then add the yolk of two 
eggs; stir it well, when the eggs have set pour it on a 
dish to cool. 



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AND COOKERY. 191 

06i. — Add, if you like, a little ham or tongue, and 
use this as for other rissoles» which may also be made 
with veal, sweet breads, or game. 

Half roast a chicken or fowl; skin and 
To pull a peal off all the white meat in flakes, as well 
Ckicien. as the legs; break the bones, and boil them 
in a little water till the strength be drawn 
out; strain it, and when it becomes cold, skim and put 
it into a saucepan with a little mace, white pepper, and 
salt; add a bit of butter mixed with flour, and a quar- 
ter of a pint of cream or rich milk ; then put in the meat 
with a little mushroom powder or catsup ; before serving 
add the squeeze of a lime. 

Cut the chicken into joints; put them 
Chicken in into a saucepan with nearly a quart of young 
pe<u* peas, a bit of butter, a small onion, and a 

sprig of parsley; moisten them with gravy, 
and put on the fire; dust them with a little flour, and 
boil them till the sauce is thick ; add a little salt just be- 
fore serving with a little sugar. 

Parboil, skin, and then cut up neatly two 
Chicken pie. or three young chickens; season them with 
salt, pepper, grated nutmeg and mace mixed; 
put with them a little butter rolled in flour ;« lay them in 
a dish, with the livers and gizzards well seasoned, some 
force-meat balls, and a few thin slices of ham; and half 
a pint of gravy, a glass of wine, and a table-spoonful of 
lemon pickle or mushrooms, and the yolks of five hard 
boiled eggs, divided in halves ; cover with a puff paste 
and bake. 

Obe, — ^The chicken may be put in whole, or in halves, 
and the seasoning put inside with the butter. 

Quarter two or three chickens, and simmer 

Friar^e them gently in three half pints of water ; 

Chicken, add a sprig or two of parsley, mace, pepper. 



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19£ , INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

and salt; beat an egg for every chicken or more, and 
»tir them into the boiling broth, it must separate into 
flakes ; serve in a deep dish. 

This dish may be made of veal, rabbit, eels or other 
fish; if for an invalid, only put in the yolks of the eggs. 

Cut th9 chicken in quarters ; take off the 
Cold CAicken skin ; rub with an egg beaten up, and 
fried. cover it with grated bread seasoned with 

pepper, salt, grated lemon peel, and chop- 
ped parsley ; fry it in butter ; thicken a little brown gravy 
with flour and butter; add a little cayenne and mush- 
room catsup. 

Put in plenty of force-meat or stuffing, so 
Capon. as to plump out the fowl ; when the bird is 

properly stuffed and trussed, score the giz- 
zard ; dip it into melted butter ; let it drain, and season 
it with red pepper and salt ; put it under one wing, and 
the liver nicely washed under the other; cover it with 
buttered paper, and roast it a delicate brown. 

Take about six ounces or more of the 
ChicJcen paltie9 white meat, and three of ham; chop very 
foith ham. small ; put it into a stewpan with an ounce 
of butter rolled in flour, two table-spoon, 
fuls of cream and the same quantity of white stock, a little 
nutmeg, some cayenne, pepper and salt, the juice of half 
a lime ; stir it over the fire some time, taking care it does 
not burn ; it is then ready to be put in the patty past«. 

Take a roasted or boiled fowl; cut it 
Burdwun stew, into pieces, and put them into a silver 
stewpan ; put in two ladlefuls of soup, with 
two dozen anchovies, a glass of white wine, some melted 
butter, some boiled or roasted onions, pickled oysters, and 
cayenne pepper; stir and let it warm through, and add a 
little lemon juice. 



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AND COOKERY. 193 

When this is prepared on purpose, the fowl or chicken 
IS only half roasted or boiled; if boiled, the water or 
broth is used to make it instead of the soup. Fish may 
be used, and essence of anchovy instead of the fish. 

Cut a fowl in pieces; shred an onion smalU 

CawUry and fry it brown in butter ; sprinkle the fowl 

Captain. with fine salt and curry powder, and fry it 

brown ; then put it into a stewpan with a pint 

of soup; stew it slowly down to an half, and serve it 

with rice. 

Gut up two cold chickens as for salmi ; 
CapUoiade. then pour over them bro^ sauce, in which 
let them simmer a little, very gently ; thicken 
with flour and butter; add lemon juice; then have ready 
sippets of bread fried in butter ; set these round the dish ; 
put within them the limbs of the chicken, and over the 
latter pour the sauce. 

Put into &yingpan a little clear ghee; 
Bread crumbs throw in two or three spoonfals of grated 
* fried. bread, and keep stirring them constantly 

till of a fine yellow brown, and drain be- 

fore the fire. 

Cut a slice of bread a quarter of an inch thick ; 
SSffpets. divide with a sharp knife into pieces two inches 

square ; shape them into triangles or crosses ; put 
some ghee, butter, or very clean fat into a firyingpan; when 
it is hot, put in the sippets, and fry them a delicate light 
brown; take them up, and drain them well, turning oc- 
casionally. 

Oi*.— If these are not delicately clean and dry, they are 
uneatable; they are always a pretty garnish, and an im* 
provement to most made dishes. 

Al 



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194 TNDUK SOHBSnC BCONOMT 

When a goose is Tveli picked, singed, and 
Chose, to roast, cleaned^ make the stufiSng with about tvo 
ounces of onion and half as much green 
sage; chop them very fine^ adding four ounces (about a 
large breakfast cupful) of stale bread crumbs and a very 
little pepper and salt (to this may be added half the liver, 
parboiling it first), the yolk of an egg or two, and incor* 
porating the whole well together : stuff the goose, do not 
quite fill it, but leave a little room for the stuffing i6 swell ; 
spit it ; tie it on the spit at both ends to prevent it swing* 
ing round, and to keep the stuffing from coming out. From 
an hour and a half to two hours will roast a fine fall-grown 
goose. Send up gravy and apple sauce with it. 
ObSf — For another stuffing, see Ducks. 

When your goose is cleaned as for roast* 
Boiled wit k ing, rub it over with two or three handfula 

onion sauce, of salt, and let it remain for twelve or four- 
teen hours ; then boil it as you would a fowi, 
and serve it with onion sauce. 

Cut out the fillet or the side of a sir- 
Moch goose* loin of beef ; let it be done with a sharp 
knife that it may not be ragged; steep 
it in port wine and vinegar ; cut it open, and stuff it 
with sage and onion basted with goose fat; and serve 
with onion, gooseberry, or apple sauce. Let the fire be 
brisk by which it is roasted. 

Take two ounces of leaves of green sage. 
Relish for goose an ounce of fresh lemon peel pared thin, 
. or pork, same of salt, minced shallot, and half a 

drachm of cayenne pepper, ditto of citric 
acid ; steep it for a fortnight in a pint of claret ; shake it 
up well every day ; let it stand a day to settle, and de- 
cant the clear liquor; bottle it, and cork it close. A 
table-spoonful or more in a quarter pint of gravy or melt- 
ed butter. 



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AND OOOUET. 195 

Take the bones out of two geese and two 
Toriiiire fowls; boil a tongue^ and cut the whole into 
Qoo9epis. slices the size of your finger with two pounds 
of fat bacon; lay the slices of goose fiat^ 
and season with a spoonful of chopped onion, marjoram^ 
thyme, mushrooms, and parsley; lay the slices of tongue 
with the fat bacon on these; season with salt, pepper, all- 
spice and mace; then lay the fowl fillets on top of all; 
roll up in the shape of a goose, and tie it tight round 
with tape. I'orced meat may be placed in the cavities, if 
it is required to be very piquant; blanch, put it in a basin 
with the bones of the goose, and two quarts of strong gra- 
▼y, and boil it; have ready a raised pie crust on a dish 
sufficiently large to hold it, and put in the goose when 
cdd with the gravy it was boiled in, which will be a fine 
jelly ; removing the fat from the surface, and laying it aside, 
put the clearest of the jelly over the top of the pie. 

Clean well and half stew two or three sets 
Oiiletpie. of goose giblets; cut the leg in two, the wing 
and neck into three, and the gizzard into four 
pieces ; preserve the liquor, and set the giblets by till cold ; 
otherwise, the heat of the giblets will spoil the paste you 
cover the pie with; then season the whole with black 
pepper and salt, and put them into a deep dish; cover 
it with paste; rub it over with yolk of egg; ornament 
and bake it an hour and a half in a moderate oven. 
In the meantime take the liquor the giblets were stewed 
in; skim it free from fat; put it over a fire in a clean 
stewpan ; thicken it a little with flour and butter, or 
flour and water ; season it with pepper and salt, and the 
juice of half a lemon ; add a few drops of browning ; strain 
it through a fine sieve, and when you take the pie from 
the oven, pour some of the gravy into it through a funnel, 
you may lay in the bottom of the dish a moderately thick 
rump steak ; or if you have any cold game or poultry, cut 
it in pieces^ and add it to the above. 



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196 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

And geese are generally dressed and stuffed 

Ducis with the same materials ; with the wild ducks 

no stuflSng is used, — lemon juice, butter, pepper 

and salt, with a little port wine is their proper seasoning. 

Are dressed the same as geese with regard to 
Ducklings stuffing, but generally served with green peas 
and orange or lemon sauce. 

The pinions ought to be cut off close to the 

Duclks, to bodies ; the feet well blanched in hot water ; 

roMt. the nails cut and tucked over the back ; reserve 

the pinions, head, neck, liver, feet, and gizzards 

for soups or ragouts. 

After having cleansed the giblets well, boil 
Gravy and all except the liver, in a pint of water for 
stuffing. an hour, with a chopped onion, some salt 
and pepper; strain and add a little brown- 
ing with a tea-spoonful of coratch and mushroom catsup* 

For the stuffing, mince the raw liver with two sage 
leaves, a small onion, some pepper and salt, a bit of 
butter and grated bread crumbs, or mash up some boiled 
potatoes, with a little cream or butter ; add pepper and 
salt with the yolk of an egg ; fill the duck with this pre- 
vious to roasting; if you have a pair, one stuffed in this 
manner, and the other with onions and sage, enables those 
who dislike an onion to eat their duck without it. 

Make a paste, allowing half a pound of 
To boil a butter to a pound of flour ; truss a duck as 

Duci. for boiling ; put into the inside a little pep- 

per and salt, one or two sage leaves and a 
little onion finely minced ; enclose the duck in the paste 
with a little jellied gravy; boil it in a cloth and serve 
it with brown gravy poured round it. 

06s, — The duck may be salted the night before boiling, 



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AND COOKERY. 197 

and when dressed^ serve it with onion sauce ; this is also 
an excellent way of dressiog a goose% 

Are roasted the same way as tame, only 
Ducks (mid) without stuffing, and basted with butter 
and lemon or orange juice; they do not 
require so long roasting as tame ; sauce may be made by 
catting along the breast, adding butter, lime juice, a glass 
of port wine, and cayenne pepper. 

Obt. — Some add made mustard with mushroom catsup. 

Cut one or two ducks into quarters ; fry them 
Skw. a light brown in butter ; put them into a stew- 

pan with a pint of gravy, two glasses of port 
wine^ four whole cmions, some black pepper and salt, a 
bnnch of parsley, two sage leaves, and a sprig of sweet 
maijoram; cover the pan closely, and stew them till ten- 
der ; take out the herbs and onions ; skim it ; if the same 
be not sufficiently thick, mix with two table- spoonfuls of 
it, a little flour, and stir it into the same pan; boil it up 
and garnish with the onions. 

Cut an onion or two into small dice; 
Dressed ducks, put it into a stewpan with a little butter ; 
iasiedm fry it, but do not let it get any colour ; 

put as much broth into the stewpan as will 
make sauce for the hash ; thicken it with a Uttle flour ; 
cut ap the duck ; put it into the sauce to warm, do not 
let it boil ; season with pepper, salt, and catsup. 

OS*. — The legs of ducks or geese broiled and laid upon 
apple or green papaw sauce, may be served for luncheon 
or supper. 

Clean two sets of giblets ; put them into 

GiUel stew. a saucepan ; just cover them with cold 

water, and set them on the fire ; when 

they boil, take off the scum, and put in an onion, three 

doves or two blades of mace, a few berries of black pep- 



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193 INDIAN DOlCESnC ECONOMT 

per, the same of allspice, and half a tea-spoonful of salt ; 
cover the stewpan close, and let it simmer rttj gently 
till the giblets are qnite tender; this will take from one 
hour and a half to two and a half, according to the i^ 
of the giblets. The pinions will be done first, and most 
then be taken out and put in again to warm; when the 
gizzards are done, watch them that they do not get too 
much done ; take them out, and thicken the sauce with 
flour and butter; let it boil half an hour, and reduce it 
just enough to eat with the giblets, then strain it through 
a tammis into a clean stewpan ; cut the giblets into pieces, 
put them into the sauce with the juice of half a lemon, 
and a table-spoonful of mushroom catsup; pour the whole 
into a soup dish with sippets of bread at the bottom. 

The flavour of pigeons is always best pre* 
Pigeons, to served by roasting. Pigeons should be dress- 
roasL ed while they are very fresh — ^take off the 

heads and necks, and cut off the toes at the 
first joint; draw them carefully, and pour plenty of water 
through them; wipe them dry, and put into each bird a' 
small bit of butter lightly sprinkled with cayenne, or stuff 
them with some green parsley chopped very fine, mixed 
with a bit of butter, some pepper and salt, and fill the 
belly of each bird with it ; they will be sufficiently done 
in twenty minutes. Serve them with brown gravy or bread 
sauce, or parsley and butter. 

Truss them like boiled fowls ; put them 

Soiled. into plenty of boiling water ; throw in a 

little salt, and in fifteen minutes take them 

out ; pour parsley and butter over, and send some of it 

to table with them in a tureen. 

Take the pigeons, cut them into fillets. 

Pigeon cut- and flatten them with the back oi a knife ; 

lets h la ma- scrape the bone off the pinion, and stick 

recAale. it in the end of the cutlet; dust them 



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AND COOKERY, 199 

t>ver with salt and pepper, and rub them over with the 
beaten yolk of an egg ; dip them into melted batter, and 
sprinkle smoothly with crnmbs of bread ; broil them o{ a 
nice colour, and serve with a rich gravy or Italian sance* 

7or this entree you must procure young pi- 
Slewed geons or squabs; singe them slightly; melt 
PigeofU. about half a pound of butter, squeeze the juice 
of a lemon into the butter, and then let the 
pigeons be fried lightly over the fire twice or three times 
only. Then put the pigeons into a stewpan trimmed with 
lajers of bacon; pour the melted butter and lemon juice 
over them, and then cover them well. It is also requisite 
to pour in a spoonful of rich gravy to prevent their fry- 
ing; set them for a quarter of an hour over a gentle 
fire, and drain them ; dish them with brown sharp sauce, 
or a sauce piquante. 

Border a dish with fine puff paste, and 
Piffeonpie. cover the bottom with a veal cutlet or • 

tender rump steak cut into thin slices; 
season with salt, cayenne, and nutmeg or pounded mace; 
put as many young pigeons over them as the dish will 
contain, seasoned with salt, pepper, and spices, the yolk 
of a few hard boiled eggs within the intervals; put plen- 
ty of butter over them, with a small quantity of broth 
for the gravy; cover the whole with plain paste or with 
puff paste. Pigeon pie, if to be eaten cold, requires more 
seasoning than when to be eaten hot. 

068, — It is an improvement to stuff the birds as for 
roasting, before putting into the pie. 

Stuff, lard, paper, and roast as hare or 
SabMs, to fowl ; baste it well, as it is rather dry, and 

roaH, butter it as it should be of a very light co- 

lour; do not take off the paper till there is 
only time to brown it very lightly; froth it well, atnd 



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200 INDIAN BOMlSanO ECONOMY 

aerve it with the liver rubbed down in the gravy j if the 
liver haa been put into the farce, any other seasoning will 
be unnecessary ; it will take from half to three quarters of 
an hour. Any of the sauces served with fowl, may be serv- 
ed with it. 

After it has hung sufficiently, rub it all over 
As hare, with very fine powdered kitchen spices ; sprinkle 
the inside with garlic vinegar ; dip a cloth in 
vinegar with a mixture of black currants or port wine; 
wrap it round the rabbit, stuffing the comers into the belly^ 
and hang it in the air for a night; stuff, lard, or barb^ 
roast, and serve it as hare. 

Babbits that are three parts grown, or at all 
To ioil, events which are still quite young, should be chosen 
for this mode of cooking ; wash and soak them 
well ; truss them firmly with the heads turned and skewer- 
ed to the sides ; drop them into plenty of boiling water, 
and simmer them gently from thirty to forty-five minutes; 
when very young, they will require even less time than 
this; cover them with rich white sauce mixed with the 
livers parboiled and finely pounded and well seasoned with 
cayenne and lime juice, or with white onion sauce, or with 
parsley and butter made with milk or cream instead of 
water (the livers minced are often added to the last of 
these), or with good mushroom sauce. 

Make a rich farce with the meat of cold 
Bissoles of dressed rabbits ; then spread some puff paste, 
rabbU. and cover it at equal distances with lumps 

of the force-meat ; moisten the paste • all 
round the farce, and fold it in two; press it round with 
your fingers, and cut each out with a rowel or knife; 
and fry of a nice brown colour ; they may be dipped into 
the beaten yolk of eggs and crumbed^ but it thickens 
the paste. 



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AND COOKERY. 201 

Prepare, bone, and cut up two young 
TimiaUe of rabbits ; daub them with bacon ; season 

rabbits, paul' with minced parsley, shallots, mushrooms 
try, or game, or trufBes, spices, pepper^ and salt ; put 
these ingredients in a stewpan with butter, 
and harden the rabbits white in it; moisten with a glass 
of white wine and two large spoonfuls of .espagnole or 
good stock, and let them simmer till enough done ; set 
them to cool ; butter a mould of suiScient size, and line 
it with rolled paste, beginning at the middle of the bot- 
tom, and continuing to go round till it comes to the top ; 
the rolls of paste must lie firm over each other. Have 
ready a piece of thin paste to lay in the bottom ; make 
it an inch larger that it may come up to the sides ; 
wash over this paste with yolk of egg, and put it in ; 
press it well down to make it firm, and have ready a suf- 
ficient quantity of small force-balls; dress them round and 
round the sides till they nearly reach the top ; put in 
the rabbits with the seasoning, and cover it, wetting and 
fixing it firmly ; dress it round the edge ; give it an hour 
and a half ; it must be a fine colour for the paste. When 
ready to dish, cut it nearly open at the top, and put in 
a nice sauce of reduced espagnole, or jover it with a 
sweetbread or mushroom ragout. 

Gut the rabbits in proper pieces, and 

To smother stew them gently in a braise, or white in 

Rabbits iti * batter — the most caieful boiling hardens 

onions or them. Have ready a rich onion sauce 

otier vegS" made with cream or stock — ^it may also be 

tables, dressed in a ragout of celery, artichoke 

bottoms, scorzonera, Jerusalem artichokes, 

peas, French beans, &c. 

GAME. 

These birds are found in great abun- 
Bustard. dance on most of the plains in this coun- 

try, more especially the western side of 

b1 



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iOt INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

India. The male bird weighs from 2,0 to 30 pounds^ and 
when taken by the Shikarees, is often sold for as low a 
sum as one rupee. The bird is to be cleaned and trass^ 
ed as a turkey^ and roasted precisely in the same way, 
accompanied with bread sauce ; the meat from the breast, 
. if not overdone, may be converted into an excellent salmi 
or Burdwan stew ; like the pea fowl it will furnish deli- 
cious scollops or cutlets, and also soup ; perhaps the latter 
methods are the best" for dressing the flesh of so large 
a bird. 

Gut off the best parts of the brown and 
A Salmi of white into slices, sprinkle them over lightly 
Bustard, with arrowroot or flower and lay them in 

a stewpan, then put the remaining trim- 
mings with the bones broken, a couple of onions cut in 
half stuck with a dozen cloves, some parsley, two or 
three peach leaves and a few pepper corns into another 
stewpan and cover the whole with water, let it boil well 
for half an hour and strain off the gravy, put it into a 
stewpan again, add a large glass of claret or white wine 
and reduce the gravy to the quantity required, then add 
the slices of the bird, colour with a little browning and 
give it a boil tfp, when serve with sippets of toasted bread. 

06s. — The meat remaining, if picked free from all 
sinews, may be potted as directed for other meats. Turkey 
or any other cold poultry may be dressed in the same 
manner, only, if wished to be white, omit the browning 
and stir in the yolk of a beaten egg with a little cream 
at the last ; it must not boil. 

Cut the breast into fillets, and put into 
Scollops. a stew or fryingpan, with a little melted 

butter and some truffles cut thin into 
shapes, or else mushrooms ; put the stewpan on the fire, 
and do the fillets on both sides ; remove the scollops with 
the other articles from the melted butter, and cover them 
with a nice white sauce or bechamel, flavoured with the 



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AND COOKKEY. BOS 

essence of the game, &c.^ or serve them in a border of 
finely mashed potatoes. 

Like a sucking pig, should be dressed almost as 
Fawns, soon as' killed ; when very young, is trussed, stuff* 
ed, and spitted the same way as a bare; but they 
are better eating when of a larger size, and are then roast- 
ed in quarters : the hind quarter is most esteemed. They 
must be put down to a very quick fire, and either basted 
all I the time they are roasting, or be covered with sheets 
of fat bacon ; wlien done, baste it with butt«r, and dredge 
it with a little salt and iiour till you make a nice froth on 
it. Send up venison sauce with it; or bread sauce, with 
wine and currants, may be served. 

06s, — The proper sauces now in use are currant jelly and 
port wine, sugar, syrup, and claret. 

Skin and prepare it ; wipe it well without wash- 
Hare,to ing; slit it a little under the jaws to let out the 
roast. blood, and stuff it with savoury or sweet stuffing, 
or with a gratin ; sew it up, and lard or barb and 
paper it; put into the dripping-pan half a pint of ale, a 
gill of vinegar, a clove of garlic, pepper, and salt; baste 
continually without stopping till it is all dried up, or use 
a pint of good cream or a quart of fresh milk; baste it 
with it tul ready, and finish frothing it with butter and 
flour; serve as above. 

Obs, — Hare cut into fillets and dressed as a cutlet will 
be found preferable to the common mode of roasting, es- 
pecially if served with a piquant sauce. 

Wash it very nicely ; cut it up into pieces 
Hare, jugged. proper to help at table, and put them in- 
to a jugging pot, or into a stone jar just 
sufficiently large to hold it; put in some sweet herbs, a 
roll or two of rind of a lime or a Seville orange and a 
fine large onion, with some rloves stuck in it ; and if you 



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204 INDIAN BOMESTIC BCOKOMT 

wish to preserve the flavour of the hare, a quarter pint 
of water ; if for a ragout, a quarter pint of claret or port 
wine and the juice of a Seville orange or lime ; — tie the 
jar down closely with a bladder, so that no steam can es- 
cape ; put a little hay at the bottom of the saucepan, ia 
which place the jar, and pour in water till it reaches with- 
in four inches of the top of the jar ; let the water boil for 
about three hours, according to the age and size of the 
hare ; (take care it is not overdone, which is the general 
fault in all made dishes, especially this,) keeping it boil- 
ing all the time, and fill up the pot as it boils away. When 
quite tender, strain pff the gravy, clear from fat, thicken 
it with flour, and give it a boil up ; lay the hare in a 
soup dish, and pour the gravy to it ; make a stuffing the 
same as for roast hare, m\A boil it in a cloth, and when 
you dish up your hare, cut it in slices, or make force- 
meat balls of it for garnish. 

Or prepare the hare the same as for jugging ; put it 
into a stewpan with a few sweet herbs, half a dozen cloves, 
the same of allspice and black pepper, two large onions 
and a roll of lemon or lime peel ; cover it with water ; 
when it boils skim it clear, and let it simmer gently^ till 
tender (about two hours) ; then take it up with a slice ; 
set it by the fire to keep hot while you thicken the gravy ; 
take three ounces of butter and some flour ; rub together ; 
put in the gravy ; stir it well, and let it boil about ten 
minutes ; strain it through a sieve over the hare, and it 
is ready. 

If you have enough o^ its own gravy 
Hashed Vent- left, it is preferable to any to warm it up 
8on. in ; if not, take some mutton gravy or the 

bones and trimmings of the joint (after 
you have cut off all the handsome slices you can make 
the hash) ; put these into some water, and stew them 
gently for an hpur ; then put some butteV into a stewpan ; 
when melted, put to it as much flour as will dry up the 



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AND COOKEEY. 806 

butter, and stir it well together ; add to it by degrees 
the gravy you have been making of the trimmings, and 
some red currant jelly ; give it a boil up, skim it, strain 
it through a sieve, and it is ready to receive the venison 
— pat it in, and let it just get warm ; if you let it boil it 
will make the meat hard. 

May be roasted in lard or ghee, dressed 
Ortolans with bread crumbs; their legs must be truss- 

ed up the same as quail. Serve, when roast- 
ed, in fried crumbs mixed with savoury powder, such as 
traffic, oyster, mushroom, or anchovy. 

04*. — ^Bread to be made into crumbs for serving with 

small birds, should be first soaked in lime juice and port 

wine ; acidulated currant jelly or vinegar and sugar for gar- 
nishing game. * 

Both black and grey, are best boiled; the 
Partridges, former are in season from October until May, 
the latter from September to February. Glean 
the birds and truss them as a chicken; have ready a 
large vessel of boiling water, into which place the birds, 
keeping the water at a boil; they will be done in ten or 
twelve minutes. 

They are also very good stewed with some butter and 
a small quantity of water; place them in a stewpan or 
conjurer over a brisk fire, look to them occasionally and 
constantly turn, to prevent their being burnt on the bot- 
tom of the pan, and as soon as the gravy begins to ooze 
from the birds and mixes with the butter^ they are done 
enough. Serve with bread sauce. 

Obs. — Quail, snipe, rock or green pigeon, may be dressed 
in the same manner, only the two latter should first be 
skinned and dressed in vine ^leaves. * 

Clean jour birds nicely, and take care not 

Partridges, to injure the skins; pick them well; cut off 

to roast, the sinews that are under the joints of the 



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806 INDIAN OOHESTIG ECONOMY 

legs up towards the breast, and give a good shape to the 
birds. They require a good deal of roasting. Send up 
with them rice or bread sauce, and good gravy. 

Cut off the claws after having emptied and 
A la Cra- picked the birds ; make a hole below the 
pandine. joint of the leg; truss the leg inside of the 
body; singe the birds over the flame till the 
flesli gets firm; pinch the breast with your left hand; 
scollop ' the breast without quite reaching the skin ; turn 
the flesh over on the table; beat the bird flat; dust it 
with a little salt and pepper ; then dip it twice into cla- 
rified butter and crumbs of bread; broil it, and send it 
up with an Italian sauce or essence of gamCj or it may be 
broiled without bread crumbs. 

Are roasted as fowls and served with bread 
Peafowl sauce. The breast, when cut into slices, may 

be made into cutlets, and dressed the same as 
veal or fillets of pheasants* 

Are all larded and stuffed, and dressed, in 
PheasanU the same manner as guinea fowl. As a know- 
ledge of the age of these birds is of conse- 
quence to the cook, therefore the wing ought to be looked 
at, and if the point feathers are gone, it is old, and 
ought to be dressed in some other way, or braised before 
roasting. Hang these birds by the tail feathers, and 
when they drop, they are fit for use : a basket of bran or 
straw ought to be placed beneath, as the fall from a 
height would bruise the bird. 

Requires a smart fire, but not a fierce one : 
To roa%tj thirty minutes will roast a young bird, and 
forty or fifty a full grown pheasant. Pick and 
draw it; cut a slit in the back of the neck, and take 
out' the craw, but do not cut the head off: wipe tlie 
inside of the bird with a clean cloth; twist the legs 



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AND COOKERY. 207 

looBe to the body ; leave the feet on^ but cut the toes 
off; do not turn the head under the wing, but truss it 
like a fowl. 

Cut off the fillets; beat them lightly with 
Pheoiants* the handle of a knife; (pare them^ melt some 
JilleU. butter in a stewpan, dip in the fillets;) then 
flatten and trim of a good shape ; dip them in 
egg beat up with a little salt, and then in fine bread 
crumbs; fry them a light brown in boiling lard; serve 
under them some good gravy or mushroom sauce. 

The green, grey and golden plovers — these 
Plovers. birds are roasted without being drawn, and 
are treated in all respects like roasted wood- 
cocks, toast being placed to receive the trails and the 
roasted plovers being served up with no other sauce than 
melted butter. 

8nip€y Are dressed like woodcock in every respect. 

Put a small spoonful of fresh ghee, or but- 
Snipe h la ter/ for each bird^ into a degchee or stew- 
minute. pan with some chopped onions, parsley, nut- 

meg, salt and pepper ; place the birds after 
being properly trussed breast downwards, and set the pan 
over a brisk fire for a few minutes, stirring occasionally 
to prevent their sticking and burning, then add for each 
half dozen birds the juice of two limes, two' glasses of 
white wine, and a table-spoonfal of grated crumbs of bread, 
simmer the whole for a minute longer, dress the birds on 

a dish, and serve the sauce poured over. 

« 

Florican, Are roasted like pheasants, and served with 

the same sauce. Spurfowl the same. 

Clean and prepare them with their legs 

Qnaih, to Well drawn up, and their claws only just 

roast. seen; cover them with or without bacon, and 



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208 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

I 

wrap them in vine leaves; roast them nicely, and serve 
with bread sauce or good gravj. 

OA*.— The rain and grey quail are the finest; the bush 
are thought little of. 

' Crumbs of bread, chopped parsley, grated 

Stvffiiig for lemon peel, butter, pepper, and salt, with a 

guaiL very little clear marrow or suet chopped fine; 

put a small slice of bacon in the inside of 

each bird, and then roast them. 

Prepare any number of quails; open them 
Quail pie. at the back ; take out the intestines, and 
pick them with care from the gall, liver, 
and gizzard ; make a farce of them ; bruise the bones 
of the birds and farce them; raise the pie; cover the bot- 
tom with farce; lay in the quails and fill up with farce; 
mix some butter with fine spices and salt; spread it over 
and finish the pie. Each bird may be wrapped in a bit 
of bacon and truffle, or mushrooms may be intermixed in 
the grating. 

Make a rich and very light puff paste; 
Puff9 of let the birds, after being cleaned and drawn, 

quails^ Sfc, . be trussed and browned in a stewpan ; then 
into the body of each put a small lump of 
fresh butter or bacon fat; fill up the inside with a light 
stuffing and a little cream ; wrap each bird so prepared 
in fat bacon : then cover it with paste rolled out to a 
convenient thickness, but not too thick ; give it any form 
you please; lay the puffs separately on tins, and bake un- 
til the" paste is done ; in ' a quick oven in ten minutes 
they will be ready. 

Draw and clean your teal as for roasting, 
Teal. set aside the livers, prepare a stuffing with 

crumbs of bread, chopped parsley, lime juice, 
pepper, salt, and nutmeg; chop up the livers very fine 
and mix ; moisten the whole well with butter and put a 
portion into each bird, roast, them before a sharp fire, or 



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AND COOKERT. t09 

in a degchee, with or without some thin slices of bacon 
tied in paper over the 1>ird8, when dressed remove the 
paper, brown the bacon^ place it upon a toast^ and dress 
the birds upon it. 

Is dressed exactly as wild duck; its 
Wildffoose nicety consists in being browned outside 

without being soddened within^ well froth- 
ed and full of gravy. 

Are never opened. Take the skins off 
Woodcocks their heads, truss up their legs, and skew- 

er with their bills; fix a skewer between 
their legs, and tie them by it to the spit; put them to 
roast at a clear fire; cut as many slices of bread as you 
have birds; trim them to a proper size, and toast or fry 
them a delicate brown; lay them in the dripping pan 
before they are basted to receive the drippings; baste them 
with battel^ and froth them with fiour ; lay the birds, 
when ready, on the toast, and put some good beef gravy 
into the dish; garnish with slices of lime. 

Hem venison is not held in the same esti- 
AfUelope. mation as either the spotted deer> or even the 
smaller kind called the B&kar, (which has only 
a single tine to its horn ;) the flesh of the hem is devoid of 
fat, and requires, when dressed, that it should be covered 
with the caul from a fat sheep, roasted precisely in the 
same way as other venison, and served with a similar 
sauce. Some prefer boiling the meat in a paste, as it 
preserves the flavour ; it also makes excellent soup ; and 
cutlets may be prepared in the various ways as directed 
for mutton. The leg, if cut into a fillet, like veal, and 
salted, will be highly relished both hot and cold, and may 
easily be converted into potted venison in a few minutes. 

When to be roasted, wash it well in luke- 
VenUon. warm water, and dry it with a cloth ; cover 

the haunch with buttered paper when spitted 

cl 



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tlO INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

for roasting^ and baste it very well all the time it is at 
the fire; when sufficientlj done, take off the paperj and 
dredge it r^ gently with flour in order to froth it, 
bat let it be dusted in this manner as quickly as possible 
lest the fat should melt; send it up in the dish with 
nothing but its own gravy ; or^ dress it with a coarse paste, 
secunng it and the paper with twine; it is then frequently 
basted, and a quarter of an hour before it is removed 
from the fire, the paper and paste are taken off, and the 
meat dressed with floor and basted with butter ; gravy 
should accompany the venison in a tureen, together witti 
currant jelly, either sent to table cold or melted in port 
wine, and serve hot. 

To a quarter of a peck of fine flour 
Cnut for use two pounds and a half of butter and 

Venison pasty, four eggs; mix into paste with warm 
water, and work it smooth and to a good 
consistence; put a paste round the inside, and not to 
the bottom of the dish, and let the cover be pretty thick, 
to bear the long continuance in the oven. 

A shoulder, boned, makes a good pasty, but it 
Venison must be beaten and seasoned, and the fat sup- 
pctsty. plied by that of a fine loin of mutton steeped 
twenty-four hours in equal parts of vinegar and 
port. Cut and marinade any part of the neck, Inreast, or 
shoulder, the meat must be chopped in pieces and laid 
with fat between, thd; it may be equally proportioned; 
lay some pepper, allspice and salt at the bottom of the 
dish, with some butter; then place the meat nicely that 
it may be sufficiently done. 

Put into the dripping pan equal quantities 

Marinade for of claret and water, red wine, or a mixture 

wildfowl, of vinegar and water, with a clove or two 

of bruised garlic, a little powder or juice of 

sage, nutmeg, salt, and pepper; baste with it, and after- 



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AND COOKERY. 811 

wards with butter. When ready to serve, take up the 
marinade and work it well ; if not enough, add stock and 
wine, and season higher if it requires it. 

Take a pound of any under-roasted 
Salmi qfgamef meat^ hare, turkey, game, goose, or duck, 
meai^ Sfc. and cut it up into convenient pieces ; put 

them iuto a saucepan; bruise the livers, 
and should it be snipe or woodcock, bruise the trail; 
squeeze over them the juice of two lemons, and the rasped 
zest of one or two bitter oranges; season with salt and 
the finest spices in powder, cayenne and mustard prepar- 
ed with flavoured vinegar, and a little white wine or 
claret; put the saucepan over a lamp or fire, and stir it 
constancy that it may all be incorporated with the sauce. 
It must not boil, and should it attempt it, a stream of 
fine oil must be poured over to prevent it ; diminish the 
flame or keep it a little higher, and stir it two or three 
times; it is then ready to be served, and must be eaten 
▼ery hot. 

Half roast it; then stew it whole, or 
Ba§fimt efpiml' divide it into proper sized joints; put it 
trjfy game^ SfC. into a stewpan with a pint or more of 
good consomm^^ or take all the trimmings 
and parings with as much water, one large onion stuck 
with doves, and a few allspice, some black pepper, and 
a roll of lime peel cut thin ; skim it very carefully while 
boiling, and let it simmer for an hour or more; then 
strain off the gravy (put the meat on one side to keep 
warm), and remove the fat ; put a couple of spoonfuls of 
butter into the stewpan, and when melted, stir in as 
much arrowroot or flour as will make it into a thick 
paste; then by degrees add the Uquor, and let it boil 
up ; put in a glass of port wine or claret, a table-spoon- 
fid of mosfarbom catsup, a little lime juice, and simmer 
for ten minutes ; strain, and pour over the meat ; garnish 
with fried sippets of bread. 



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CHAPTER XI. 



VEGETABLES. 

TO PREPARE AND DRESS IN DIFFEREKT WAYS. 

Soak them in cold water ; wash them well ; 
Artichokes, then put them into plenty of boiling water with 
some^ salt ; let them boil gently until they are 
tender. The way to know when they are done enough^ is 
to draw oat a leaf ; trim them and drain them and serve 
in a na.pkin; send up with them melted butter. 

Strip off the leaves after they are boiled, and 
Bottoms, remove the choke ; mix into some melted but- 
ter as much espagnole as will sauce the dish, or 
melted butter with a little glaze; rub this up well, and 
put in the bottoms long enough to imbibe a flavour. 

Cut about a quarter of a pound of fat 
Blanc 08 well as bacon and a little beef suet into dice; take 
otker Vegeta-^ a large spoonful of fresh butter, a little 
iles. salt, and a lime cut in thin slices, and 

put the whole into a sufficient quantity of 
water to cover whatever you wish to put into your blanc. 
Let this slew for half an hour before you put in your ar- 
tichoke bottoms ; stew them a short time in the blanc, and 
serve up with whatever sauce you please; they serve also 
to garnish fricassees of fowls, ragouts, white or brown. 

When cold are served for entremets. Pour 

bottoms en on the eentre of each artichoke bottom, some 

Canapes, anchovy, butter, and decorate the whole with 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. 2 IS 

capers^ pickled encumbers, beet-root, &Cv and pour over 
them a salad sauce; garnish with cresses between. 

Take your artichokes that are very tender; 
Fried. cut them into quarters; pare them nicely, and 

rub them over with some lime or lemon ; 
that they may preserve their white colour; when they 
have been well trimmed of nearly all their leaves, wash- 
ed and drained so that they are quite dry, put them into 
a dish with some pepper, salt, and the juice of a lime. 
Next take four spoonfuls of flour, three eggs, a tea-spoon- 
ful of olive oil, and beat well up together ; then put in 
your artichokes, and stir them up with a wooden spoon 
until the leaves are well covered; then have some drip- 
ping or ghee, which must not be too hot, so that the 
artichokes may be gradually done through of a fine co- 
lour. Throw the artichokes in piece after piece, and take 
care that they do ' not stick together ; when they are done 
and erisp, lay them on a lowel to drain, and serve with 
fine crisp green parsley. 

Oft*. — Artichokes are only fit to be eaten when young 
and tender, and this may be ascertained by the stalks 
breaking without being thready. 

Boil the artichokes with a little salt. 
Bottoms, to dry the same as for eating ; when you can 
and preserve, separate or puD off the leaves, they are 
done sufficiently; take them off the fire, 
and let them cool on a dish; remove the leaves and 
choke ; dry the bottoms either in an oven or in the sun ; 
put them in bags or string them, and keep in a dry place ; 
when to be dressed, they must be laid in warm water for 
a couple of hours ; they may then be dressed in any way 
you please. 

Ohs. — They are a great improvement to all made dishes 
and meat pies. 



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2H INDIAN DOMESTIC ECOXOMT 

Jemsalem May be boiled and dressed in the various 

Artichokes ways directed for potatoes ; they should 
be covered ^ith thick melted butter, or a 
while or brown sauce. 

Obs. — ^They are excellent roasted — ^put in a napkin and 
serve with melted butter. They take very little stowing 
or boiling. 

Cut one or two onions in half rings^ 
Another way. and brown them highly' in oil or ghee; 
slice the artichokes and put them in with 
minced parsley, scallions, salt and pepper; give them two 
or three turns, dish, put a little vinegar in the pan, boil 
it up, and pour it over. 



Must be boiled in salt and water; the 
Asparagus water in which they are boiled is sdways 
nauseous, and of a bitter taste, and for this 
reason they are never added in soups or garnish, but at 
the very last moment before serving up. To preserve their 
green colour they should be boiled quickly, and served 
in bundles, and drained from all the water before placing 
on the dish, — a toast of bread, sometimes buttered^ is 
placed under the heads to raise them on the dish — smelt- 
ed butter should be served up with them in a boat, or 
may be poured over the tops. 

Break off the tops of green asparagus, 
Purie cP boil them till tender in salt and water^ then 

Asferges. drain on a towel ; put two table-spoonfuls of 
butter in a stewpan with half a pint of the 
tops, stir them weU over a moderate fire, with a sprig of 
green parsley; mash the asparagus, add some white sauce, 
a little arrowroot, salt and sugar; let it boil a few mi- 
nutes, rub it through a tammis, put it into a fresh stew- 
pan and warm it with a little cream. 



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AND OOOKJSKY. 2lb 

Cut the green tops off as much aspara- 

Poiniea df Ae- gas as you require, half an inch long, 

perffeaenpe^ throw them into a stewpan of boiling hot 

tits-pins. water with some salt ; boil until tender, 

then lay them on a towel or sieve to drain, 

put them into a stewpan, and to each table-spoonful of 

heads add one of bechamel sauce, a little sugar and salt, 

with a tea-spoonful of chopped parsley, let it simmer for 

a few minutes, add a little butter rolled in arrowroot, shake 

it well and serve. 

Boil the asparagus ; chop small the heads 
Peas, and tender parts of the stalks, together with 

a boiled onion ; add a little salt and pepper 
and the beaten yolk of an egg ; heat it up, serve on sip- 
pets of toasted bread, and pour over it a little melted 
butter. 

After being properly washed, care should be 
Beet root. taken that the rind is not cut or the end 
fibres broken off, as it loses its colour in boil* 
ing. The leaves should be cut an inch above the crown 
or top, and to be wholesome it must be thoroughly 
cooked. It may be bofled, cut into slices^ and dressed 
with vinegar and sugar, and sliced onions, if approved of, 
mixed with it; or baked, stewed or made into soup. 

Take a large beet, red or white, or two or 
To stew, three small ones, and boil or bake until 
tender ; rub off the skin, and mash the root 
into a fine pulp ; if white, dress it in consomm^ or 
cream ; if red, in half a pint of rich gravy ; then add, 
previous to serving, three table-spoonfuls of vinegar with 
a dessert-spoonful of pounded sugar. 

Mix a dessert'Spoonful of butter with a 

AnoiAer way. little arrowroot or flour ; melt it in half a 

pint of oonsomm^ ; clean your beet nicely, 

and scrape off the rind; cut it into slices, and ]put it 



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S16 INDIAN D0MB8TIC ECONOMY 

into the stewpan with your gravy and a sufficient quantity 
of pepper and salt; cover the pan down, and stew it 
gently until done; lastly, add a table-spoonful of vinegar 
with a little sugar. 

Obs. — When beet-root is to be sent to table in slices^ 
and dressed with vinegar, never sprinkle pepper over it, 
as it gives it a dirty appearance. 

Wash and pick them clean ; boil them in salt 
BrocolL and water, and let them cool ; when cold, dredge 
them lightly with flour, and fry them in dear 
ghee or butter, and sprinkle a little salt over them, or 
they may be cut up small after being boiled and cold, 
and dressed with salad sauce. 

Clean your brocoU thoroughly, removing 
Brocoli and all the leaves and tough skin from the 
Buttered Egg9. ^tsSk I c\A it into quarters if small, or 
into such pieces as will be sufficient to 
dress the dish, reserving a bunch for the middle ; boil 
your brocoli in salt and water, and prepare a toast for 
the centre of the dish. Beat up six eggs well ; put into 
a saucepan over the fire four table-spoonfuls of butter 
and a little salt, and as it becomes warm, add th^ eggs, 
shaking the whole until it is of a proper consistency ; pour , 
it over the toast, and arrange the brocoli tastefully upon it. 

May be sent well boiled to table, with 

Beane butter sauce in a sauce-boat, or the skin peeled 

ofF and dressed in ragout, fricassee, or made into 

pur^e for soups or sauces. The larger kinds are generally 

served with port. 

Gut off the stalks first; then turn to the 

French, point, and strip off the strings ; have a little 

salt and water before you in a bowl, and as 

the beans arc cleaned and stringed, throw them in ; then 

put them on the fire.' Jn boiling water with a little salt; 



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AND COOKERY. 817 

when tender ; take them out^ and drain in a cullender ; 
they may be sent up whole when young; but if a little 
old^ cut in two^ or split and divide across^ or cut into 
lozenges; serve with melted butter in a boat. 

Boil the beans in salt and water over a 

Rench beans quick fire ; then drain them ; lay them in a 

a la Fran- saucepan near the fire ; when entirely dry 

caise. and quite hot, add a couple of table-spoon- 

fuls of fresh butter, a little pepper and salt, 

and the juice of a lime ; shake the saucepan about with- 

OTit using a spoon, so as to mix the butter well with the 

sauce, without breaking the beans; if the butter does not 

mix well add a little white broth. 

Boil the beans ; drain and dry them as 
French beans directed ^ la Francaise ; then make the fol- 
alapouleUe. lowing sauce and add to them; take some 
white roux and dilute or reduce with con- 
somm^ ; thicken this with the yolks of two eggs, to wliich 
add a little parsley chopped fine; when the thickening is 
prepared, add a spoonful of fresh butter, stirring it well 
with a little pepper and salt and some Hme juice. 

Shell and take off the coats ; boil them 

JSazagong in salt and water; when nearly done, drain 

bean a la them and stew them in a little consomme 

jioulelle. thickened with white roux, to which add a 

bunch of parsley, some green onions, and a 

tea-spoonful of sugar ; when the beans are sufficiently done, 

thicken with the yolks of two eggs and a little cream ; 

season with white pepper and salt. 

Wash and clean them thoroughly ; if large, 
Cabbage to cut them into quarters or divide them ; put 
boil. them into boiling water with a little salt. 

Boil a fine cabbage ; press, it free from 

Oahbage to water, and cut it into slices ; add a few green 

stew, onions previously boiled and chopped, with 

Dl 



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218 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

pepper and salt ; melt some batter in a stewpan, mix in 
the cabbage, and warm altogether stirring it well; add a 
table-spoonful of gravy, with the juice of a lime or some 
lime pickle ; let it stew for a few minutes, and serve. 
Obs, — Cream may be used instead of butter. 

Slice as for pickling; put it in a stew- 
To stew red pan with some water and a little pepper 
cabbage. and salt, and stew until quite tender; strain 

off the liquor, and add more pepper with 
a little salt if necessary, and two or three table-spoonfuls 
of vinegar, and warm the whole together. 

Obs, — A clove of garlic gives stewed cabbage a pleasant 
relish; it may be dressed in stock. 

Wash and scrape very clean, and put these 
Carrots. on in boiling water with a little salt. If the 

carrots are very large, they should be cut in 
two or four pieces. 

Take some fine young carrots; wash and 
Puree of scrape them clean ; then cut off the outside 

carrots. until you come to the middle part ; moisten 

them over a very slow fire with a little but- 
ter ; add three or four spoonfuls of clear broth, and dredge 
in a little flour ; stew the whole until properly done ; pass 
through a tammy, and add to the soup. 

Bemove and throw away all the stalks 
Cardoon or that are tough and fibrous or hollow ; cut 

thistle head, the others into strips, about five or six 
inches long, cleansing them well from the' 
prickles; then put them into boiling water, and parboil 
them, giving less time to the heart than to the outer 
stalks. As soon as the slime will come off by dipping a 
strip into cold water and rubbing it with the finger, it is 
done enough. On removing the cardoons from the fire, 
throw them into cold water^ and cleanse them immediate- 



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AND COOKEKY. 219 

ly from the slime, using to do so nothing but friction 
with the fingers; stew them afterwards in a little rich gra- 
vy^ and just before they are taken off the fire add a lump 
of butter rolled in flour. 

"When required to be particularly white. 

Cauliflower* all the small leaves must be picked out, 

and the shoots divided; the nicest way to 

boil them, is in milk and water, or they may be dressed 

as brocoli, T?ith white sauce. 

Boil your cauliflower as directed, but not 
CauUflower thoroughly ; cut off the stalk so that it will 
vnthparme" stand erect in the dish ; put it into a stew- 
san cheese. pan with the following sauce; rub up ^ four 
table-spoonfuls of butter with a table-spoon- 
ful of arrowroot, and as it melts add by degrees half a 
pint of water or more ; put in the cauliflower, and let it 
stew a few minutes ; then take it from the fire, and when 
off the boil, add the yolk of an egg well beat up, with 
a little lime juice and a spoonful of water ; shake the stew- 
pan over the fire till the sauce is properly set ; remove the 
cauliflower into a dish,^ and cover the top with rasped par- 
mesan ; pour the sauce round it, and brown with a sala- 
mander. 

Wash and clean some heads of celery; cut 
Celery stew, them into pieces of two or three inches long, 
fchite. and boil them in veal or other wliite stock 

until tender. To half a pint of cream add 
the well beaten yolks of two eggs, a little lemon peel, 
grated nutmeg, salt, and a little butter; make it hot, stir- 
ing it constantly, but do not let it boil ; strain it upon 
the celery. 

Fry it in pieces, about two inches long; add, a 

Brown, little gravy, and put it to stew till tender; season 

with mace, pepper, and salt ; thicken and let it cool. 



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220 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Half a small tea-spoonful of celery seeds 
Celery teed* will impregnate two quarts or more of soup, 
with almost as much flavour as two or three 
heads of celery, and as it goes to seed so readily in this 
country, the seed should be preserved for this purpose, 
being preferable to the essence which does not impart the 
sweetness with the flavour. 

Are not considered very wholesome unless 
Cucumbers boiled, roasted, or stewed; the common way 
of dressing them in the raw state, is merely 
to remove the peel, and cut the cucumber into thin slices ; 
after which, sprinkle with salt, and place the dish on a 
slope that the water may run from it ; then dress with oil 
and vinegar, — pepper and cayenne may or may not be added* 

Fare your cucumbers, and cut into thick slices; 
To stew, flour them well, and put them into a stewpan 
with butter and some salt; let them stew slow- 
ly ; add half a pint of good gravy with a little port or 
claret and some mushroom catsup, and stew until done. 

Pare and slice your cucumbers down the 
Another way. middle ; let them lie in salt and water for 
an hour; then put them into a saucepan 
with a pint of consomme or good gravy, a slice of ham, an 
onion stuck with a few cloves, a little parsley, and thyme; 
cover the saucepan, and let them stew gently until tender; 
remove them carefully ; strain the gravy, and thicken with 
a little butter rolled in flour, and pour over them. 

BfCmove the seeds either with a marrow 
Cucumbers spoon, or cut them like a screw by pressing 
stuffed. the knife with your thumb whilst tumiug it 
round at equal distance through the outer 
part only ; then remove the seeds as directed, and fill them 
with a farce of finely minced fowl, veal, or mutton; 
put some lean bacon sliced into your stewpan, with one 
or two carrots and onions, two ) three peach leaves and 



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AND COOKERY. 221 

a little thyme with pepper and [salt; add sotne good 
consomm^^ and let them stew gently until tender. Then 
carefully remove the cucumbers, and lay them on a towel 
to drain; strain, and thicken the gravy they were stewed 
in, and pour over them; or serve with thick Spanish sauce. 

Wash and clean few a heads of fine 
Endive with endive ; take oflF the outer leaves, and 

Gravy of VeaL blanch the heads in hot water ; throw 
them into cold water, and then squeeze 
them as dry as possible; stew them in as much gravy 
as will cover them ; add a tea-spoonful of sugar and a 
little salt; when perfectly tender, put in a little white 
sauce or consomm^, and serve quite hot. 

Wash and clean two or three fine 

Endive to heads that have been well blanched ; pick 

dress as salad, off all the outer leaves, cut as you 

would other salad, and put over it slices 

of beet-root and salad sauce. 

When well washed, parboil it in three 

Endive with or four different waters to remove its 

sippets, sweet bitterness ; then boil it in salt and water 

breads, 4'^« iintil done, when throw it into cold 

water; remove, squeeze, and chop it fine; 

put it into a stewpan with some butter and a few young 

onions chopped very small; when dry, dredge with an 

ounce of flour; add some seasoned gravy with a dessert* 

spoonful of sugar, and let it stew gently for about ten 

minutes, and serve on sippets, &c. 

Is a useful flavouring ingredient in sauces. 
Garlic chatnies, curries, pickles, &c. and when used 

after having been boiled in several waters, a 
person would scarcely believe he was eating the vegeta- 
ble, — ^the French understand the secret perfectly, vide Gi" 
got a I'ail. 



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222 INDIAN DOMESTIC BCONOMY 

Fare of the skin of six or eight small 

Govrdf vegeta- gourds^or as many dill passand; put them 

ble marrow^ into a stewpan with salt, lemon juice, some 

or dill pus- butter, ghee, or fat bacon, and let them 

sund. stew gently until quite tender ; serve with 

any relishing sauce or melted butter. 

Ol8» — ^They may be boiled either in salt and water or 
in a clear broth; then sliced and the water allowed to 
drain off, and dressed with salt, pepper, and melted but- 
ter or cream. 

Pick and beat two or three handfuls of 
Fennel* fennel in a mortar ; express the juice through 

a cloth; stir it over the fire; when it cur- 
dles, take it off, and pour it into a sieve ; when the wa- 
ter has run off put it again into the mortar; rub it well 
with a little clarified sugar, and put it up for use. 

Obs, — Fennel sauce is made in the same manner as 
parsley, only that the fennel after being boiled must be 
chopped up and added to the butter. 

Cut up the tomatas or love apples, and 
Lave apple between every layer sprinkle a layer of salt ; 

catsup. let them stand a few hours before you boil 

them, which do very well ; then strain them 
through a cullender on some horse-radish, onions or gar- 
lic, mustard seeds, beaten ginger, pepper, and mace ; co- 
ver it close ; let it stand a day or two ; then bottle and 
seal it for use. 

Prepare the tomatas exactly in the same 
Zove apple manner as recommended for sauce, only boil 

cakes for away as much of the watery particles as you 

stews, 8fc. conveniently, can ; then place the residue ia 

a flat dish out in the sun ; when it has eva- 
porated so as to become almost a dry cake, cut it into 
pieces about one inch square, and preserve either in wide- 
mouthed bottles or canisters ; when required for use one 



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AND CO0K£RT. 223 

of the squares soaked in water for a few hours until dis- 
solved will be sufficient to season a dish of cutlets or 
soup. This will keep a long time^ in fact it is only the 
inspissated juice of tomatas. 

These are principally imported from France 
Morels. and Italy in a preserved state, and are the 

only one of the fungus tribe that will bear 
drying without losing their flavour. They are found in 
old white-ant nests in most parts of India, and have a very 
high flavour when fresh and fine^ and in this state^ are a 
delicious addition to stews and sauces. 

Are only procurable during the rains. 
Mushrooms and are found in light soils where cattle 
have been penned, or are in the habit of 
grazing; they are never produced by cultivation in India, 
but grow spontaneously: sheep and goat tracks are the 
most favourable spots for finding them on. 

White is made by blanching the mush- 

Pwree of fnM^A'^ rooms in a little water and lemon juice; 

roomSi fohite then put them into a stewpan with a 

or brown* small bit of butter ; when the mushrooms 

are softened, moisten them with a few 

spoonfuls of white sauce, but do not let them boil long^ 

else they will lose their flavour ; then rub them through ' 

a tammy, adding a little sugar. 

Brown is prepared in a similar manner ; clean the mush- 
rooms ; chop them up fine, but do not fry them, else they 
will blacken the sauce; add espagnole or brown sauce. 

Pick and peel half a pint of mushrooms ; 
Mushroom wash them very clean; put them into a 
stew. saucepan, with half a pint of veal gravy or 

white broth, a little pepper, salt, and nut- 
meg ; let them stew till tender ; then add a spoonful of 
butter rolled in flour or arrowroot sufficient to thicken it; 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMT 

simmer a few minutes longer, and serve; a little wine 
may be added. 

Take those of a middling size ; skin and wash 

To grill. them very clean : if necessary, strain and dry 

them in a cloth; pat a little butter over the 

inside of each ; sprinkle some salt . and pepper, and grill 

or fry till tender. 

Prepare and cook the mushrooms in but- 
Omelette. ter, pepper and salt, and mix into a plain 
omelet. 

Select those with reddish or pink gills in- 
To choose. side, and agreeable scent ; a wholesome or 
eatable mushroom will always peel; an un- 
wholesome one will not — a small onion it is said if boil- 
ed with mushrooms^ will turn black or lose its colour if 
there are any unwholesome ones amongst them ; silver 
also is blackened in the same manner. 

The older and drier the onion, the stronger 
Onions. its flavour, and the cook must regulate the 
quantity accordingly. Onions sliced and fried 
with some butter and flour till they are browned (and 
rubbed through a sieve) are excellent to heighten the co- 
lour and flavour of brown soups and sauces, and form 
the basis of most of the relishes furnished by the ''res- 
taurateurs." 

Take a dozen white onions, and after* hav- 
To loiL ing peeled and washed them, take off the tops 
and bottoms; put them into a stewpan with 
cold water or broth; boil till tender, and serve. The Ita- 
lians cut them into halves, and dress with oil, vinegar, pep- 
per, and salt; oream or butter may be used instead of oil. 

Obs.—ln cutting off* the tops and bottoms take care 
not to cut them too near, otherwise the onions will go 
to pieces. 



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AND OOOKBRT. 825 

Take fine fresh-gathered sprigs ; pick and 
Panley, to wash them clean ; set on a saucepan half 
preserve, full of water ; put a little salt in it ; boil 
and skim it clear ; then put in the parsley, 
and let it boil for a couple of minutes; and take, it out 
and lay it on a cloth or basket and put it in the sun 
that it may. be dried as quick as possible ; keep it in a 
tin box in a dry place ; when wanted, cover it with warm 
water a few minutes before you use it. 

Let it be picked and washed \ then shake 
Fried* it in a dry doth to drain the water from 

it; when perfectly dry, put it into a pan of 
hoi fat ; fry it quick, and take it out the moment it is 
crisp ; put it on a coarse cloth before the fire to drain, 
or after thje parsley is perfectly dried put it on a sheet 
of paper in a Dutch oven before the fire and turn it fre- 
quently until it is quite crisp. 

The best mode of dressing these is to roast 
Parsnips. them in the oven, or they may be parboil- 

ed in their skin and roasted after in a 
Dutch oven : send them whole to table, or slice* without 
paring and serve with melted or hard butter. 

Put them into plenty of water with some 
Potatoes, to salt ; when they are about half-boiled, 
boilm throw away the water, and pour boiling 

water over the potatoes, adding to it some 
salt; let it boil up briskly, ascertain with a fork if the 
potatoes are nearly done, and if so, throw in a cup of 
cold water to check the boiling ; the water will soon boil 
up again, and the potatoes will crack ; drain off the water 
and serve the potatoes up immediately in an open dish, 
or in a napkin. 

Pare the potatoes and cover them with 
A noiher, cold water and boil till * quite tender ; then 

drain off the water, and strew some salt over 

il 



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286 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

them ; place the saucepan near the fire, with the lid off, 
and continually shake it till the potatoes appear dry and 
floury. 

These should be fresh dug— take them of 
To baU new equal size ; rub off the skins with a coarse 
potatoes. cloth, and wash them clean ; put them into 
hot water without salt^ and boil 4;ill tender ; 
drain off all the water, and set them by the side of the 
fire, strewing a little salt over them ; and immediately 
they are ready, serve in a napkin hot, with melted butter. 

Are never good unless perfectly ripe. Choose 
New potatoes them as nearly of one size as possible ; wash 
them and rub off the outer rind and wipe 
them dry with a napkin ; put a quarter of a pound of 
fresh butter into a stewpan ; set it on the fire, and when 
it boils, throw in the potatoes ; let them boil till they are 
done, taking care to toss them every now and then, so 
that they may all go successively into the boiling butter. 
They must be carefully watched, because, if done too much, 
they shrivel up and become waxy. When the fork indi- 
cates they are done, they must be taken out before they 
lose their crispness, put into a dish, and some salt sprink- 
led over them. As soon as taken from the boiling but- 
ter, a handful of picked parsley may be thrown into it, 
and after it has had a boil or two, laid upon the potatoes 
as a garnish. 

Old potatoes may be cut into round pieces, about the 
size of a walnut, and dressed in the same way. 

Parboil the potatoes, then cut them up into 
To fry. slices, and fry them in butter or dripping ; when 

they are brown, drain off the fat, and strew a 
little salt over them, and eat while hot and crisp. 

Potatoes may be fried without being parboiled, and 
even when boiled and become cold ; the process in both 
cases must be the same. 



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AND COOKCKT. M7 

May be varied at pleasure, using the pota- 
Potaioe toes as crumbs are used in other scollops, and 

scollops for which they must only be parboiled and 
rasped^ and mixed with . rasped ham, bacon, 
parsley, scallion, butter, gravy or cream, pepper and salt, 
or with mushrooms, oysters or shrimps, with savoury herbs; 
any of these may be cheesed or curried. They are excel- 
lent supper dishes mashed sweet, or savoury served in shells. 

Boil some potatoes very dry, or till they 
Poiatoe balls, are ilpury ; mash a pound of them very 
smooth and mix with them while they are 
warm, two ounces of fresh butter, a tea-spoonful of salt, 
a little nutmeg, the strained and beaten yolk of four eggs, 
and last of all, the whites thoroughly mixed ; mould with 
and drop the mixture from a t«a-spoon into a small pan 
of boiling butter or ghee or very pure lard, and fry the 
boulettes for five minutes over a moderate fire; they should 
be of a fine pale brown and very light colour* 

Mix mashed potatoes with the yolk of an 
Another. egg ; roll them into balls ; flour them or egg 

and bread-crumb them, and fry them in clean 
dripping or ghee, or brown them in a Dutch oven. 

The potatoes must be free from spots, 
Potatoesnow. and the whitest you can pick out; put 
them on in cold water, when they begin to 
crack, strain the water from them, and put them into a 
clean stewpan by the side of the fire till they are quite « 
dry, and fall to pieces; rub them through a wire sieve 
on the dish they are to be sent up in, and do not dis- 
turb them afterwards. 

Should be as nicely boiled as if for eat- 

Potatoes ing — perhaps a little more so, only care must be 

masked taken that the water does not get into them; 

remove the skin, and. mash them with a small 



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S08 INDIAN DOMESTIC KCONOMT 

quantity of butter, cream or milk ; put them into a moald 
to give a nice form; turn them out, and brown with a 
salamander or in an oven, or they may be made into balk, 
covered with the yolk of eggs, and fried a nice, brown. 

Take cold boiled potatoes; cut them into 
Potato€9 a la rather thin slices of the fourth of an inch ; 
Maitre d* put a lump of butter into a stewpan, and 
HSteL add a little flour, about a tea-spoonful 

for a middling sized dish ; when the flour 
has boiled a little while in the butter, add by degrees a 
cupful of broth or white consomm^; when this has boil- 
ed up, put in the potatoes, with chopped parsley, pepper 
and salt; let the potatoes stew a few minutes; then take 
them from the fire and let the boiling entirely cease; then 
add the yolk of an egg beat up with a little lemon juice, 
and a table-spoonful of cold water ; let it set over the fire, 
but mind it does not curdle, or that the potatoes break 
in the sauce* 

Boil some potatoes nicely, and mash the 

PurSe de inside in a mortar, or rub through a sieve ; 

pommede moisten them with good broth, or thicken 

terre* with butter and cream ; put carefully over the 

fire and warm it. The pur^e should be thinner 

than mash, — place fried sippets of bread round the dish, 

and the potatoes in the centre. 

Take a pint and a half of fresh shelled 
Puree of green peas, put them into a stewpan with 

OreenPeoiAwo spoonfuls of butter and a dessert-spoon- 
ful of pounded sugar, half a handful of 
parsley and green onions, over a slow fire, till they are 
thoroughly stewed; then pound the whole in a mortar 
and rub through a cloth. Moisten the whole with con- 
somme or white broth; leave it near the fire to simmer 
only, for if it should boil the peas lose their green colour. 
When serving, add slices of bread cut in dice and nicely fried^ 



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AND COOKERY. 2S9 

Green peas should be young, fresh gather- 
Oreen peas, ed, and cooked as soon as they are shelled ; 
toboiL Ux they soon lose both their colour and 
sweetness; large and small peas cannot be 
boiled together, as the former will take more time than 
the latter; therefore, separate the large from the smaller 
ones, and boil them for a few minutes before adding the 
latter ; set on a saucepan with a sufficiency of water ; when 
it boils, put in your peas, with a little salt ; skim it well ; 
keep them boiling quick according to their age and size; 
when they are done enough, drain them on a sieve. It 
is usual to boil some mint with the peas, but if you wish 
to garnish the peas with mint, boil a few sprigs in a 
saucepan by themselves. 

Take a quart of green peas; throw them 
Peas (French into an earthen pan, with a table-spoonful 
fashion). of fresh butter and plenty of cold water; 
rub the peas with the butter till they stick 
together; then drain them; take them out of the water 
by handfuls and throw them into a colander, that neither 
water nor any kind of filth may remain. Next stew them 
over a moderate fire with a bunch of parsley and green 
onions ; when they have recovered their green colour, pow- 
der them over with a little flour ; stir the peas before you 
moisten them with boiling water till they are entirely 
covered with it, which reduce quickly on a large fire. 
The moment you perceive there is no moisture or liquor 
remaining, dip a small lump of sugar into some water that 
it may soon melt, and put it to the peas, to which add 
a very small quantity of salt. Green peas without taste 
are very insipid, although the persons who eat them are 
not sensible of there being any. Next take a spoonful of 
butter, which knead with one of flour ; (mind that the peas 
are boiling when you put in the kneaded butter,) thicken 
them with it, and remember that when green peas are 
properly dressed, there must be no sauce. It may be 



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230 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

useful to remark that, if the peas are not very young and 

tender, they must be moistened with boiling water ; bat 

if they are young, fresh gathered, and fresh shelled, they 
do not require it. 

And more simple process is, after having 
Another way, washed your peas well, put them into a stew- 
pan, with as much butter only as will stick 
to them, a couple of spoonfuls of water with a little chop, 
ped mint, pepper, salt, and sugar; cover the saucepan down, 
and let them stew gently from 15 to SO minutes. Then 
add a small quantity of cream, or butter mixed with arrow- 
root or flour, or two table- spoonfuls of liaison ; shake the 
saucepan well over the fire for a minute, and the peas 
are ready. 

Take a quart of shelled peas, and mix them 
Another. with two table-spoonfuls of butter ; lay upon 
them a large lettuce cut into slices, with half a 
dozen small onions only split, with a sprig or two of mint^ 
a wine glass of water, and set the saucepan covered close 
on the fire ; when the lettuce falls to the bottom, shake 
the saucepan well until the peas are uppermost ; add sea- 
soning of pepper, salt, and a dessert-spoonful of sugar, and 
stew the peas until tender. 

06*. — The fire must not be very brisk — green peas may 
be added with advantage to stews, ragouts, and to any 
vegetable soup. 

Stew a pint of young green peas ten- 
Green peas mth der, with a table-spoonful of butter and a 
buttered egg. tea-spoonful of sugar, a little salt and 
chopped parsley ; then beat up two eggs' 
yolk and white very well together in a basin, and pour it 
over the peas ; stir it very quickly, and immediately serve 
it up before the egg becomes hard. 

There are deep glasses made on purpose for 
Radishes, sending these to table in water, mixed with 



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AND COOKE&T. ^ 231 

cresses and other salad, as an ornament. They should be 
picked and washed very nicely previous to sending to table. 

The peas should be fresh shelled. Put them 
Green j>eas, into wide*mouth glass bottles which have been 
topreserve. carefully washed ; put the bottles in a sauce- 
pan or boiler, with a litde hay between them 
to prevent their coining in contact ; fill up the kettle with 
cold water, and heat it ; when the water begins to boil 
take off the saucepan directly ; leave the bottles in the wa- 
ter until it is quite cold, for fear they should break by 
taking them out whilst the water is hot : cork down the 
bottles, and keep them in a dry and cold place. 

Shell your finest peas, have ready a sauce- 
Anoiherway* pan of boiling water, throw the peas in and 
take the saucepan from the fire; let them 
remain two or three minutes in the water, drain them on 
a towel and let them dry quickly, when quite dry put 
them out in the sun or in a very cool oven, and let them 
remain until quite hard. When required for use soak them 
in warm water till tender, with a little butter and sugar. 

These should be freshly drawn, young and 
Badisieiyiur'' white. Wash and trim them neatly, leaving 
nips, to boiL on two or three of the small inner leaves 
of the top; boil them in plenty of salted 
water from twenty to thirty minutes, and as soon as they 
are tender, send them to table well drained, with melted 
batter or white sauce. Common radishes, when young, 
tied in bunches and boiled from eighteen to twenty-five 
minutes, tben served on a toast like asparagus, are very good. 

Have your salad herbs as fresh as possible; 
Salad. carefully wash and pick them ; trim off all worm- 
eaten, cankered, and dry leaves ; drain off all th^ 
water, or swing them in a clean napkin; when properly 



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232 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

picked and cut, arrange them in the salad bowl ; mix the 
sauce in a soup plate^ but do not put it to the salad 
until required for use. 

Mix rasped parmesan into butter melted 

Scorzonera in cream or gravy ; when the vegetables 

in parmesan, are dressed, lay them in a dish, pour over 

the sauce, and sprinkle it with pounded 

cheese ; put the dish into an oven, or brown it with a 

salamander. 

After having carefully picked and washed 
Spinach, four or five times in plenty of water, put it 
in boiling water with some salt in a large ves- 
sel where it may have plenty of room ; the leaves that 
rise above the water must be pressed down. When the 
spinach is half done, take it off the fire; strain it, and 
prepare some more boiling water and salt, in which it 
must be again boiled till sufficiently done. The moment 
it is so, put it into a colander, and keep throwing cold 
water over it for some time; then make it into balls, and 
with your hands press out every drop of water it con- 
tains; afterwards chop it into almost a fine paste. lyTow 
put a lump of butter into a stewpan, and place the spinach 
upon the butter; let it dry gently over the fire; when 
the moisture has evaporated, dredge it with a little flour; 
then add a small quantity of good gravy, with seasoning 
of jpepper and salt to your taste ; serve it up with sippets 
fried in butter. 

Boil some good cream just before you 
Spinach with put the spinach into the stewpan with the 
sugar, butter, as in the last receipt ; when yoa 

have added the flour as directed, together 
with a little salt, put in the cream with some sugar and 
nutmeg; let it simmer for ten minutes; then serve it 
up on sippets with a very small quantity of pounded lump 
sugar, or sugar-candy strewed over it. 



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AND COOKEKT. f S3 

First pick dean the leaves and boil, squeeze 
Spinach the juice from it by pressing through a tow- 

eohmring. el^ place the liquor in a small stewpan in a 

hot-water bath, or in a jar, which set in a 
saucepan of water to boil, when the green has settled at 
the bottom strain it through a silk sieve or fine muslin, 
and use it for whatever requires to be coloured green. 

Cut your turnips (after having well dean- 
PurSe of ed and pared them) into slices ; dress them 
iurtiipi. over a very slow fire, with a little butter, 
and take care they do not get brown ; stir 
the whole with- a wooden spoon, and when quite soft, add 
a sufficient quantity of clear strong broth ; dredge in a 
little flour, and stew the whole to a proper consistence, 
adding cream or white sauce if necessary. 

Mashed vegetables, such as turnips, carrots. 
Turnips, beet-root, parsnips and potatoes, are all to 

masked. be well cooked in salt and water, refreshed, 
drained and beat and dried over the fire till 
they attain a proper consistency, and are well seasoned 
with cream, butter, stock, eggs, or a proper mixture of 
any or all of them. Mixtures may be made of these ve- 
getables in any proportion, and when they are wanted 
very rich, a large quantity of cream may be dried into 
them. 



rl 

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CHAPTER XII 



DEVILS, ZESTS, Ere. 

This fish is verj delicate^ and of great utility 
Anchovy, in cooking \ be careful when yon open a jar 
to close it again tight, as the fish is soon 
spoilt, and rusts by the admission of air. 

Wash from the picUe some of the fish ; 
Butter An- bone, and take off the heads ; then pound 
cAovy. them in a mortar with fresh butter till quite 

smooth, and rub through a sieve if neces- 
sary. If to be kept, put into small pots, and cover over 
with clarified beef suet, 6r it gets soon rancid. 

Obs. — It is sometimes made hot for devilling biscuits. 
By the addition of cayenne, flour of mustard, spice, &c. 
it will make anchovy toasl. 

Clean some fish, cut off their heads, and 

Anchovy remove the bones ; pound them in a mortar^ 

powder. and rub through a sieve ; then make it into a 

paste with dry flour ; roll it into thin cakes, 

and dry in the sun or an oven ; pound into a fine powder, 

and put into a well stoppered bottle. It will keep a long time. 

Ohs. — ^To this may be added cayenne pepper, or citric 
acid, and will be found excellent sprinkled on bread and 
butter for a sandwich. 

Spread a little salad sauce on two sides of 

Sandwich, bread ; cut and wash some anchovies, take out 

the bones, and put the fillets on one piece of 

the bread which is to be covered with the other; the 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. SS& 

pieces of aiichovy should not touch, else the sandwich 
may be too salt. 

Procure a very warm hot water plate — it cannot 
Toast, be too much so ; take a couple of eggs and yolks 
broken separately to see they are fresh; then put 
a spoonful of butter on the plate, and as it melts keep 
stirring the eggs jnto it; add a little cayenne and as 
much anchovy essence as is deemed necessary for covering 
your toast ; which should be nicely browned and buttered, 
or sprinkled with milk. « 

Oi9. — This will be of the consistence of very thick cream 
if the plate is hot. 

Another Is merely to prepare buttered toast, and drop 
icay. a little essence upon it. 

Bleach four ounces of sweet almonds, and 
Almonds fry them in a stewpan with an ounce of fresh 
ievilled. butter. Then drain them over a sieve; strew ^ 
over them some salt, cayenne pepper^ and mace 
mixed together; serve them up very hot. 

Butter the biscuits on both sides, and pep- 

Devilled Us- per them well; rub up some cheese with made 

cuUsmth mustard, and lay one side; sprinkle a little 

cieese. salt and cayenne over the top, and let them 

be grilled. 

Is simply toasting the biscuit and but- 
DemUedhis-^ tering it while hot, then sprinkliug cayenne 
euits (plain) pepper over it with a little salt. 

Obs. — Cooks in this country warm the biscuits on a 
gridiron, or else fry them in a little butter or ghee. 

Bone and wash some anchovies ; pound them 
Another. in mortflr with a little butter and cayenne pep- 

per, (should be rubbed through a sieve) ; spread 
on a warm toast or biscuit fried in butter. 



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S36 INDIAN DOKE8TIC ECONOUY 

NoTB. — ^A little ragout powder, fine pounded mustard and 
salt of each half an ounce, allspice, cayenne, ginger, and 
nutmeg of each one quarter of an ounce, black pepper 
and lemon peel grated half an ounce, pounded and well 
mixed together, may be added if a further zest is required. 

Bub smooth two or three slices of good fresh 
Cheese. dheese that breaks smoothlj^ under the knife ; 
add a portion of butter equal to half the cheese 
with cayenne pepper and salt. 

Take the liver of a roast or boiled turkey 
Liver. or fowl ; mash it smooth on a hotwater plate ; 

add a little butter, some mustard, salt, and 
cayenne, with a tea-spoonful of anchovy sauce or mush- 
room catsup. 

Score the legs of a roasted turkey, goose 
Lege ofpoul- or fowl ; sprinkle them well with cayenne, 
try. black pepper and salt; broil them wdlj 

and pour over the following sauce: Take 
three spoonfuls of gravy, one of butter rubbed in a little 
flour, one of lemon juice, a glass of wine (port or white,) 
a spoonful of mustard, some chillie vinegar, or two or three 
chopped green chillies, a spoonful of mushroom catsup, 
and Harvey sauce; warm up, and serve in a boat 

Obe.'—lt very highly seasoned it may be served with- 
out sauce. 

Take six or eight spoonfuls of gravy : 
Devilled — another add a spoonful of butter rolled in flour 
sauce for grilled or arrowroot, a spoonful of mushroom 
meat seasoned. catsup or walnut, two spoonfuls of le- 
mon or lime juice, one spoonful of made 
mustard and one of minced capers, a little chiUie vinegar, 
some black pepper with the rind of half a grated Ume 
with a tea-spoonful of essence of anchovies; simmer this 
in a silver saucepan ; pour a little over the grill, and 
serve the rest in a butter boat. 



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AND COOKERY. 287 

Take one pound of prawns dried and 
BaUaekang. cleaned of all shell and dirt; cut and 
pound them as fine as possible, to which 
add of pounded dry chillies four tolahs^ four ounces of 
salt, two bundles or roots of garlic, four ounces of green 
ginger cleaned and sliced very fine, one pint of tamarind 
juice or pulp; mix all these ingredients with at least half 
a pint of good ghee; then take and add, if you require 
it for immediate use, about half a pint of chopped onions, 
the peel cut thin of three limes or an orange, and a few 
fresh lime leaves; put the whole into a fryingpan over the 
fire, with half a pound of butter; fry and keep stirring 
it that it may not burn. 

Ob9» — ^This ballachong will keep a long time if bottled 
in its raw state without the onions, all the other ingre- 
dients being well mixed with an additional quantity of 
ghee if necessary; at all events, the top in the bottles 
should be covered with it. 

Boil one hundred prawns, take off the 
BaUaehong* shells and clean them; then grind them on 

a curry stone, with sufficient vinegar to keep 
the stone wet; take two ounces of green ginger, half an 
ounce of red chillies, half an ounce of garlic^ and the peel 
of four lemons; pound them separately; then take two 
ounces of salt and the juice of two lemons ; mix all the 
ingredients with the prawns; cut four onions in rings, 
and fry them with sufficient butter to keep the prawns 
from burning; when the onions become soft, and the bal- 
lachong dry, take it out, and let it cool. To be kept a 
long time, it must be put in jars with orange leaves on 
the top, and closed up with skins. 

Melt in a silver or other saucepan a des- 

Cheeae to sert-spoonfol of butter with a tea-cup of cream ; 

dew. mix with it a quarter of 'a^ 'pound of good 

cheese finely grated; beat it well together; 



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S38 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

put a slice of toasted bread into a dish, and pour the 
mixture over it, and brown with a salamander. 

Take half a pound of good mellow cheese ; 

Pounded* cut into thin bits; add a table-spoonful of 

butter; rub it well in a mortar until it is 

quite smooth; add a little ground spice or essence, pepper 

and cayenne with made mustard. 

Cut some double or single Gloucester cheese 

CAeese to into thin slices ; put it with a bit of butter 

toast. into a cheese toaster; place it before the fire 

till .the cheese dissolves, stirring it pow and 

then; serve it on a slice of toasted bread with the crust 

pared off. Eat with mustard, salt, and pepper. 

Mix about four ounces of bread crumbs with 
Another, the well beaten yolks of two eggs, and a table- 
spoonful of cream; add a large table-spoonful of 
butter with four of grated or pounded cheese, a spoonful 
of mustard, and a little salt and pepper; put the whole 
into a saucepan over the fire, and stir it until it be well 
heated; then lay it thick upon small slices of toasted 
bread, and brown with a salamander or hot shovel; serve 
quite hot. 

This should always be served quite hot; 
Marrow toast, the marrow after being spread on the 
toast, sprinkled with pepper and salt or a 
little essence of anchovy. 

Take fine dry mushrooms with red gills ; 

Mushrooms, peel off the outer skin, and see that they are 

Devilled* perfectly free from sand or dirt; spread a 

little butter over the inside, and sprinkle 

plenty of black pounded pepper over them, with a little 

cayenne and salt; broil them on a gridiron over a clear fire, 

Obs. — K the mushroom peels easily you may almost be 
sure it is edible. 



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AND COOKERY. 2S9 

This must be made with a fine hen lob- 
Lobster or sler when full of spawn. Boil them tho* 

crab potted, roughly; when cold, pick out all the solid 
meat, and pound it in a mortar ; it is usual 
to add by degrees (a very little) finely pounded mace, black 
or cayenne pepper, salt, and while pounding, a little but- 
ter; when the whole is well mixed and beat to the con- 
sistence of paste, press it down hard in a preserving pot, 
pour clarified butter over it and coyer it with wetted 
bladder. 

Take the meat out of the tail, claws, and body 

Salad, of lobster or crab, cut it nicely, and dish it, 

(eggs may or .may not be served with it,) also 

salad herbs — strew the spawn over, and cover or garnish 

with broken savoury jelly. 

May be made by adding to salad sauce a 
Another, small canister of hermetically sealed lobsters, but 
then omit the salad oil and substitute cream, 
otherwise it will be too thin ; salad may be added. 

Take the white meat of a roast or boiled 
ImUation fowl, and mince it very fine with the liver, 
crab* about six table-spoonfuls in all, two table- 

spoonfuls of pounded cheese, a couple of mo- 
derate sized onions, four or five green chillies, and chop 
them very small, and mix all well together, then add one 
spoonful of anchovy sauce, one of Harvey, and a large 
spoonful of mustard, two of mushroom catsup, some black 
•pepper and salt, with three spoonfuls of sweet oil ; mix 
the whole. 

Ois. — ^When green chillies are not to be had, red pep- 
per must be substituted; it is an excellent relish with 
bread and butter just before the cloth is removed. 

Take a portion of cold boiled fish, with a 

Imitatum little roe if procurable, cut it up in small slices, 

lobster. with a small white onion chopped, a few green 



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240 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

chillies^ a spoonful of mustard^ the yolk of a hard boiled 
egg mashed^ some salt and groand black pepper, with jost 
a sufficiency of vinegar to moisten the whole, then add two 
or three table-spoonfuls of cream or sweet oil, serve it 
garnished with any green salad. 

Obs. — The egg may be omitted, and a little anchovy 
sauce added. 

Any well roasted or boiled meat, free of 
Potted-meat, fat, skin and gristle will answer for potting, 
also fish, lobsters, prawns and shrimps ; spiced 
or salted meat is equally good; but if the latter is used 
less salt is requisite. The meat must be cut and minced 
before it is put into the mortar, and if very diy, pound 
it well .before you add any butter, marrow, or suet. If 
fish is used it must be perfectly fresh and seasoned as for 
white meats with ground white pepper, mace, salt and 
cayenne; if hare or other brown meat, a small quantity 
of salt, cloves with black pepper may be added; cover it 
over with melted butter, marrow or suet, the last is pre- 
ferable ; when properly prepared it will keep many days. 

Should always be made fresh, otherwise they 
Sandwickee get soon dry. It is necessary that the bread 
be new, and if required expressly for the pur- 
pose, made in a mould that the crumb may be dose, and 
the crust rasped. It is essential also to cut the bread 
neatly with a sharp knife ; if the bread is made round aad 
long, the crust is left upon it and rasped. YPlien you cut 
it have one slice rested close against the other, upright^ 
that it may not dry, and be careful always to take the 
pieces of bread which fit one another precisely ; open, and 
insert whatever the sandwiches are to be composed of, and 
dose them nicely together; they may also be cut thin 
and in squares, or as fancy directs, and placed one upon 
another to prevent their getting hard and dry; serve in 
a napkin, silver or China plate, and keep a cover over 
them until wanted. 



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AND COOKEKT. 241 

OA*.— Whatever meat is used must be carefully trim- 
med from every bit of skin, gristle, sinews, &c. The ma- 
terials for making sandwiches are cold and potted meats, 
fish, game, poultry, potted shrimps and prawns, potted 
cheese, ham and tongue, anchovy and herring paste, paste 
diavolo, sausages, bechamel, hard eggs with pounded cheese 
. and butter, olive force-meats, zest, mustard, pepper, salt, 
and bread. 

Cut very nice thin slices of bread crust. 
Anchovy and cover it with anchovy, butter, and lay 

Sandwiches, over another thin slice, press together, and 
cut it in squares. 

Stone and pound some olives either with olive 

OUve Sand- oil or butter ; if they have been simply pound- 

taiches. ed, butter the bread and spread it over it, 

or fry some slices in olive oil light crisp but 

not hard, and spread the olives or lay them in patches. 

One pound of undressed beef, tender and 
Meat for free fifom sinew ; beat in a mortar with two 
Sandwich* eggs, a little salt, pepper^ and nutmeg; put 
in a mould ; let it simmer one hour. 

A slice of ham, salt beef, or tongue laid 
A common neatly between two slices of bread and 

Sandwich. butter ; mustard, and chopped green chillies 
may be added. 

May either be made of potted shrimps or 
Shrimp Sand- butter ; butter the bread and arrange the 
wichee. shrimps, press together and cut them neat- 
ly. Oyster and lobster butter make ele- 
gant sandwiches, which may be made to every taste. Egg 
butter answers well with minced or pounded anchovies. 
Fish sandwiches are the lightest ; sprinkle them with an- 
chovy essence. 

ol 



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S42 INDIAN DOHISTIC SCONOMY 

Mix in a mortar any kind of cheese with 
JVelsA galli' butter, mustard, wine, and any flavoured 
maufry, vinegar ; this makes excellent zests or sand* 
wiches. 

Cut a slice of bread about half an inch 
WeUh rabbit, thick, pare off the crust, and toast it on « 

both sides so as just to brown it without 
making it hard ; cut a slice of good mellow cheese, quarter 
of an inch thick but not quite the size of the bread ; pare 
off the rind and lay it on the toasted bread in a cheese 
toaster, carefully watch it that it does not burn, and stir 
it to prevent a pellicle forming on the surface, or toast 
it with a salamander. 

Pick off all the bits of meat from a ham 
E&sence of bone ; pound it ; break the bone, and put both 
Aam. into a saucepan together, ^ with nearly half a 

pint of water and a bunch of sweet herbs ; 
simmer gently for some time, stirring it occasionally ; then 
add a pint of good beef gravy and black pepper ; continue 
to simmer it until it be well flavoured with the herbs ; 
strain and keep it for improving rich gravies and sauces. 

Brandy or proof spirit two wine glasses 

Celery essence, or quarter of a pint, celery seed bruised 

half an ounce, let it steep for a fortnight. 

Oi«.— A few drops will immediately flavour a pint of 
soup. 

Take fine fresh oysters ; wash the shells per- 
OyeUr e»- fectly clean ; open and wash them in their 
eeneep own liquor ; skim it ; pound them in a marble 

mortar ; to a pint of oysters add a pint of 
sherry or other white wine ; boil them up ; add an ounce 
of salt, two drachms of pounded mace and one of cayenne 
let it just boil up again, skim it, and rub through a sieve 
when cold, bottle it and cork it tight. 



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AND COOKERY. S4S 

Obi. — ^Thc salt and spices may be pounded with the 
oysters ; this is an agreeable addition to the flour of white 
sauce and made dishes : a little brandy in addition will 
keep it good for a considerable time longer* 

Sprinkle salt over the mushrooms; let 

Euenee of mutA' them remain for three hours; then mash 

roami. them; next day strain off the liquor; 

put it into a stewpan^ and reduce to 

one half. 

04#. — ^It will not keep long having neither spice nor 
wine— put in small bottles, and cork it tight. 

For immediate use may be prepared by 

Lenumpeel, rubbing the lemon with loaf sugar till the 

whole of the yellow is taken up by the 

sugar; scrape off the surface, press it hard down, cover it 

very dose, and it will keep for some time. 

Or, best oil of lemon one drachm, strong rectified spi- 
rit two ounces introduced by degrees until the spirit com- 
pletely mixes with the oil. 

Obs. — ^It will be found a tolerably fair substitute for 
fresh lemon peel. 

Break four eggs into a dish with a little 
Omelette plain, pepper or chopped green chillies, a small 
quantity of fine salt, with a tea-spoonful 
of milk or water merely to dissolve '4t; beat the whole 
well in a froth; then put a table-spoonful of butter or 
ghee into frying pan; when it is hot, throw the eggs 
into the pan, holding it a little distance from the fire. 
keep shaking it to prevent its burning and sticking to the 
bottom of the pan ; it takes about five minutes to dress ; 
gather up one side with a knife, and roll it equally 
before you dish it. 

Obs. — Chopped parsley, onions, minced ham or kidneys 
may be added, and a variety given by grated hung beef, 
dried tongue, anchovy paste, sauce, or chopped oysters. 



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244 INDIAN DOMfSnC ECONOMY 

Beat up the eggs with a very little 
Omelette sweet, salt ; put them into the pan as last 
directed, and sprinkle fine pounded sugar 
over while frying; place the omelette on a dish, cover it 
over with sugar, and brown it with a salamander; trim 
the edges, roll up neatly, and serve. 

Prepare your omelette as first directed; 

Omelette aux mince up the kidney of a loin of veal or 

Rognons. mutton that has been roasted, and mix with 

the omelette; season well with salt, and 

fry it nicely. 

Obe. — You may season it higher with a couple of chop- 
ped anchovy, fish, or some essence. 

Make some small omelettes of two 
Petitee omelettes eggs each; mince up some ham, and 
au Jaifnhon. put in a spoonful to each before rolling. 

Ohe. — If the ham is salt do not add any more. 

Break up six eggs separating the whites from 
Omelette the yolks ; beat up the former and strain them ; 
souffle, add to the yolks two table- spoonfuls of dried 
pounded sugar, with a little lemon juice or 
orange flower water, and work them well together. 
Whip the whites into a froth, and mix them with the 
rest ; put some butter or ghee into the frying pan : add 
the omelette, taking care it does not burn ; when made, 
sprinkle a little pounded sugar over it, and put into 
the oven to rise, or glaze it of a fine colour with a 
salamander. 

Slice some cheese ; put it into a sauce- 
Toasted cheese, pan with a little butter and milk ; stir it 
over the fire until the cheese is dissolved ; 
beat up an egg well, and add to it; place it upon toast 
or on a dish, and brown it before the fire or with a 
heated shovel. 



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AND COOKERY. 245 

Put two table-spoonfuls of grated cheese 
Stewed cheese, into a dish ; beat up an egg, and strain 
it into four table-spoonfuls of cream ; put 
a table^spoonfol of butter into a small saucepan^ and let 
it melt; then stir in the other ingredients^ and boil until 
well mixed; serve it hot witR toast^ or brown it in a 
patty pan. 

Make some brioche paste ; have ready some 
Brioches au parmesan cheese or Swiss^ which cut into 
fromage* small squares, and throw into the paste while 

it is soft, and bake it in an oven. 

Thicken one-fourth of a pint of cream or 
Fondeau. milk with a little arrowroot to a moderate con- 
sistence> then add four ounces of finely pound- 
ed cheese, and mix it all well together with the beaten 
yolk of two eggs ; then beat the whites to a froth and 
add them to the rest; line a mould with white paper, 
pour in the fondeau and bake it in a fast oven, or divide 
it into small paper cases, and fill them three-fourths. 

Take four table-spoonfuls of Swiss cheese, 
Fondeaus en two of parmesan, a little cream cheese ; 
caisses, pound these in a mortar with a little pepper 
and salt; then mix in four eggs, one at a 
time, and fill small patty pans or paper cases with the 
mixture, and bake in an oven. They should have a nice 
brown appearance when served. 

Take equal quantities of flour, butter, and 

Eamaiin, pounded or grated cheese, with an egg to each 

Indian, spoonful of the otiier ingredients ; mix all well 

together, and bake in moulds or cases as the 

last ; serve with toast, made mustard, pepper, and salt. 

Half a pound of cheese, half a pound of 

Ramakin, bread, four ounces of butter, three eggs, a gill 

i of cream, and a little salt ; pound all well to- 



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W6 INDIAN DOMBSTIC ICONOMT AND COOKSRT. 

getker^ and pufc into paper cases; twleve or fifteen 
minutes will bake them. 

Beat three ounces of parmesan or any other 
Another, cheese in a mortar, and mix in- by degrees half 
a pint of cream, two ounces of butter, four 
yolks and one white of egg, rub them together, and 
leave them mixed for some time; fill it into paper cases. 
They may be baked in a Dutch oven. 

Boll out rather thin from six to eight 
Jla Sefton. ounces of puff paste, handle it lightly, spread 
it out on the dresser, and sprinkle over it 
some rasped parmesan cheese; then fold the paste in 
three, spread it again, and sprinkle more cheese over it; 
give what is called, two turns and a half, and sprinkle it 
each time with the cheese; cut about eighteen ramakina 
with a plain round cutter, spread over again some rasped 
parmesan, and put them into the oven and bake for fifteen 
minutes; and serve very hot in a napkin. 

Break four ounces of maccaroni into 
Maccaroni and lengths of about a couple of inches, wash 
Cheese, plain, it in water, and then boil it in white broth 
or milk, with a little salt until tender; 
rub up in a mortar four ounces of dry double Gloucester 
or Chedder cheese, and add to it the well beaten yolks of 
two eggs, a couple of spoonfuls of cream with four of the 
broth the maccaroni has been boiled in ; butter a dish 
large enough to contain the whole, in which place the macca- 
roni with the cheese custard poured over it, and bake 
in a quick oven. 

Boil the maccaroni as last directed, and 
Another. when tender drain it and lay it on a dish, 
placing butter and some grated cheese over it; 
continue this for two or three layers and then cover the 
whole lastly with cheese and butter, and bake it carefully; 
when the cheese has become soft, remove it from ihe 
oven and serve. 



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CHAPTER XIII. 



PICKLES AND CHUTNETS. 

Take the young shoots just as they 
Bamboo piclle. appear above the ground^ cut and slice 
them in lengths of half an inch^ sprinkle 
them with salt for a day or two, then put them with 
sliced ginger^ some corns of black pepper, a few cloves of 
garlic into a bottle or jar, fill up with vinegar and set 
in the sun for a week; if desired to be hot add green 
chillies^ or cayenne salt. 

Oh9, — The young shoots of bamboo form a principal 
ingredient in the Chinese preserve called Chow Chow. 

Wash it perfectly clean; do not cufc off any 
Topiekle of the root-fibres or it will bleed, or rather 
Beet. lose its colour; put it into a sufficiency of 

water to boil; when the skin will come off, it 
is done enough; take it out, and lay it upon a cloth to 
cool ; rub off the skin ; cut it into thick slices and put it 
into a jar, and pour over it cold vinegar prepared in 
the following manner: Boil a quart of vinegar with one 
ounce of whole black pepper and the same quantity of 
diy ginger. Cover the jar closely with a good cork. 

Select goody firm, hard, red cabbage; cut 
Cabbage, into thin slices; sprinkle plenty of salt over 
them, and put on a sieve or basket to drain 
for twelve hours; then put into a jar or wide-mouthed 
bottle and pour over it cold vinegar thus prepared : To 
a quart of good vinegar add two ounces of dry ginger 



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248 INDIAN DOMESTTC ECONOMY 

merely broken, half an ounce of black pepper whole, with 
a quarter of an ounce of cloves and a little mace; boil 
these spices in the vinegar, and let it cool. 

Obs. — A good, hard, white cabbage will answer as well 
as the red ; and if you wish to colour it, take a red beet 
that as been parboiled only, cut it into slices^ and boil 
them in the vinegar. 

There is no occasion to place this pickle in the sun^ as 
it will only make the cabbage soft. 

Cut your heads of cauliflower into moder- 

Cauliflower. ately sized sprigs; sprinkle it well with salt, 

and prepare the same as for pickled cabbage. 

' Pour boiling strong salt pickle upon them 
Gherkins to and leave them till next day ; wash out the 
pickle. jars with vinegar^ and drain and wipe every 

gherkin separately; pack them into the jars, 
and boil some good vinegar with mace, whole pepper, 
horseradish, mustard, and salt ; pour it boiling over them, 
and cover; let them stand till next day. If they are 
not sufficiently green, boil the vinegar again within the 
fortnight, aud put them up. 

The cabbage of the cocoanut tree or the 

Cocoanutcab' head sprout, when it can be procured may 

bage pickle. be cut into slices, and pickled exactly as 

you would cabbage — the whole is perfectly 

white and resembles a fresh almond in taste. 

Clean and slice any quantity of green 

Green ginger ginger ; sprinkle it with salt ; let it remain 

pickle. a few hours; then put it into a jar or bot- 

tle^ and pour boiling vinegar over it; cork 

it up when cool. 

Take twenty-five lemons or limes, cut 

Lemon pickle, them in two parts cross ways, squeeze the 

juice into .a basin, and mix with it two 



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AND COOKBRT. 249 

ounces of white salt ; then put it into a bottle and cork 
it tight. Sprinkle over the lemon or lime peel, abont 
two ounces of pounded salt, and let them remain six 
hours; then dry them in the sun till hard enough, for 
three or four days. Take two ounces of mustard seeds 
cleansed of all the husks, four ounce of green ginger 
well dressed, and cut them into thin slices, with four 
ounces of green chillies ; put one bottle of good vinegar 
in a saucepan, and mix with it one ounce of ground tur- 
meric ; boil these about a quarter of an hour over a 
slow fire ; after it is boiled, mix the lemon juice, and 
strain it in a basin; then add to it all the above arti- 
cles, mix well together, and put in a pickle bottle ; cork 
it well ; keep it in the sun three or four days. If the 
vinegar is found not to be sufficient, add a little more to 
it, and let it renfain a fortnight, when it will be ready 
for use. 

Soil the lemons or limes with the hand 
Lime jnekU well upon a stone or board, and throw them 
{haHveJ^ in some water ; then put them in an earthen 
vessel, and sprinkle over with fine salt ; let 
them remain for two or three ^ days, turning them occa- 
sionally; whan the lemons have become soft, expose them 
to the son on a cloth ; after they appear ripe, steep 
them either in vinegar or lemon juice. 

Take fifty ripe limes; split them into four 
Amdker. parts half way down, and sprinkle them well 

with salt; let them remain for twenty-four 
hours, turning them two or three times ; then place them 
in a stone jar with sliced green ginger (four ounces), 
some pounded chillies, and ground mustard seed ; grind 
up one ounce of turmeric with two table-spoonfuls of oil, 
which mix with a sufficient quantity of vinegar to cover 
the limes; dose the vessel tightly down, and place in the 
sun for a few days. 

04*.— Oil may be used instead of vinegar, or they may 

Hi 



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2bO INDIAN BOlCISnC ICONOMT 

be pickled in lime juice first boiled^ with tbe turmeric 
added afterwards. 

Divide the mangoes into four parts ra- 
Mangoe pickle ther more than half way down, having the 
in oiL bottom whole ; scoop out the kernel ; stuff 

the space in each mangoe as full as it 
will admit of, with mustard seed, cayenne pepper, sliced 
ginger, sliced garlic, and grated horseradish ; bind each 
mangoe with thread; put them into a quantity of oil 
sufficient to immerse the whole. Manner of preparing the 
mustard seed, &c* &c« — ^For fifty mangoes use five seers 
of mustard seed ; husk it, steep it in water for twenty- 
four hours, removing the water twice or fhrice during the 
time, dry it afterwards for two days, reduce it into coarse 
powder ; mix with it the ginger, garlic, cayenne pepper, 
and grated horseradish ; make the whole into a paste with 
vinegar ; stuff the mangoes with it ; reserve a fourth part 
of the mustard powder to mix with the oil into which 
the mangoes are to be inmiersed* The garlic, ginger, and 
horseradish are to be steeped in water, and allowed to 
dry for a day previous to being used. 

Take one hundred fine nnripe mangoes ; peel 
Mangoe and partly divide them through the shell, so 

picile. as to remove the seed from the inside ; sprinkle 

them well with salt, and let them lie in a 
large tub or other vessel for twenty-four hours. In the 
meantime take two bottles of vinegar, and four ounces df 
ground turmeric, boil this about a quarter of an hour on 
a slow fire, then remove. Have ready one seer of dry 
chillies, one seer of green ginger cut and sliced, and one 
pound of mustard seed cleaned of all husk, with four 
ounces of garlic; mix these ingredients with the mangoes^ 
and stuff some inside ; then pour the vinegar and turmeric 
over the whole* Should the vinegar not be sufficient to 
cover the n^angoes, more must be added to fill up the jar 
or cask« 



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AND COOKBRT. 251 

Take one hundred unripe green mangoes^ 
Oilpieile, slitting them lengthways^ partly through the 
another, stone, so as to be able to remove all the seed; 
sprinkle them well over with salt, putting some 
inside, and lay them in the sun for a few hours daily ; 
keep them in salt three or four days;, then prepare the 
following ingredients: Turmeric, green ginger, mustard 
seed, and garlic, as directed for pickling, with the except 
tion of the turmeric, which is not to be boiled, but 
ground and mixed with' sweet oil sufficient to cover the 
mangoes; the oil generally used is jinjely or mustard 
seed oil. 

P^l the mangoes, and divide them into 
Jiangoe halves, clearing them of their stones; sprinkle 
piekle, them well with salt, and put them in the sun 
for three or four days; after which wipe them 
well with a cloth; then stuff them with some garlic, 
and green ginger slicedt also some garlic, mustard seed 
and chillies; tie them up with thread, and preserve either 
in vinegar or oil, and keep in a closed vessel in the sun 
for some days. 

Take unripe green mangoes ; peel and cut into 

Dried slices ; sprinkle them over with salt, and put 

mangoes, in the sun to dry : when prepared, make them 

into balls or rolls of a moderate size, and hang 

them in a dry place for use. 

Take green mangoes ; peel and cut into thin 
Another slices; boil with a small quantity of water 
way. until quite smooth ; then spread the pulp on a 
clean cloth, and put out in the sun to dry; 
when required for use, all that is necessary is to cut off 
a piece, and soak it in a little water; the pulp in this 
way may be used for mangoe fooL 

Put the smallest that can be got into 

Muehrooms. spring water, and rub them with a piece of 

new flannel dipped in salt ; throw . them into 



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<5S INDIAN DOHBSTIC ECONOMY 

cold water aa they are cleaned, which will make them 
keep their colour ; next put* them into a saacepan with 
a handful of salt upon them; cover them dose, and 
set them over the fire four or five minutes, or till the 
heat draws the liquor from thetai. Next lay them be- 
twixt two dry cloths till they are cold; put them into 
glass bottles, and fill them up with distilled vinegar, with 
a blade of mace and a tea*spoonM of sweet oil in 
every bottle ; cork them up close, and set them in a dry 
cool place. As a substitute for distilled vinegar use white 
wiae vinegar. 

Sprinkle them with salt, and let them 

NoiterHum lie for a day or two; dry them, and put 

seeth to into a jar; Boil some mace with vin^ar 

pieile. and ginger, and pour the liquor boiling 

hot upon them; cover them close, and 

put them in the sun for two or three days. 

06i» — ^The leaves are used as salad. 

Take any quantity of small white onions; 
Onion fichle. lay them on a sieve or basket, and sprinkle 
them well with salt; let them remain for 
twenty-four hours to drain; put them into wide-mouthed 
bottles with a few slices of ginger, and a blade or two of 
mace; fill up with good vinegar; and if you desire to 
impart a warm flavour, add either green chillies or 
chillie vinegar. They may or may not be put out in the 
sun for a day or two. 

Take pyroligneous acid one pint, three 
Acid of lemon, tea^spoonfnls of pounded sugar, which dis- 
artifieial. solve in the acid, and add thirty drops of 
quintessence of lemcm peel. 

Obi. — The vinegar may be flavoured by infoiing lime 
peel in it. 



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AKO COOKBBT. 258 

Malhroom catsup a pint and a half, walnut 
Coratch. do. four ounces, soy and chillie vinegar of each 
one ounce, essence of anchovy a tea-spoonful. 

Is made by pounding with salt, ripe 

Indian Coratch, capsicums that have been a little roasted ; 

or eAUUe ru9i, add as much water as will make any 

quantity of the former you please into a 

liquid the thickness of milk ; rub the whole through a 

doth, and reject the residue of capsicums. 

06s. — A little wine added makes it keep a long time : 
a few drops impart a peculiar relish to soup or stews. 

Is made by pounding perfectly ripe and dry 

Cayenne birds's-eye chillies or capsicums; it should be 

pepper sifted and kept in a well corked bottle, to ex- 
clude damp. 

Put half an ounce of the above powder into 
Sssenee. half a pint of wine or brandy, let it steep for a 
fortnight, and pour it off clear. 

Take two ounces of finely powdered dried 
Cayenne sail, bird's-eye chillies or capsicums, and mix 
them well in a mortar with two table- 
spoonfuls of clean salt ; add a glass of white wine and two 
of water; put it into a corked bottle, and place in the sun 
for a week or more daily; then strain the whole through 
a fine piece of muslin; pour the liquor into a plate, and 
evaporate it either by a stove or in the sun; you will then 
have soluble crystals of cayenne and salt; a much finer 
article than the cayenne powder. 

Hack pepper is the fruit of a creeping 

Pepper, black, plant indigenous to India ; the berries are 

gathered before they are ripe, and are 

dried in the sun, from whence they become black and 

corrugated on the surface. 



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254 INDIAN DOVSSnC KCONOHT 

Is the fruit of the same plant gathered after 
Wiite it is fully ripe, and freed of its external coats 
by maceration in water; it is smooth on the 
surface, and less pungent than the black pepper. 

Fill a wide-mouthed bottle with the 
Basil vinegar* leaves of fresh green basil, and cover them 
with vinegar ; stop the bottle well, and put 
out in the sun for eight or ten days, shaking it occasion- 
ally; strain and decant it* 

Oh. — ^This is a very agreeable addition to mock turtle, 
soups and sauces, and to the mixture usually made for 
salads. Green mint, chervil, and burnet are aU made in 
the same way. 

Cayenne pepper a tea-spoonful, a pint of 
Camp vinegar, vinegar, soy two table-spoonfuls, walnut 
catsup four spoonfuls, six anchovies chop* 
ped fine, and a clove of garlic; steep all for a fortnight 
in the sun, shaking the botfcles occasionally; strain 
through a tamis, and put into very small bottles corked 
as tight as possible. 

Take ripe cucumbers; cut them in slices. 
Cucumber . and lay them on a sieve or bamboo basket 
vinegar, in the sun, and sprinkle them well with salt; 
when the water is all drained off, add an 
equal quantity by weight, of white wine vinegar, and 
some corns of pepper; let it boil for a quarter of an 
hour, and bottle when cool. 

Pare eight or ten cucumbers; cut them into 
Another, thin slices; add a clove of garlic, a spoonful 
of white pepper coarsely ground, and a spoonful 
of salt; put them into a jar that can be well closed, or 
other vessel, and pour over them a bottle of vinegar and 
let it stand ten or twelve days; then strain and bottle; 



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AND COOKIRT. SS5 

little whole pepper into the mouth of each bottle, 
tightly. 

it has the same flavour as bornet vinegar. 

.sse3. They are an excellent digestive, and form an 

ornamental small salad for the table. 

Dry and pound one ounce of the seed, such 
Creis as is sown in gardens; pour upon it a quart 

Vin^ar, of vinegar, and let it steep in the sun ten or 
twelve days, shaking it occasionally. 

Obin — ^This is strongly flavoured with the cress, and is 
usefol for salads and cold meat. 

Cayenne or Steep in a stoppered bottle as many ripe 

ciilli vinegar^ - or green chillies as it will hold ; cover 

ted cr green, them with vinegar for a fortnight or 
more, then strain it. 

Peel and chop two ounces of garlic ; 
Garlic vinegar, pour on them a quart of white wine vine- 
gar; stop the jar close, and let it steep 
ten days, shaking it well every day; then pour off the 
liquor into small bottles. 

Ohf. — " Be careful not to use too much of this : a few 
drops of it will give a pint of gravy a sufficient smack 
of the garlic, the flavour of which when slight and well 
blended, is one of the finest we have; when used in excess 
it is the most offensive. The best way to use garlic is 
to send up some of this vinegar in a cruet, and let the 
company flavour their own sauce as they like.*' — Retnarks 
by Kitchener. 

Pick the leaves off the stalks, and dry them 

Tarragon a little before the fire or sun; fill a wide- 

vinegar. mouthed bottle with them, and cover with the 

best vinegar; set it in the sun for a fortnight, 



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t66 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

and strain through a flannel bag ; put into small bottles^ 
and cork them carefully. 

To each quart of water put a pound of 
Vinegar. coarse brown sugar; boil them together^ taking 
off the scum; when that ceases to rise, pour 
off the liquid into a suitable vessel; when it is nearly 
oooly add sufficient toddy to make it rise; in twenty-four 
hours pour the whole into a barrel, and expose it to the 
sun for thi^e months : the barrel, must not be bunged 
up — ^place a tile or any thing else, fit for the purpose, 
over the bung to exclude dust and insects; when it is 
clear and ready for use, bottle it carefully. The longer 
it is kept in bottles the better it will be. 

Is made by exposing to the sun in a 

Toddy vinegar similar manner the sweet juice drawn 

from the cocoanut, palmyra and Sindee 



Dissolve three quarters of a pound of 
WhUe vinegar* honey in rain or distilled water; put it 
into a seven gallon cask with a quart of 
white spirit; shake it well; then fill up the cask with 
rain water, and put it out in the sun to stand where it 
cannot be shaken and let it remain five months, and the 
vinegar will be made. Drain it off by piercing the lower 
part of the cask, and let it run until the concretion, 
which is formed at the top, and is termed ''mother of 
vinegar,'' begins to appear. You may then commence the 
process again without cleaning the cask, as the remaining 
sediment hastens the acetous fermentation, which will be 
complete in a shorter time than the first. 

CHUTNIES. 

Take four small brinjalls, roast them, 

Brinjall, plain, and take off their skin and seeds ; fry a 

table^spoonful of dhall with three or four 



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AND COOKEKT. 257 

dry chillies iu a little ghee, adding a sufficient quantity 
of salt; mash and mix the whole together. 

Prepare the brinjalls as in the last re- 
Brinfall, icur. ceipt, and then add a table-spoonful of 
ripe tamarind pulp^^witb six red dry chil- 
liesy a tea-spoonful of mustard^ and the same of cummin 
seed that has been fried in ghee ; ground together with 
two or three leaves of the currypak^ and a ^rain or two 
of assafoetida. 

^ Obs. — ^The two latter ingredients may be left out. 

Dissolve one seer of goar in vinegar; one 
Casimere. seer of green ginger sliced, one seer of garlic, 
* twelve chittacks of raisins^ four chittacks of 
chiUies, and half a seer of mustard seed ; all to be pound- 
ed and mixed with five seers of vinegar; put into a large 
jar, and keep it out in the sun for a fortnight. 

Boast four or five large brinjalls in 
BrinfoU mtk eggi. hot ashes; take out the inside and 
mash it well and mix with it green 
chillies and green ginger sliced, a little salt, and lime 
juice; then diop up the yolks of the hard boiled eggs, 
and strew over it. 

Take eight ounces of dried mangoes. 
Dried mango* four ounces of raisins, four ounces of goar, 
four ounces of green ginger, one ounce of 
garlic by weight; after clearing, dissolve the goar in a 
little vinegar> pound the other ingredients, and mix one 
by one; if not suffioiently moist, add more vinegar. 

Boast four green plantains, and peel 

Green platUai». dF their skin; grind up a spoonful of 

dhall, four dry red chillies, and fry in 

a little ghee; then grind the whole together, adding a 

latle salt. 

il 



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258 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Obi. — ^Two tea-spoonfuls of tamarind pulp or the juice 
of a lime may be added, or a little vinegar. 

Bed tamarinds eight pounds, fresh dry 
Med tamarind, mangoes one pound, tomata one pound, 
dry chillies half a pound, green ginger 
one pound, plums one pound, garlic four ounces, mint 
two ounces, butter one and a half pound, vinegar one bot- 
tle : these articles ari to be well ground, then to be mixed 
With the vinegar, and fried in the butter. ^^ 

Obs. — ^The Tomata may be left out. - 

Take half a seer of red tamarind well cleaned 
Another. from the husks and seed, quarter of a seer of 
salt, quarter of a seer of kishmises, quarter 
seer of sugar, three chittacks of chillies, red and dried, 
one chittack of garlic, a quarter seer of green ginger; the 
whole must be well ground and mixed with vinegar 
(without any water) to the consistence of a thin paste. 

Take one or more large ripe tomatas ; 
Bife Tomata* strip off the skin; then divide and remove 
the seeds and juice; to the pulp that re- 
mains add a little salt, as much chopped onion, cut very 
fine, as is equal to about one half the tomata pulp, a 
table-spoonful of vinegar, a little celery cut very fine, and 
one or more green chillies, according to taste ; if you desire 
to make this chutney into a salad, add a table-spoonful 
of thick cream. 

Oi^f Potatoes mashed, mint or kootmere pounded, 
minced apple, pumblenose, in fact almost any vegetable 
may be made into a, chutney by adding chillies, onions, 
green ginger, garlic, lemon juice or vinegar. 

Take two ounces of green ginger; scrape 

Tamarind and off all the rind ; two tolahs weight of good 

green ginger, tamarind pulp; pound both together, or 

grind on a stone : then add one masha of 

salt; half a masha of pounded chillies, and one tolah of 



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AND COOKERY. 859 

mustard seed which has been roasted in a little ghee ; mix 
all well together. 

Take a pound of ripe tomatas, one 
Tomata or love pound of tamarinds^ four ounces of dry 
apple^ vjith ior ginger, two ounces of red chillies pound- 
fnarinds, ed» tour ounces of raisins^ one ounce of 

garlic, four ounces of sugar, one ounce 
of salt, and half a bottle of vinegar; mix the tamarinds 
with the vinegar ; give them a good boil, *and strain ; pre- 
pare the tomata pulp, raisins, garlic^ and ginger pounded; 
mix all well together, and keep in small bottles in a cool 
place. 

Take a table-spoonful of the seed ; parch it over 
Till seed* the fire; then ppund, and add the following 
ingredients : one clove of garlic, half a mode- 
rate sized onion, a few leaves of kootmere, two or three 
green chillies, a little salt, and tamarind juice ; pound the 
whole together, or rub on a stone, as curry stuff is 
prepared. 

Green mangoes, peeled and minced 
Mangoe chuineg, fine half a seer ; green ginger the same 
9weeU two ounces; garlic three ounces; dried 

chillies ground and mixed with vinegar 
sufScient to moisten it well eight ounces ; sugar and salt ' 
eight ounces of each; mix all well together, put it into 
a jar or bottle cork close, keep out in the sun for a fortnight, 
and stir it occasionally. 

Obs. — ^Ten good sized mangoes, when peeled and sliced, 
are equal in weight, or nearly so, to an English pound. 

Take thirty green mangoes, peel, cut into 

Sweet green thin slices, and mince tolerably fine, boil 

mangoe ciut' in a bottle of vinegar a seer of sugar with 

ney. eight ounces of salt; then take four ounces 

of garlic, one seer of stoned raisins, half a. 



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160 INDIAN pOMBSTIC ECONOMY 

seer of green ginger, and one pound of dried cliillies 
well ground; chop up all these ingredients very fine, and 
mix together with the mangoes ; then add the boi/ed 
vinegar with another bottle of fresh, put the whole in a 
jar Well corked and place in the sun for a few days. 



Peel a green mangoe of a moderate size; 

Plain dinner then chop up the fruit into as smsjl pieces 

chutney. as possible; add an onion with two ax three 

green chillies cut fitie, and a tea-spoonful of 

salt; mix the whole well together. Vinegar may be 

added to this, but it is hardly necessary. 

Prepare a mangoe that js just beginning 

Sweet green to ripen in the same way as the last, with 

mangoe onion, green chillies, a little green ginger, 

chutney, salt and sugar, adding a spoonful of vinegar 

and one of cream. 

Take sixty green mangoes peel and 
Delhi chutney, cut into thin slices, and boil in a bottle 
of vinegar unt^ quite smooth; boil in ano- 
ther bottle of vinegar half a seer of goar and half a 
seer of salt ; mix this all well together ; then take half 
a seer of mustard seed, cleaned and pounded ; half a seer 
of garlic chopped and pounded, one seer of raisins (stoned) 
or kishmises, cut very small and fine, with one seer of 
green ginger and one seer of dry chillies, also pounded; 
mix the whole well together ; then add four bottles of vine- 
jpn^ and put the mixture out in the sun for several days^ 
occasionally stirring it up; this may be used as soon as 
made, but is better for keeping. It may be converted 
into a usance by having the whole of the ingredients well 
pounded before mixing, and after the diutney is made, 
rob it through a sieve or coarse cloth, adding vinegar to 
reduce it to a proper consistency. 



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AND COOKERY. 261 

Take about half a dozen of fine 

Tamarind ehuiney, green tamarind fruit ; clean off the 

(green), outer skin^ and remove the seeds ; 

then rub the fruit on a stone^ or 

pound in a mortar with a little salt ; add a small quantity 

of mustard seed^ and four or five red chillies that have 

been fried in ghee, and powdered ; mix the whole together ; 

to this may be added a small onion 6r a clove of garlic. 

Pulp the large fruit, and mix half an ounce 
Tamarind, of sugar to \xl ounce of salt ; pound them well 
iosalt. together, and use an ounoe to every pound of 
fruit; if the fruit is liquid, it ought to be 
dried over the fire; mix the salt powder in the fruit; 
put the fruit in pots, and cover it close. If it is dry, it 
will keep for years. 

Take half a seer of red tamarind : well 

Tamarind cleaned salt, kishmis, sugar, and green ginger. 

Chutney, a quarter seer of each, three chittacks of red 

and dried chillies, and one chittack of garlic; 

the whole must be well ground, and mixed with vinegar 

without any water. 

Obe. — ^Mangoe chutney is made with the same ingre- 
dients, and equal proportion, the only difference is that 
the mangoes, kishmis, green ginger, and garlic are to be 
finely chopped, and the dried chillies well pounded or 
ground with vinegar. 



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CHAPTER XIV. 



PASTRY. 



A few observations on this head are first necessary be- 
fore giving the receipts; for it must be admitted that few 
cooks in this country^ or servants who have the manage- 
ment of the viands put on the table, understand properly 
the difference between the pastry for a fruit tart, and a 
crust for a meat pie, and of which there is nothing more 
relishing than when both are properly made. A little at- 
tention and practice alone is necessary to attain the art of 
making good pastry ; but the best efforts will be unsucces- 
ful when the knowledge of regulating the heat of the oven 
is wanting; good pastry is often spoilt when the oven is 
improperly heated ; and inferior pastry improved, if at its 
proper temperature. 

The heat of the Indian portable oven is easier regulated 
than that of the brick or clay ones which are fixtures, as fire 
can be applied both above and below, increasing or dimin- 
ishing the heat at pleasure. Light paste requires a moder- 
ate heat, for, if too great i^ will be burnt, and not rise ; 
and again, if too slow, it will be soddened, colourless, and 
fallen. Baised pies require a quick oven to prevent the 
crust from falling. 

When pies, cakes, or tarts are to be glazed and returned 
to the oven, a small degree of heat alone is necessary to 
harden it, though sometimes paste is glazed before being 
put in the oven, and the following are the ingredients 
used: plain water, sugar and water, yolk and white of 
egg beaten with water^ beaten white of egg and sugar 



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INDIAN DOKESTIC ECONOMT AND COOKX&T. 26S 

sifted over, or butter and yolk of egg. A glazing brush is 

the most proper for applying these materials; but feathers, 

if dean, will be a tolerable substitute, though they do 
not distribute the glaze so equally. 

To make paste well, your materials should all be fresh 
and good ; the coolest place in the house selected, and the 
flour dry, and cleanly sifted. A marble slab, slate, or 
smoothly polished stone is the best for making it upon, 
but where these are wanting, the bottom of a large dish 
turned upwards answers. Next is the board kept on pur. 
pose, or the table, which must be perfectly clean and dry ; 
80 must be th» rolling pin. To raise a crust nicely a 
light hand is required, and it should be touched as little 
as possible. The directions for rolling, mixing, spreading 
the butter and flour over it, must be carefully attended to 
— salt added in the proportion of a tea-spoonful to a 
pound of flour, and butter dissolved in any fluid that may 
be used in the making; but if for fine crusts, add also 
about a dessert-spoonful of sifted sugar. Pastry is best 
made with butter, yet for household purposes sweet clarified 
dripping and lard may be substituted to diminish the 
expense. 

Melt it in a warm bath by placing it in 
Lard^ to purify, a jar in a boiler of water ; then turn it 
into boiling water, and beat it up well, 
so as to clean it of all impurities ; let it cool, and remove 
the lard from the surface ; melt it again in the warm 
bath, and let it stand a short time to settle, when pour 
it clear ofP into any vessel for use or keeping. 

Cut the suet into slices, and pick out 
Suet, to clarify, all the veins and skin ; put it into a sauc- 
pan well tinned, or a jar ; if the former, 
melt it slowly over the fire, or put the jar in an oven or 
boiler of water; when melted, pour it into any clean 
vessel. 



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264 INDTAN DOMESTIC EOONOMT 

Set it on the fire in a clean pan^ and when 
To clarify melted and jnst going to boil, take it off, and 
dripping, poor it into another pan half filled with boil* 
ing hot water ; stir the two very well together 
with a broad wooden spoon^ and then remove the pan 
into a cool place till the next day ; when the clarified drip- 
ping win be found floating on the surface of the water. 

Where butter is not immediately to be 

Beef 9uetfof obtained for paste, clean as much beef suet 

puff paste, from all shreds, chop it up fine and pound 

it in a mortar, with as much sweet oil as 

will reduce it to the consistency of butter. 

Take one pound of fiour, four ounces 

Common paste, of butter or clarified dripping ; mix half -the 

flour with the butter or dripping, and mix 

the remainder into a paste with milk; roll it out, and 

spread the other half on it at three times rolling. 

MiaL half a pound of sifted sugar with 
Fine tart paste, half a pound of fine flour, adding half a 
wine glass of boiling cream or milk ; rub 
two table-spoonfuls of butter into it ; roll it very thin, and 
when made into tarts, brush it over with the white of 
an egg. 

Beat the white of an egg into a strong 

Zi^M pastern froth; mix wjjLh it as much water as will 

make three quarters of a pound of flour into 

a stiff paste ; roll it out, and spread four ounces of butter 

upon it at three times rolling, and no more. 

Mix two table -spoonfuls of sifted sugar with 
Siort crust, a pound of flour ; rub into it three ounces 
of butter ; beat the yolk of two eggs with a 
sufficient quantity of cream or milk to make tlie flour 
into a paste ; roll it out thin, and bake in a moderate 
oven. 



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AND COOKERY. |ft65 

Take half a pound of fine flour; rub into 
Puff paste, it four table-spoonfuls of butter, and mix 
nvith it sufficient pure water to make it into 
a paste ; roll it out^ and laj on it two more spoonfuls of 
butter; fold it up, and roll it again with the same quan- 
tity; strew over it a little flour and roll it once more, 
and set it by in a cool place for about an hour. 

Mix a quarter of a pound of flour 
PoMte for stringing with a table-spoonful of butter, and a 
over tartlets. little cold water ; rub it well on the 

board until it begins to string under 
jour hand ; cut it into small pieces, roll it out, and draw 
it into fine strings; lay them across your tartlets, and 
bake them immediately. 

Put to three and a half pounds of 

Paste/or a large flour, four eggs, two pounds of butter, 

jpie or pasty . and half a pound of shred suet, beaten 

up and dissolved to the consistency of 

lard, in boiling water; with as much of the liquor as will 

make it a good light crust, work it up well, and roll it out. 

Put an ounce of loaf sugar, beat and shifts 

Far tarts, ed, to one pound of fine flour ; make it into a 

stiff paste with a gill of boiling cream and 

three ounces of butter ; work it well, and roll it very thin. 

Mix a pound ^f flour with six ounces of 
For tartlets, butter, four ounces of sugar, two ounces of 
almond paste, and six yolks; make it with 
rose or orange-flower water; beat and make it very 
smooth ; cover small tart-pans, and /;ut out flat or raised 
covers; if raised, they may be baked on tart-pans turned 
up : these covers ought to be very open ; do not fill them 
till wanted, or put them into the oven with any cream or 
custard, — fill with all kinds of frangipanes, fried creams, 
kc^ &c. 

. Kl 



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266 INDIAN DOMESTIC ICONOMTC 

Take three quarters of a pound of fine 

Confectioner's flour, lay it on your paste-board, make a 

paste. hole in the centre, in which put half a 

pound of sifted sugar, with six eggs, ami 

work it up into a stiff paste, when it will be ready for 

use. 

Obs, — If too stiff, add more egg, or too soft, more flour. 

Mix half a pound of lard in a pint of 
For standing pie. water, and let it boil ; have ready three 
pounds of dried flour; lay a little aside 
to make up the paste ; mix in the water with a spoon ; work 
it stiff; continue working it till quite smooth. Lay aside 
a piece for the cover ; roll it out a proper thickness, and 
mould it by putting the right hand in the centre, and be- 
gin moulding with the left hand, keeping the outside in 
the proper shape. The meats, which are savoury for these 
pies, ought to be ready cooked before the paste is made, and 
may be seasoned with salt, pepper, and onions to any 
height. No juice of any kind ought to be put into them : 
butter, rasped bacon, and savoury jelly are the only ad- 
missible sauces-— fill, cover, wet the edges, and close them 
neatly and put them into a quick oven. There is little or 
no difficulty in making pies after a knowledge of making 
paste is obtained. 

Pick and chop very fine, half a pound 

Paste for boiled of beef suet ; add to it one pound and a 

puddings. quarter of flour and a little salt; mix it 

with half a pint of milk or water, and 

beat it well with the rolling pin to incorporate the suet 

with the flour. 

Sift two pounds of fine flour to one 

For meat or and a half of good salt butter, break 

savowry pies, it into small pieces, and wash it well 

in cold water ; rub gently together the 

butter and flour, and mix it up with the yolk of three 



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AND COOKBRT. 267 

«gg8 beat together with a spoon, and nearly a pint of 
spring water; roll it out and doable it in folds three 
times, and it is ready. 

Take one pound of flour and twelve 

ExcelleiU short ounces of butter; rub them together, and 

crwL mix into a stiff paste with as little water 

as possible; beat it well, and roll it thin; 

bake in a moderate oven. 

Mix the quantity of rolong you re- 

A good paste quire with water; then strew some flour 

for patties, on the table, and work the paste well; 

then roll it out very thin, and put the 

butter all over it; roll it up with your hands and then 

with the pin, and cut it out the size of your patties. 

Sub equal quantities of flour and butter 
Cheese cake together with a little pounded and sifted 
paste. sugar ; make it into a paste with warm milk ; 
roll it out, and line the pans with it. 

Bub a quarter of a pound of butter into a 
Crisp paste, pound of flour and two table-spoonfuls of 
pounded sugar, and the well beaten yolk of 
two or three eggs ; work it well with a spoon, and roll it 
out very 'thin» turning it as little as possible with the 
hands; just before patting it into a quick oven, brush it 
over with the white of an egg well beaten, and strew 
over the tart flnely sifted sugar. 

Obs. — ^This crust may be used for any fruit tarts. 

Take as much of the best wheaten flour 
Macarofti paste » as will be necessary, with one egg and 
two table-spoonfuls of water, to make it 
a very stiff paste. The flour must be placed on the table 
in. a heap, a hole must be made in the centre at the top, 
the egg broken in it, and the water poured in upon the 
egg; the whole then must be worked and kneaded until 



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t68 INDIAN DOMESTIC £GONOMT 

the paste is as stiff as it can possibly be made; and to bring 
it into this state requires much strength of working and 
patience. Then cut the paste into pieces of a convenient 
size for working ; each piece being well worked, strew flour 
over the table, and roll out one piece at a time as thin 
as a sheet of paper, if possible, and then cut into strips 
like narrow ribbons, which may be preserved in this form, 
about six inches in length, or the strips may be cut into 
squares of the same length as the width of the ribbon; 
these latter are better for using with broth or soup. 

One pound of rolong well dried; mix 
Scotci fhori with a quarter pound of pounded sugar- 
bread. candy, two ounces of carraway seed, one 
ounce of candied orange peel or citron, 
made into a stiff paste with half a pound of melted but- 
ter; roll it in thin slices; then strew it with one ounce 
of blanched almonds, cut up, but not small, and pass the 
rolling pin gently over them; cut them into curious 
shapes, and bake them in a quick oven. 

Prepare the head as for mock turtle. 
Mock Turtle pie. or reserve a portion when making the 
soup, and if not sufficient add a couple of 
calves' feet or four sheep's trotters, which boil till tender, 
season it well with zest, some stock and minced onions, 
lay a few slices of lean ham or bacon at the bottom of the 
dish, put in the mock turtle sliced with ^g balls, and 
when the pie is full, cover with a puff paste and bake it, 
after which add a cup of rich gravy, or seasoned stock. 

Cut into slices an equal quantity of pork, fat 
Pork pie. and lean ; roll the pieces in white spices and sweet 
herbs; perpare a gravy of the parings; put in 
small whole onions or minced, at pleasure, or a large 
quantity of fine minced parsley with potatoes and vegeta- 
ble balls; lay in the ingredients mixed, or in layerss 
dredging over each layer pepper and salt; if the pork ha» 



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AND COOKBBT. 269. 

been salted^ salt will not be necessary ; or if salt pork is 
used, it will be the better for steeping, and half dressing, 
or fresh pork may be used. It may also be seasoned very 
high with mushrooms, fine vegetables, hard eggs, and 
force balls, with a wine or other sauce put in when it 
comes out of the oven. 

The bread for croustades should be baked on 
Crouitades. purpose of a light, firm, well-made dough with 
eggs. Gut the bread into hearts, diamonds, or 
any other fanciful shape, which slit all round; fry them 
in butter, and arrange in the form of a rosette; then cut 
a round for the centre, which slit in the same manner, 
and place in the middle of the points of the' hearts ; fry 
this also of a fine brown colour ; then cut out the interior, 
removing all the crumb; then line the interior halfway up 
with farce or gratin ; dry them either in the sun or before 
the fire, so that the sauce that is to be served in them 
may not run through. Small croustades may be made in 
any fancy shape, filled in the same way, and piled upon 
the dish. 

Is made by cutting the fruit into thin 
Mangoe tart slices, adding spiced sugar and water, simi- 
lar to apple. 

Peel and cut your apples into quarters, re- 
Jpple tart» moving the cores; put them into a baking 
dish with a little grated lemon peel and a 
few cloves, some pounded or moist sugar ; pour a little 
water into the dish, and spread the paste with the rolling- 
pin on the table; cut some of it very thin, and with a 
feather moisten it all round (and place on the edge of the 
dish;) roll the paste round with the rolling-pin, and put 
it equally over the apple and other paste ; press the paste 
all round with your finger to make it adhere; then with 
a knife cut off all round the superfluity; then with the 
foQ of a spoon make some marks in the form of shells 



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S70 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

all round the edges of the paste, aboat an inch distant 
from one another; whip the white of an egg, and spread 
it with a feather over the paste, and then sift or spread a 
little pounded white sugar over the eggs ; dip the feather 
or paste brush in water, and sprinkle the water very 
lightly over the sugar. To prevent its burning in the 
oven put the tart on a tin, and bake it carefully. 

Obs.—The same method is to be pursued for all kinds of 
fruit tarts* 

Prepare jour fruit as in the last receipt, 
Creamed, with the exception of the eggs and sugar ; 
cover the centre crust ; when the tart is baked, 
cut out the Vhole of the centre, leaving the edges ; when 
cold, pour over the apples some rich boiled custard or 
clouted cream, and place round it some leaves of puff 
paste of a light colour. 

Squeeze the juice and pulp of four Seville 
Orange tart, oranges, boil the oranges, until tender, add 
double their weight of sugar, and pound 
both into a paste, with a tea-spoonful of butter, and the 
zest of the oranges, or a few drops of essence of lemon, 
beat the whole well together with the juice and pulp. 
Line a shallow tart dish with a light ciust, lay on the 
orange paste, bake it, and cover with a cream or custard. 

Prepare the rhubarb by cutting it into 
Rhubarb tart, lengths, and remove off all the skin ; divide 
it into small pieces, and cover it with 
syrup, or sweeten it with pounded sugar, and moisten 
with a little water; put it in a saucepan on a stove 
to simmer gently ; when tender, remove, and let it cool ; 
make a good short crust paste; bake it in a rather 
hot oven, pile in the rhubarb and serve cold. 

Rub and plump half a pound of prunes or 

Prune tart, raisins ; lay them in the bottom of a sheeted 

dish; make a custard of a quart of cream 



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AND COOKERY. 271 

and ten yolks ; season with sugar^ cinnamon, and a little 
lemon juice; cook it; plump some of the prunes and put 
them upon the top. Tamarinds, or any dried fruit may 
be baked in the same way— a little apple pulp may be 
added to the prunes or custard. It is an excellent way 
of baking rhubarb and goosberries, giving them plenty of 
sugar. 

Blanch and beat a handful of almonds with 
Puffs, two table-spoonfuls of orange-flower water ; beat 
up five yolks and three iwhites, and put in two 
table-spoonfuls of dried flour, a pint of cream, and sweet- 
en; drop them into hot clarified butter. 

Beat a quarter of a pound of almonds ; 

Almond puffs, add six yolks and three whites ; season as 

for curd puffs ; make up the paste in the 

same manner ; cut them out with the handle of a kev 3 

fry and serve also in the same manner. 

Pound a pound of curd ; mix in six yolks 
Curdpuffs. by degrees, with a gill of cream, a glass of 
sweet wine, a little orange-flower water, with 
ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg and sugar; thicken it with 
flour, work it well, roll it out, and cut with a paste cut- 
ter into any shape; fry crisp, and sift sugar over them. 

Zest four large oranges or lemons ; add 

Orange and two pounds of sifted sugar ; pound it with 

lemon puffs, the zest, and make it into a stiff paste with 

strong infusion of gum dragon; beat it 

again, roll it out, cut it into any shape, and bake it in a 

cool oven. 

Beat up any quantity of whites of eggs, 
Spieed puffs, adding white sifted sugar with any spices ; 
the puffs are to be flavoured with mace, 
eimianion, or cloves, and drop them from the point of a 
knife in a little high towering form upon damped wafer 
sheets, and put them into a very slow oven. 



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272 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Take half a poand of pounded loaf sngar^ 
Cheesecake, three yolks and two whites of eggs beaten, 
the juice of three litnes^ the rind of two 
grated, and two ounces of fresh butter; put these ingre- 
dients into a saucepan, and stir the mixture gently over a 
slow fire until it be of the consistence of honey; put it 
into patty pans lined with paste, and bake them. 

The native way of making curd is by first 

Curdplain. boiling the milk, and squeezing lime juice 

into it, or by adding sour butter-milk, or it 

may be turned with rennet or vegetable rennet. — Sec 

Artichokei* 

Grate fine the rind of two or three 
Lemon cheese limes ; take the juice of four ; mix them 
cakes. with three sponge cakes, four table*spoonfuls 

** of fresh butter, and the same quantity of 

pounded sugar, a little nutmeg and cinnamon grated with 
a wine glass of cream and three eggs well beaten; work 
the whole well together, cover your pans with puff paste, 
and fill in the material. 

Obs. — Orange may be made in the same way. 

Blanch and dry six ounces of sweet and 
Almond cheese half an ounce of bitter almonds; pound 
cakes, them in a mortar to a fine paste with 

two table-spoonfals of rose or orange-flower 
water ; cream up eight spoonfuls of fresh butter, and 
add it to the paste ; beat up four eggs with a little 
cream, six table-spoonfuls of sifted sugar with a little nut- 
meg, and mix the whole well together ; fill your pans 
sheeted with paste as the last. 

Take the cujd produced from two seers of 

Plain cheese new milk; break and drain it quite dry; 

cakes. put it into a mortar, and pound it smooth; 

add four table-spoonfuls of sifted sugar with 



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AND COOKEEY. 273 

a little grated lemon peel and nutmeg; beat up to a froth 
three large spoonfuls of butler, and add it to the curd with 
the yolks of four eggs beaten, and a glass of brandy or 
sweet wine; stir all well together; cover your tins with 
pufp paste, and fill each with the curd. 

Obs. — ^Lay some thin slices of candied lemon peel upon 
the top, and bake for twenty minutes. 

Beat up the white of two eggs to a 
lein^/ar tartf. solid froth ; lay some on the middle of 
the pie, with a paste brush or feathers; 
sift over plenty of pounded sugar, and press it down with 
the hand; wash out the brush or feathers, and splash by 
degrees with water till the sugar is dissolved; and put it 
in the oven for ten minutes, and serve it up cold. 

Whip the whites of five eggs to \ froth . 
For cake9. add a pound of double refined sugar sifted, 
and three spoonfuls of orange-flower water or 
emon juice; beat it up very well, and when the cake is 
taken out, ice it with a wooden spatula; leave it in the 
mouth of the oven to harden, as it must not have the 
least colour. Lemon juice instead • of the orangerflower 
water renders it very white, and* particularly pleasant to 
the taste. 

Break into a pan one pound of refined sugar ; 
Caramel, put in four table-spoonfuls of water; set it on 
the fire, and when it boils, skim it quite clean ; 
let it boil quick till it comes to the degree called cracky 
which may be known by letting a little of the sugar drop 
into a pan of cold water ; if . it remains hard, it has 
attained that degree; squeeze in the juice of a lime and 
let it remain one minute longer on the fire and then set 
the pan into another of cold water; have ready a basin 
or mould of any shape; rub them over with sweet oil; 
dip a fork or spoon into the sugar, and throw it over 

L 1 



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274 « INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

the mould in fine threads till i(. is quite covered; make a 
handle of the same^ and place in it anj sweetmeat or 
pastry you please. 

Bhinched nuts and almonds of every 

Nuts and almonds description must be grilled or roasted 

in CarameL in a pan to make them peel ; they are 

then to be stuck with twigs, and cara- 

melled as the fruit. 

Obs. — Nuts of all description should be either roasted, 
blanched, or the' shells cracked before being put on table. 

One pound of beef suet picked and ehop- 
Mince meat, ped fine, one pound of apple pared, cored 
and chopped, or plantains, one and half a 
pound of currants, washed and picked, half a pound of 
raisins stoned and chopped fine, half a pound of good 
moist tkgar, quarter of a pound of citron cut in thin 
slices, half a pound of candied lemon and orange peel cat 
in thin slices, one pound of ready dressed roast beef, free 
from skin and gristle and chopped fine, one nutmeg grat* 
ed, half an ounce of salt, half an ounce of ground ginger, 
quarter of an ounce of coriander seeds, quarter of an 
ounce of allspice, quarter of an ounce of cloves, all 
ground fine, the juice of three lemons and their rinds 
grated, quarter of a pint of brandy, half a pint of sweet 
wine; mix the suet, apple or plantains, currants, meat, 
plums and sweetmeats well together in a large pan, and 
strew in the spice by degrees ; mix the sugar, lemon juice, 
wine, and brandy, and pour it to the other ingredients 
and stir it well together; set it by in close covered jars 
in a cold place; when wanted, stir from the bottom, and 
add a little noyeau, cura9oa, brandy, or sweet wine, suffici- 
ent to moisten the quantity you require. Sweet paste is 
most appropriate for making pies; they are made flat, and 
about four inches in diameter. The pans should sel- 
dom be larger than the size of small saucer. 



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AND COOKERY. 275 

O69. — ^Yery good minced pies may be made by withhold- 
ing many of the ingredients^ or half of the qaantities of 
the expensive ones. 

Take of kishmises or raisins two pounds 
Tiineemeat and a half: wash clean and pick both care- 
f or pies* fully, stoning the raisins; then chop up very 
fine, and mix with the following ingredients 
chopped also: — two pounds of dried currants, orange mar- 
malade one pound, preserved citron and ginger half a 
pound of each, one pound of sifted or moist sugar, a 
quarter of a pint of lime juice, two glasses of brandy, 
two grated nutmegs, two poimds of well roasted beef or 
boiled salt beef; if the former, add a table-spoonful of 
salt ; a cured salt tongue may be used in the same pro- 
portion as beef, with one pound of suet or marrow; t^o 
pounds of white pumpkin jam, or plantain ; the whole of 
the ingredients are to be chopped very fine, and minutely 
mixed ; let them remain in an open vessel for a few days, 
then put into jars. 

Ola. — In England apples are used. I have substituted 
the jam instead. The fruit of the bhere, which is in sea- 
son during the month of December, may be used for apples, 
as they approach something in flavour. When the miuce 
is required, add a little brandy or sweet wine to moisten 
it. It will keep good for twelve months. 



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CHAPTER XV 



PUDDINGS, Etc. 

Chop four ounces of beef suet very fine, 
JpplejpuJdin^. or two ounces of butter, lard, or dripping ; 
put it on the paste board or a large flat 
dish, with eight ounces of flour and a salt-spoonful of 
salt ; mix it well together with jour hands, and put it in 
a heap ; make a hole in the middle ; break one egg in it, 
and stir it together with your finger ; and by degrees add 
as much water as will make it of a stiff paste. Spread 
a little flour on the board, and roll it out two or three 
times with a rolHng-pin, and then roll it out large enough 
to receive twelve or thirteen ounces of apples ; if to be 
boiled in a pudding cloth, the cloth must be first soaked 
in water, squeezed dry, and floured ; but it will look 
better if boiled in a basin, well buttered : boil for an hour 
and three quarters. The best way is to stew the fruit first 
with a couple of table-spoonfuls of moist sugar, a few 
cloves, and a wine-glass of water : the pudding will then 
only take half the time to boil. 

Obs. — Mangoe pudding may be made in the same way as 
well as other fruits, only the quantity of sugar must be 
varied according to the acidity of the fruit; the same 
crust as directed for apple pudding answering for all. 

Mix a quarter of a pound of almond 

Almond rice cup paste with a pint of cream ; mix in two 

puddinffs. spoonfuls of ground rice and a * little 

lemon zest; let it cool, and add the 



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INDUN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. S77 

yolks or whites, according to the stiffuess wanted^ of frooot 
two to four eggs. If to be turned out, put some citron 
chips in the bottom of the cup; if to be served in the 
cups, lay some on the top, dip the cups in water 
before the pudding is put in. They look well hogged 
over with almonds or pistachio nuts and served in 
coloured cream, or the puddings coloured and served in 
white cream or in broken jeUy. 

Scald the fruit, peel, beat and sweet- 
AjMricot puddinff. en it; beat the yolks of six eggs with 
two whites; mix all together with a 
pint of cream; put it into a basin sheeted with cream 
paste. As the pudding stuff requires a moderate oven, 
puff paste will not answer; this must be attended to, as 
otherwise either the paste or pudding will be spoilt. The 
kernels may be blanched, pounded, and put into the 
pudding. 

!From a quart of new milk take a small 
Arrowroot cupful and mix it with two large spoonfuls of 
puddififf. arrowroot; boil the remainder of the milk 
and stir it among the arrowroot; add, when 
nearly cold, the well beaten yolks of four eggs, with two 
table-spoonfals of pounded sugar, and two ounces of fresh 
butter broken : season with grated nutmeg ; mix it well 
together, and bake in a buttered dish fifteen or twenty 
minutes. 

To every quarter of a pint of milk 
BaUer pudding, put an egg and a spoonful of flour and 
beat them up well together; add a little 
salt, take care that the whole is quite smooth; have your 
saucepan ready boiling; butter an earthen mould or basin; 
put the pudding in, and tie it tight over with a pudding 
cloth ; boil it an hour or more, or put it in a dish you 
have well buttered, and bake it three quarters of an 
hour. 



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278 INDIAN DOMESTIC XCONOUT 

06s. — When wanted light, a larger proportion of eggs 
is required, and less floor ; if the flour, milk and salt is 
first cooked smooth, and when cold, the eggs added, it 
requires less time to boil. 

Bub three spoonfuls of flour into a pint of 
Another, raw milk by degrees; simmer it until it thick- 
ens ; stir in two ounces of butter ; set it to 
cool; then add the yolks of three eggs, well beaten; bat- 
ter a basin or mould; put the pudding into it; then tie 
tight with a cloth well floured, plunge it bottom upwards 
into boiling water, and boil half an hour. 

Bub half a pound of biscuit with a 
Pudding bUcuU. quarter of a pound of almond paste, a 
quart of cream or rich milk by de- 
grees, in a mortar, adding the yolks of ten eggs and the 
whites of five; season with lemon juice and sugar, grated 
lemon peel, or any fruits may be added; such as currants, 
dried dates, prunes or plums, chopped up : this may be 
either boiled in moulds, cups, or fried. 

Make a good sweet egg custard, add- 
Bamhay pudding, ing a little butter, a glass of wine or 
brandy with some grated nutmeg; have 
ready a finely rasped cocoanut, and mix all together ; 
line a dish with puff paste, fill in the custard, and bake 
of a delicate brown colour. 

To half a pound of stale brown bread. 
Brown bread finely and lightly grated, add an equal 
pudding. weight of suet, chopped small, and of cur- 
rants, cleaned and dried, with half a salt- 
spoonful of salt, three ounces of sugar, half a nutmeg 
grated, the grated rind of a large lime, five well beaten eggs, 
and a glass of brandy; mix these ingredients thoroughly, 
and boil the pudding in a cloth for three hours and a 
half. Send wine sauce to table with it. 



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AND COOKERY. S79 

Pour a pint of boiling milk over four 
Bread pudding » ounces^ of bread crumbs and two spoonfuls 
of fresh butter; cover till cold; then mix 
three well beaten eggs and a table-spoonful of sugar and 
half the peel of a grated lemon or lime and a little 
pounded cinnamon ; boil it in a mouldy or bake in a but- 
tered dish; serve with sweet sauce. 

Butter a dish or mould; lay into the 
Bread and butter bottom thin cut bread and butter with- 
pudding. out any crust ; strew over some currants 

that have been picked and cleaned, or 
else chopped stoned raisins; then pour over this some 
batter made as follows: Take a pint of new milk, the 
yolks of four eggs, two spoonfuls of sifted sugar, a little 
essence of lemon, and some grated nutmeg ; pour over the 
slices of bread and butter; then place more bread and 
butter, and currants with batter between, until your dish 
is nearly full; pour the remaining batter on the top. 
This may either be boiled in a mould, or baked— the 
latter way is the best ; with a small rim of paste round 
the dish; serve with wine sauce. 

Pound in a mortar the red part of 
Carrot pudding, four large carrots; take about eight 
ounces in weight; soak half a pound of 
the crumb of bread in a quart of boiling new milk; add 
a quarter of a pound of sugar, and a little .orange-flower 
water with the zest and juice of two limes and a little 
cinnamon ; beat and add six eggs. Bake it with a paste 
round the edges, and sift sugar over it; or the dish may 
be buttered, and the pudding taken out, but it must not 
be turned over. Ornament with almonds^ citron, &c. 

Take the red part of two large boiled car- 

Another. rots ; pound in a mortar ; add a slice of grated 

bread, with two spoonfuls of butter, the same 

of moist sugar, a little lime or orange peel minced, some 



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280 INDIAN; BOtfESTIC ECONOMY 

nutmegy and four eggs^ well beaten; mix all well together 
and line the dish with paste and bake it. 

Clean and scrape only ; boil and mash 
Mashed carrots, them with cream and butter; they make 
an excellent batter with eggs and flour 
to bake meat in. 

Mix with one table* spoonful of flour, 
Cualard pudding, a pint of new milk, the well beaten 
yolks of six eggs, a spoonful of rose- 
water and a spoonful of fresh butter; add a little grated 
nutmeg, and sweeten with pounded sugar; bake in a dish 
lined with puff paste for half an hour; when about to 
serve, sift a little sugar over it. 



A quarter of a pound of grated 
Cocaonut pudding, cocoanut, the same quantity of pow- 
dered loaf sugar, three ounces and a 
half of good butter, the whites of six eggs, and half a 
glass of wine and brandy mixed, a tea-spoonful of orange- 
flower or rose-water; pour into your paste, and bake with 
a moderate oven. 



Take of new milk sufficient to mix into 
Hasty baked a thin batter two ounces of flour ; put a 
pudding, pint with a small pinch of salt into a dean 
saucepan, and when it boils, quickly stir 
the flour briskly to it; keep it stirred over a gentle fire 
for ten minutes; pour it out and when it has become 
a little cool, mix with it two ounces of fresh butter, three 
of pounded sugar, the grated rind of a lime, four eggs, 
and half a glass of brandy or as much orange-flower 
water ; to these half a dozen of bitter almonds, pounded 
to a paste, may be added. Bake ^the pudding half an 
hour in a gentle oven. 



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AND eOOKERT. £81 

Zest a lemon or Seville orange ; 
lemon or orange squeeze out the juice and pulp : boil 
pudding. the skin in several waters to take out 

the bitter; beat it in a mortar with 
sugar and butter of each a quarter of a pound with six 
eggs^ a little of the zest^ and the juice ; put it in a sheeted 
dish^ and cross it with very fine bars of paste^ with an 
ornament in the middle. 

To eight ounces of finely grated bread 
Lemon suet crumbs, add six of fresh beef kidney suet free 
pudding, from skin and minced very small, three and 
a half of pounded sugar, «x ounces of cur- 
rants, the grated rind and the strained juice of two large 
limes and four full-sized or five small well beaten eggs ; 
pour these ingredients into a thickly buttered pan, and 
bake the pudding for an hour in a brisk oven to a fine 
brown colour. Turn it from the dish before it is served, 
and strew sifted sugar over it, or not, at pleasure. The 
pudding is very good without the currants. 

Beat up four table -spoonfuls of dry flour 
Franchipan^ with four eggs and a pint of cream ; add a 
little salt and sugar j rasp the peel of a 
lemon or lime into the mixture ; put the whole into a 
stewpan over a gentle fire, and keep stirring it for a 
quarter of an hour ; blanch and pound to a fine paste 
with a little rose or orange-flower water one dozen sweet 
and the same of bitter almonds, and mix this with the 
franchipan, with which fill your tartlets, or lay upon puff 
paste, nicely trimmed, with sifted sugar on the top, and 
pass the salamander over it* 

Grate a roll into crumbs ; pour on 

Marrow pudding, them a pint of boiling hot cream ; cut 

very thin half a pound of beef marrow ; 

beat the yolks of four eggs well, and then put in a glass 

of brandy with sugar and nutmeg to taste ; mix them all 

Ml 



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28S INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

well together, and either boil or bake it for three quar- 
ters of an hour ; cut two ounces of citron very thin, and^ 
before serving, stick th^n all over it. 

Four on a small cupfnl or more of bread 
Pudding of crumbs, sufiknent boiling vdSSl to soak them 
mincemeat, well ; when they are nearly cold, drain as 
much of it from them as you can, and 
mix them thoroughly with half a pound of mince- 
meat, a dessert-spoonful ol brandy and three eggs beaten 
and strained; boil the pudding for two hours in a well 
buttered basin, which should be full^ and serve it with 
wine sauce. 

Boil a sufficient quantity of macaroni in 
Macaroni milk ; ky it into a pudding-dish bordered with 
pudding. paste ; season a pint of milk or (aream with 
cinnamon, orange-flower water, zest, and jnico 
of lime ; sweeten and add four yolks, well beaten ; thicken 
and pour it over the macaroni ; when the paste is done» 
it is enough ; sift sugar and rasped almonds over it. 
An ezoeUent way is to lay two or three ounces of plump- 
ed prunes or plums with some shred marrow and sugar 
over the macaroni. YermiceUi or any Italian pastes may 
be made in the like manner. 

Put on to boil a pint of good milk, with 
Newmarket the peel of a lime, a little cinnamon and a 

pudding. peach-leaf; boil gently for five or ten mi-- 

nutes ; sweeten with loaf sugar ; break the 
yolks of five and the whites of three eggs into a basin, beat 
them well, and add the milk ; beat all well together, Sknd 
strain through a fine hair sieve or tammis ; have some bread 
and butter cut very thin ; lay a layer of it in a pie-dish» 
and then a layer of currants, and so on till the dish is 
nearly full ; then pour the custard over it and bake half 
an hour. 



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\ 



AND COOKERY. 1^83 

Butter a half melon mould or quart 

Ifeweastie, or CaU* basin, and stick all round with dried 

net pudding. cherries or fine raisins, and fill up 

with bread and butter, and custard, 

Ac. as in the above, and steam it an hour and a half. 

^f*7- ^ Put a quart of split peas, or dhal, that 
Or P€as pudding, has been soaked for at least two hours, into 
A a dean cloth: do not tie them up too 

dose, but leave a little room for them to swell ; put them 
on to boil in <x)ld water slowly till they are tender ; if 
ihey are good peas or dhal, they will be boiled enough 
in about two hours and a half; rub them through a sieve 
into a deep dish, adding io th^n an egg or two, an 
ounce of butter, and some sidt; beat them well together 
for about ten minutes. When these ingredients are well 
incorporated together, then flour the doth wdl; put the 
pudding in and tie it up ass tight as possible and boil it 
4U1 hour longer. It is as good with boiled beef as it is 
inth boiled pork. 

N. P.— Stir this pudding into two quarts of plain 
4)roth or the liquor meat or poultry has been boiled in, 
give it a boil up, and in five minutes it will make ex- 
cellent plain «oup. 

Suet chopped fine six ounces, raisins 
V ^ Plum pudding, stoned six ounces, currants nicdy washed 
and picked eight ounces, bread crumbs three 
ounces, flour three ounces, three eggs, one quarter of a nut- 
meg, a small blade of mace, the same quantity of cinnamon 
|x>unded as fine as possible, half a tea-spoonfud of salt, 
half a pint of milk, or rather less, sugar four ounces, to 
which may be added candied lemon one ounce, citron half 
•an ounce; beat the eggs and spice well together, mix the 
•milk with them by degrees, then the rest of the ingre- 
idients; dip a doth into boiling water and put it on a 
«ieve ; flour it a little and tie it up dose ; put it into a 



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SS-l- INDIAN D0MB8TIC ECONOMY 

saucepan, containing plenty of boiling water ; keep a ket« 
tie of boiling water alongside of it to fill up the * pbt 
as it wastes; and let it boil six hours at least. 

Put half a pint of fine bread crumbs into 
Light plum a basin ai\d pour on them a quarter pint of 
pudding, boiling milk and cover; let them soak for half 
an hour; then mix with them three quarters 
of a pound of suet, chopped extremely small, and a pound 
of raisins^ three spoonfuls of sugar, one of flour, three 
eggs, a little salt, and sufficient grated lemon peel and 
nutmeg to flavour it lightly; tie the pudding in a .well 
floured cloth, and boil it for two hours. 

Wash a quarter of a pound of rice^ dry it 
Patna rice in a cloth, and beat it to a powder ; set it 
pudding, upon the fire with a pint and a half of new 
milk till it thickens, but do not let it boil ; 
pour it out) and let it stand to cool; add to it some cin- 
namon, nutmeg and mace, pounded sugar to the taste« 
half a pound of suet shred very small, and eight eggs, 
well beaten, with some salt; put to it either half a pound 
of chopped raisins, or currants clean washed, and dried by 
the fire, some candied lefltion) citron, or orange peel; bake 
it half an hour with a puff crust under it. 

Take a small basin of boiled dry 

JUice pudding with rice ; mix it with hdf a pound of cur- 

dry currants. rants, two table-spoonfals of sugar, one 

of butter, and a beaten egg; boil it 

in a floured cloth or mould for nearly an hour. 

Take boiled rice> and tx)ver it with milk. 
Rice pudding sugar, a beaten egg, and a little grated 
for children, lemon; bake this in a dish. 

Pick and clean nicely half a pound of rice { 
Another, put it iato a deep dish with a little butter or 



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AND COOKERYk £35 

^xxei chopped, four spoonfuls of sugar, and two quarts of 
milk ; grate nutmeg over the top^ and bake in a slow oven. 

Wash and pick four ounces of rice very 

Bice pudding clean; soak it in water half an hour; then 

boiled. tie it up in a cloth with eight ounces of 

picked currants or raisins ; leave room for 

Ihe rice to swell, and boil it nearly two hours ; serve with 

melted butter, sugar, and nutmeg. 

Take half a pound of well boiled rice, 
Mice pudding quite dry; mix it with four eggs well beateh, 
baked, a quarter of a pint of cteam or milk, with 

two table- spoonfuls of butter, some grated 
lemon peel and nutmeg, half a glass of brandy or noyeau, 
half a pound of picked currants rubbed in a. little flour, 
with four table -spoonfuls of finely shred sUet or marrow; 
mix these ingredients well together, put a paste round 
the edge of the dish, fill it with the pudding and bake 
in a moderate oven. 

Put four ounces of ground rice into a 

'^'Ground rice stewpan, and by degrees stir in a pint and 

pudding. a half of milk; set it on the fire with a roll 

of lime peel and 'a bit of cinnamon ; keep 

stkring it till it boil; beat it to a smooth batter; then 

set it on, where it will, simmer gently for a quarter of 

an hour ; then beat three eggs on a plate i stir them into 

the pudding with two ounces of sugar and half a grated 

nutmeg; take cut the lime peel and cinnamon; stir it 

all well together; line a pie dish with thin puff paste, big 

enough to hold it, or butter the dish well, and bake it 
.... . * 

half an hour; if boiled, it will take one hour in a mould, 

well buttered. Three ounces of currants may be added. 

Peel and well wash three or four dozen sticks 

Jiittbarb of rhubarb; blanch it in water three or four 

jHiddififf, minutes; drain it on a sieve, and put it in a 

stewpan^ with the peel of a lime, a bit of cin^ 



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S86 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

fiamon^ two cloves^ and as much iDoist sugar as will 
sweeten it ; set it . over a fire^ and reduce it to a marma- 
lade; pass it through a hair siere; then add the peel of 
a lime and half a nutmeg grated^ a quarter of a pound 
of good butter and the yolks of four eggs and one white, 
^nd mix all well together $ line a pie dish (that will just 
<;ontain it) with good pufi' paste, put the mixture in, and 
bake it half an hour. 

Take some plantains, and have them fried 
Plantain in their skins; which when done, you must 
jpudding* peel and cut the fruit in slices; add sugar 
to the taste, the Juice of two or three limes, 
the peel of one cut into small thin piecesy a glass of white 
wine, half a tea-spoonful of cloves with a little butter; 
this is to be put into a paste> and boiled as an apple 
pudding. Cream or lemon and sugar with butter is a 
great improvements 

Simmer a quarter of "a pound of sago with 
Sago pud- water, and leave it till it falls into a jelly; 
ding. add half a pound of Naples biscuit or breadjT 
ten yolks, six whites, and a quart of cream 
or new milk; season with wine, sugar, cinnamon or lime 
Juice, zest^ and candied peel; put it into a bordered pud« 
ding dish, and sift sugar over it. Rasped citroA may be 
added. If milk is used, prepare and thicken as artifi- 
cial cream, and when the pudding is mixed, add an 
ounce and a half of very nice butter, •which, if properly 
^one, will answer instead of cream. 

Simmer a quarter of a pormd of ta*- 
Tapioca fiudding. pioca in water; strain and add a pint 
of new milk ; simmer it till it thickens ; 
let it cool ; add the yolk of four eggs and two whites, with 
•a little brandy, wine or orange-flower water, sugar, nutmeg 
and an ounce of clarified butter; mix it well, butter the 
^disbf border it with pastei and bake it or boil it in a basin% 



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AND OOOKBKT. i^87 

Beat eight eggs very well; put them into 

TrasnyMretU a saucepan with one quarter of a pound of 

^^ pudiing. pounded sugar, the same of &esh butter^ and 

two large spoonfuls of marmalade or with 

^ some grated nutmeg or lime peel; keep it stirring on the 

fire till it thickens ; then set in a basin to cool ; put a 

rich paste into a dish, and pour in the pudding; bake it 

in a moderate oven. 

Make a tolerable stiff batter with four eggs, 

' TorksAire six table-spoonfuls of fine flour, and a pint of 

^" jmdding. milk ; beat the whole up well, free from lumps ; 

i butter a dish, or use clarified dripping; pour 

ID the batter, and put it under the meat, or else fry it in 

a pan with plenty of hot dripping ; as soon as the under 

ade is done, turn it, that both may be alike, or brown 

the upper with a salamander; it may be baked. This. 

pudding should be light and half an inch thick; cut into 

squares, and serve with roast beef or mutton. 

Obs. — ^A batter made a very little thicker and placed in 
a deep dish with a small joint of meat in the middle, and 
baked, is called in Devonshire, " Toad in the hole/' 

The same crust, as for pudding, divide 
I Apple dumplings, into as many pieces as you want dump<< 
i lings ; peel and core the- apples ; roll out 

your paste, large enough for each, and put them in; close 
I it all round, and tie them in pudding cloths very tight; 
^ one hour will boil them. When taken up, dip them in 

cold water, and put them in a cup the size of the dump* 

lAg while you untie them, and they will turn out with-> 

Goi breaking. 

Obs. — ^A clove or two in each dumpling, with a little 
sugar, may be put at first with apple; but sugar and 
battdr is better added after they are served up. 

Take half a seer of fine flour, two 
Plain dumplingi. eggs well beaten up, with as much sweet 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

fermenting toddy as will make it into a light dough; form 
it into balls the size and the shape of a large hen's egg ; 
drop them into boiling water, and continue them over the 
fire in that state for a quarter of an hour ; serve with 
melted or cold butter and sugar. 

Mince finely half a pound of suet; 
Currant dumpling. mix it with the same proportion of 
grated bread crumbs and a table-spoon- 
ful of flour, a quarter of a pound of picked currants, 
washed, and dried in a towel, some pugar, a little grated 
lime peel, nutmeg, and a spoonful of chopped orange 
marmalade or citron with three 'well beaten eggs; roll 
the mixture into round balls, and tic them in a floured 
cloth separately; boil for half an hour, and serve with 
melted butter and sugar poured over them. 

EoU your paste out thin, and, having any 
Meatpujfs. sort of meat prepared, such aa^ mince or 
force, lay it, or once turn it over either in a 
three corner or square shape as a puff; close it well 
together with egg until it takes, boil and sauce theij 
with high seasoned gravy. Small slices of any meat and 
well seasoned, will make au excellent dish in these 
boiled or fried puffs. 

Make a stiff pancake batter ; drop the 

Norfolk dumpling, batter by small spoonfuls into quick 

boiling water; let them boil three or 

four minutes when they will be enough done; drain and 

lay a piece of fresh butter over each. 

Mix a pound of finely shred suet into 
Suet dumpling, a pint of milk and four well beaten eggs ; 
make it up into a stiff paste, with flour 
and a little salt; this quantity w^ill divide into four; drop 
them into hot water, and when they are ready serve with 
melted butter. More suet may be put in with sugar and 
any kind of fruit. 



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AND COOKXRT. S89 

Put a blade of mace, a large piece of the 
Panada. crumb of bread, and a quart of water in a clean 
saucepan ; let it boil two minutes ; then take 
oat the bread and rub it very fine in a basin ; mix with 
it as much of the warm water as it will require ; pour 
away the rest, and sweeten it to the taste. If necessary, 
pat in a piece of butter of the size of a walnut, but add 
no wine ; grate in a little nutmeg if requisite. 

Take the stomach of a sheep ; wash it perfect- 
Haggis. Ij clean in several waters ; turn it, and scald 
the inside ; scrape and put it into cold water 
and let it soak in a little lime water or strong salt and 
water ; boil the heart and liver, so as they will grate. Have 
ready a pound of dry oat meal ; grate the liver, and chop * 
np fine the heart with half a pound of fine suet ; mix the 
whole well together, and season with pepper and salt ; put 
the whole into the bag ; boil well in some good broth, 
with three onions ; strain and pour it on the haggis, and 
then sew it up carefully, excluding all the air : put it in 
boiling water enough to cover it, and let it boil for two 
or three hours. 

Obs. — Prick the bag with a needle in several places 
to prevent its bursting ; or, if it is too thin, tie it in 
a cloth« 

Light, plain pancakes are made of a thin 
Pancaies, light batter of milk, eggs and flour, with salt 
L^ plain. and sugar ; rub the frying pan with a butter- 
ed cloth ; sift sugar over them as they are 
doubled or rolled and dished ; serve with limes. 

Break three eggs in a basin ; beat them up 
Another. with a little nutmeg and salt ; then put to 
them four ounces and a haK of flour and a 
little milk ; beat it of a smooth batter ; then add by de- 
grees, as much milk as will make it the thickness of good 
cream; the frying pan must be very clean, or they will 

Nl 

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290 INDIAN D0KI8TIC lOONOMT 

stick ; make it hot ; put a very small bit of batter into 
it.; when it is melted, pour in the batter - to corer the 
bottom of the pan ; make them the thickness of a half- 
crown ; tarn the pan round that the pancake may be 
done equally ; then give a sudden jerk to tarn the pan* 
cake on the other side ; fry them of a light brown ; lastly, 
roll and powder them with fine sugar. They ^ould be 
made quickly, as they require many to make a diah. 
Serve with lemon, orange or wine, and sugar ; or they may 
have jelly, fine marmalade, or preserves laid on very thin. 

Pul into the stew pan or basin two 
Bo. French, ounces of fine flour, three ounces of sugar, 
a few macaroons of bitter almonds, a tea- 
spoonful of orange-flower water, a little salt, a pint of 
cream, a glass of milk, and the yolks of five very fresh 
eggs ; mix the whole well ; then clarify two ounces of 
butter, and put some into the fryingpan ; put a very lit- 
tle of the mixture into the pan at a time; let it be done 
•— ^ on one side only and turn the first one on the bottom 

/ of a plate and do the same alternately, with the others ; 

arrange them in an agreeable form, and when you are 
about finishing, glaze the last with fine sugar and sala- 
mander it ; put the plate on a dish, and send up 
very hot. 

Pat four spoonfuls of fiour into a basin or 
Baiter • dish, with half a tea-spoonful of -salt and a little 
cream ; moisten with water \ sufficient only to pre- 
vent the paste firom curdling; beat up the white of two 
eggs, and mix it well with the paste ; and then put in 
whatever you may wish to fry, take care the paste is not 
too thick. 



.\ 



Fare and ocMre some apples; slice and 

Apple frUtere. stew them with a little water, sugar, and 

lemon peel ; when soft, add a little white 

wine and the juice of half a lime with a bit of butter ; 



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Ain> COOKBKT. 291 

when cold, make a batter with three spoonfuls of fine 
flour, two spoonfuls of cream, a glass of wine, some sugar, 
and four eggs ; beat it all together verj well ; jput first 
butter or pure ghee into a fryingpan ; throw the fruit 
into the batter ; take it out in spoonfuls, and fry 
them, one bj one, a nice light brown ; put . them on a 
sieve before the fire to dry, and serve with plenty of 
pounded sugar over them on a white napkin. 

Chop up the apples fine, mix them with 

Another way^ the above batter, and firy in butter or ghee 

a nice brown; sugar to be added afterwards. 

Make a batter the same as for apple, 
. Apricot frUtern. put the fruit into it, and add the' ker- 
\ nels ; or a few sweet and bitter almonds 

may be put into the batter. 

Feel and cut limes or Seville oranges 

Lemon or orange across ; take out the seeds y boil them in 

fritters. a little weak syrup; let them cool; 

make a batter of white wine, flour, a 

little olive oil and salt; mix it till it drops from the 

spoon; dip in the oranges, and fry them a light brown in 

olive oil or clarified butter; drain them before the fire 

• upon a sieve; pile them upon the dish; sift sugar over, 

and send them hot to table. 



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CHAPTEE XIV. 



CAKES. 



Blanch half a pound of sweet and three 
Almond cake, ounces of bitter almonds ; pound them into 
a paste in a mortar with a little orange- 
flower or rose-water ; add half a pound of sugar candy and 
a little brandy. Whisk separately for half an hour the 
whites and yolks of twenty eggs ; add the yolks to the 
almonds and sugari then stir in the whites, and beat 
them all together; butter a tin pan, put the cake into it, 
and over the top strew pounded sugar; bake in a quick 
oven for half an hour or more as may be necessary. 

Beat one egg with six table-spoonfuls of 
Allspice cake, cream ; stir it over the fire until warm ; 
add the third of a pound of butter, with 
three spoonfuls of sifted sugar and a spoonful of fine 
pounded allspice ; carefully stir in the different ingredients * 
upon a slow fire, that the butter may be mixed without < 
oiling ; then pour the whole over ten or eleven ounces of 
flour, and make it into a paste ; roll it out of any thick- 
ness, and cut out the cakes of any size you please ; put 
them into the oven upon a tin, covered with several folds 
of paper, or else a board must be used to prevent them 
baking too quickly ; if baked in a small portable oven, 
some wood-ashes spread over the bottom answers all the 
purpose of the board. 

Obs. — ^Cakes of the different spice may be made in the 
same way and coloured variously. 

Beat well and separately the yolks of ten 
Bourbon. and the white of five eggs \ one pound of sifted 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. 893 

sugar ; grate the peel of two bitter oranges or lemons ; 
blanch and pound with a little ro$e-water, half a pound 
of sweet almonds; whisk all these ingredients together 
for half an hour, and lastly mix in half a pound of 
dried and sifted flour; lay it in about three inches deep 
into a papered and buttered hoop, and bake it in a moder- 
ate oven for one hour and a quarter. It should be iced 
over the top and sides while hot. 

" Take thirty good fresh eggs ; three 
Brioche paste, pounds of very dry flour and two pounds 
of fresh butter; sift and lay the flour on 
the table; divide into four equal parts, and take one to 
make the leaven; make a hole in the centre, and put a 
large table-spoonful of good yeast into the fourth part of 
the flour; then take some hot water, pour it gently over 
the yeast, and mix the paste directly ; do not make it too 
liquid; where yeast is not procurable, good sweet toddy 
mus^ be used to make the leaven ; sprinkle some flour 
ovet a pan, and put this paste into it; cover and set it 
near the fire to rise for about twenty minutes; in t^is 
country it is seldom necessary; when the yeast or leaven 
has risen, dilute the brioche m the following manner. 

Make a great hole in the remaining three-fourths of 
the flour ; sprinkle four small pinches of salt on as many 
different places, with a little sugar to correct the bitter 
taste of the yeast should it be used, and a little water to 
melt the salt; then take two pounds of butter, which 
break into small pieces with your hand, and put in the 
middle of the flour. Next break the eggs separately over 
a cup or dish to insure their being good and mix the 
whole well together and knead the paste ; spread it 
lengthways on the edge of the table ; then with the palms 
of both hands, press upon it, passing it by degrees to- 
wards the middle of the table ; when you have thus 
worked the whole of the p^iste, bring it back again in the 
same way towards the edge ; knead it a second time in 



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f 94 INDIAN DOMESTIC BCOMOMT 

the same- manner^ and then spread the yeast ; paste all 
over it, then divide the whole into small pieces, and shift 
from one place to another : this is to mix the risen part 
with the other paste properly; then knead the paste well 
again twice and gather it up together; take a pan, in 
which spread a towel, and powder it over with flour ; pat 
the paste on it, and cover it with the ends of the towel ; 
keep it in a cool place. If the weather is warm, the 
paste is better when made on the preceding day, and take 
care to break it several times before you use it; then cut 
it into equal pieces, and shape them with the palms of 
your hands, lay these on the less even side^ shape off 
small balls, which turn also with your palms ; brush then 
over with a beaten egg ; then make a little hollow, and 
put the small ball into it -, brush twice over with the egg, 
and bake in a hot oven. If you wish to make a large 
brioche, you must make a very large, urell buttered paper 
case, or put in a buttered tin with paper ; make a kind 
of paste the same as for the small one, and bake in a 
hot oven, but not so hot as is used for the small ones ; 
for the larger the articles of pastry are, the less must the 
oven be heated, as the borders of the cakes or pies would 
be burnt before the middle parts could hardly be heated." 

Obs.-^When you perceive that the brioche has colour- 
ed enough, if it should not ,be thoroughly baked, cover it 
with paper. This brioche paste will serve to make all 
sorts of little entrem£tS| the only thing is that you must 
put sugar over them: you may put currants inside, or 
mix with a little sweet wine or cream, fruit or dried 
cherries ; and to make another sort, in fact by colouring 
a part of the paste with a little saffron soaked in the 
wine, or brush them over with the white of an €gg 
sprinkled, or plain sugar ; cover them without any colour, 
but take care to cover with paper when sufficiently 
brown ; give to all different forms, by which you will 
obtain a mulitiplicity of cakes, having the same paste, but 
varying in flavour and appearance.— Kfo'* receyoU 



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AND OOOKEKT. 295 

Take one pound of the finest soojee and 
Bfioele cake make it into a dough with a sufficient 
findianj. quantity of toddy, and work it well; set it 
on one aide, cover it with a cloth and let it 
remain for two hours, then beat up eight eggs, white and 
yolk, for fifteen minutes, with half a pound of fresh but- 
ter and a tea-spoonful of salt; mix this with the dough 
well together, and put into a tin of twice its size 
to bake. 

Dilute this paste the same as the brioche, take 
Baia. eight grains of safiron, infuse in a little water, 
and then pour the water into the paste; add two 
glasses of madeira or sweet wine, some currants, raisins, 
and a little sugar; then make the cakes as you do the 
brioches ; add to it half a pint of good cream, well 
frothed. You must butter the mould when you put them 
in; the oven must be moderately hot, as the babas must 
remain a long time in; after one hour you must look at 
them and preserve the colour by putting paper over them. 
You must use a mould with a chimney in the middle. 

Bub into one pound of flour, a quarter 
Qmmou eaiei. of a pound of fresh butter ; mix with two 
well beaten eggs, a table-spoonful of fresh 
yeast, and as much warm milk as will make the flour 
into a very thick batter; or instead of the yeast and 
milk, use toddy and one more egg; cover with a cloth, 
and let it rise for an hour ; iheu mix with it six ounces 
of moist sugar, and half a pound of cleaned and dried 
currants, let it remain for half an hour more, and bake it 
in a tin for an hour. 

Scrape the white part of the inside of 

Coeoanut eake. a cocoanut into fine white flakes, add 

half a pound of clear syrup, and boil to 

a proper thickness; when done, drop it on a buttered 

dish to cool. 



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296 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Boil six ounces of loaf-sugar and 
Oood Friday cake, four table- spoonfuls of water to a 
syrup, (or take six spoonfuls of syrup), 
beat up two or four eggs, and pour the syrup hot upon 
them, stirring all the time; add two ounces of butter, and 
beat all together for fifteen minutes; then stir in eight 
ounces of flour, four ounices of picked currants, one ounce 
of candied lemon peel cut small, one tea-spoonful of mace 
or half a nutmeg and one tea-spoonful of carbonate of 
ammonia dissolved in a table-spoonful of milk; mix all 
together, pour into a mould, and bake in a quick oven. 
Obs. — ^The currants may .be omitted. 

Bub one ounce of butter into eight 
Caraway biscuits, ounces of flour, with two ounces of 
powdered loaf-sugar and a quarter of 
an ounce of caraway seeds; beat up one egg, and add it 
with one tea-spoonful of carbonate of ammonia, dissolved 
in four table-spoonfuls of' milk to the flour, and mix all 
together; roll out, cut into shapes with a tin mould, and 
bake in a quick oven. 

Half a pound of sifted sugar, half a' 
Qtteen cakes. pound of butter, six eggs, ten ounces of floar^ 
two ounces of currants, and half a nutmeg 
grated ; cream the butter and mix it well with the sugar 
and spice ; put in half the eggs, and beat it ten minutes ; 
add the remainder of the eggs and beat it ten minutes - 
longer; stir in the flour lightly and the currants after* 
wards; bake a few minutes. 

Beat well together in a pan, one pound 
Ladie^ finders, of sifted sugar with the yolk of eight 
eggs^ for twenty minutes; then add by 
degrees, one pound of flour; the|i drop the piixture upoi\ 
paper, of any form or shape you like; strew sugar over 
the cakes and bake them in a hot oven. The white of the 
eggs is always to be added last. 



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AND COOKBRY. 297 

Take one pound of fine flour^ mix it into 
Plain cake for a dough with a sufficient quantity of sweet 
eiildren. fermenting toddj, and work it well for 

twenty minutes ; set it aside for an hour 
or more to rise ; beat up a couple of eggs with a table- 
spoonfol of butter and as much sugar^ and work it into 
the dough; put it into a buttered tin or a paper mould; 
bake it as you would any other cake. 

06a. — ^The dough may be procured ready-made from 
the baker as for bread and a few carraways or curranta 
mixed with the cake. 

Beat one pound of butter in an 
Plain pound eaie. earthen pan until it is like a fine 
^eam; then beat in nine whole eggs 
till quite light ; pr^t in a glass of brandy, a little lime 
peel shred fine ; then work in a pound and a quarter of 
flour ; put it into the hoop or pan, and bake it for an 
hour. A pound plum cake is made the same with put* 
ting one pound and a half* of clean washed currants and 
half a pound of candied letnon peel. 

Beat up a pound and a half of butter to 
Plum cote, a cream ; mix in one pound of sugar- candy ; 
beat fourteen yolks and seyen whites of eggs 
half an hour; mix in a pound and a half of fine flour; 
put in the peel of a lime grated, three ounces of candied 
orange and lemon peel, cut fine a tea-spoonful of pounded 
mace, half a grated nutmeg, a gill of brandy or sweet 
wine, with four spoonfuls of orange-flower water ; ttiit in 
three quarters of a pound of currants, and a pound of 
stoned raisins; put immediately into your hoop or mould, 
and bake it two hours or more. 



The same as plum, only adding more cur- 
Currant, rants dusted first with flour. 

1 



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298 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Cream half a pound of batter with half a 
Poundcake, pound of fine sifted sugar till quite smooth; 
beat up five eggs, white and yolk^ and gra- 
dually mix with the sugar and butter ; beat the whole for 
twenty minutes or more ; add half a pound of fine flour 
and half a pound of currants that have been nicely picked, 
washed, and plumped ; bake it in a moderately heated oven. 

Take half a pound of pounded sugar. 
Sponge cake, eight eggs, and six ounces of fine flouF ; 
then whisk the eggs, yolks and whites toge- 
ther, for twenty minutes; beat in the sugar carefully, 
and just before it is to be put into a buttered tin, stir 
in the flour lightly, adding if you please a few carraway 
seeds ; bake from half to three quarters of an hour. 

A most excellent plain tea cake may be 
Tea cake, made by procuring from the baker one pound 
of dough as prepared for bread, then beat up 
the yolks of three or four eggs according to their size, 
with two table-spoonfuls of moist sodit. or pounded; mix 
the whole with a spoon intb^ ijflp(^gh and bake in a 
buttered tin of double its sissj^^ 

Obe. — Currants or carraway s -m^proportion may be added. 

Three quarters of a pound of fine sugar, a 
Another, quarter of ia pint of water ; boil the sugar and 
• water ; skim it well ; pour in the liquor boil- 
ing hot on six well beaten eggs ; whisk it till cold ; then. 
add seven ounces of flour with the grated peel of a liuxe 
very gradually ; put into a cake tin, well buttered, and. 
bind with paper^ It must be immediately put into a. 
moderate oven, and baked for three quarters of an hour^ 

I Break into a wide dish that has bee:ix 

Sponge Hscuits. made quite hot, or keep it over hot: 
water, nine eggs with a pound of silte^L 
sugar, and a little grated lemon peel ; whisk it well for ^ 



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AND COOKEET. 209 

few miiiuies and then remove the pan from the hot water 
and continning whisking it until cold; then with a spoon 
stir in lightly six ounces of fine, dry, sifted flour. It 
must be immediately put into your tins which have been 
prepared as follows : rub them inside with butter, sprin- 
kle with finest pounded sugar, and bake for five minutes 
in a brisk oven ; when done, take them out of the pans, 
and lay upon a sieve or cloth. 

Beat up as for sponge biscuits in a warm 
ArrawrooL dish, four eggs with three spoonfuls of sifted 
sugar, .one glass of white wine, and a spoon- 
ful of rose-^water for twenty minutes, adding by degrees, 
six table-spoonfuls of the finest arrowroot; put in buttered 
tins, and bake in a' slow oven. 

I Blanch four ounces of sweet almonds, 

Sweet Maearoone dry them well in the sun, pound them 
or Ratafiae. in a mortar with half a pound of sifted 
sugar, rub both weU together, then add 
the whites of four eggs one by one until the whole is 
formed into a thinnish paste, drop them of the size of 
walnuts on wafer paper, sprinkle over the top some sliced 
almonds and sifted sugar, bake in a slow oven of a light 
brown colour when they will be done enough. 

Take the yolks of twelve eggs and the 
S/otqfia cake, whites of six and beat each separately ; a 
pound of sugar, well pounded; beat the 
yolks till they are tolerably white; then add the sugar, 
and beat it well with the yolks; blanch and cut small, a 
quarter of a pound of bitter almoi^ with the same 
quantity of sweet ditto ; dry three quaiters of a pound of 
flour, and stir it by little at a time into the eggs; then 
beat the six whites into a froth, and put it in by a 
spoonful at a time as you stir in the flour; lastly, the 
almonds, put in your pan and let it bake an hour and 
a half. 



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300 INDIAN BOKBanO BOOKOHT 

Take one ounce of sweet and one ounce 
Satafia cakes, of bitter almonds, and beat them fine in 
a mortar, one pound of fine sifted sngart 
with the rind of two or three grated limes, mix them well 
together with the white of one egg and a half, make them 
about the size of a nut, put them on paper, and bake in 
a moderate oven* 

Brub in half a pound of butter into one 
Siort cakes, pound of finely ' sifted flour ; put half a 
pound of currants, half a pound of finely 
sifted sugar, and one egg; mix all together with three 
quarters of a pint of milk, roll it out thin, and cut 
them into round cakes; lay them on a baking tin; about 
five minutes will bake them. 

Beat one pound of butter till you turn it 
Seedcake, back into cream; add one pound of flour, one 
pound of loaf sugar pounded finelyt a few 
carraway seeds, half a glass of brandy, some orange peel, 
the whites of twelve eggs, and the yolks of eight, with a 
little volatile salt (ammonia). The above quantity will be 
sufiBlpient to make three cakes, and bake them in a slow 
oven for an hour and a half. 

Bub half a pound of flour with four ounces 
Tea cakes, of butter and the beaten yolks of two eggs 
and the white of one, a few carraway seeds, 
and two table-spoonfols of pounded sugar; mix it into 
a paste with a little warm milk, cover it over, and let 
it stand for an hour; roll out the paste, and cut it 
into cakes with the top of a glass, and bake them on 
floured tins. 

Beat twelve eggs, yolks and whites separ- 

Ree cakes, rately ; one pound of sifted sugar, three 

quarters of a pound of rice-flour; beat all 

these ingredients together for half an hour, and before 



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AMD COOKERT. 301 

putting it into a well buttered cake tin, add thirty drops 
of essence of lemons. Three or four spoonfuls of carrawaj 
seeds may be added. It may be baked in small tins. 

Take a pint of milk quite warm, a quarter 
Sally Luns. of a pint of thick small beer yeast (or else 
good fermenting toddy) ; put into a pan, 
with flour sufficient to make a good thick batter; cover 
it over to rise for two hours ; then add two ounces of fine 
pounded sugar, four eggs, well beaten and mixed toge- 
ther; rub into your flour four ounces of butter, and 
make your dough not quite as stiff as for bread; let 
it stand half an hour; then make up your cakes, and 
put them on tins ; let them stand to rise, and bake in a 
quick oven. 

Take of fine flour, butter and sifted 
Tweyih cake, sugar of each two pounds, eighteen eggs, 
four pounds of currants, of almonds pound- 
ed and blanched half a pound, citron, candied orange and 
lemon peel of each half a pound, and cut into thin slices ; 
a nutmeg grated, allspice, half an ounce ground cinna- 
mon, mace, ginger, and corianders, of each quarter of an 
ounce, finely pounded, and a large wine-glass of brandy; 
work the butter into a smooth cream with the hand, and 
mix with the sugar and spice in a pan for some time; 
then break in the eggs by degrees, and beat it at least 
twenty minutes; stir in the brandy and then the flour, 
and work it a little ; add the fruit, sweetmeats, and al- 
monds^ and mix all together lightly; have ready a hoop 
or tin cased with paper, on a baking-plate; put in the 
mixture, smooth it on the top with a little milk ; bake it 
in a slow oven four hours or more; ice it the moment 
it is drawn from the oven. 

Ob9. — ^Previous to baking, put a thick paste of flour 
and water under it, in order to preserve the bottom from 
scorching. 



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308 INDIAN DOMESTIC BCONOMY 

To two pounds of fine flour, put half a pound 
Buns, of clean moist sugar, make a hole in the centre^ 
and stir in half a gill of good yeast and half a 
pint of warm milk (or as much good toddj and warm 
milk as is equal to the same quantity); mix it with 
enough of the flour to make it the thickness of cream, 
cover it over with a towel, and let it lie two hours ; then 
melt or dissolve half a pound of fresh butter, not too 
hot; stir it into the other ingredients, with enough milk 
and toddy to make it into a soft paste; throw a little 
flour over, and let it lie an hour; have ready a baking 
tin rubbed over with butter; mould with the hand the 
dough into buns the size of an egg ; • lay them - in the 
platter in rows three inches apart ; set them aside in a 
warm place to rise for half an hour or until they have 
become double their size ; bake them in a hot oven of a 
good colour, and just before taking from it, wash them 
over with a brush dipped in milk. 

Are made of the same mixture, only add 

Cross buns three quarters of an ounce of allspice, 

cinnamon, and mace, mixed and pounded. 

When the buns have risen, press in the form of a cross, 

with a tin mould made on purpose, or one of wood. 

To the same mixture put half a pound of 
Plum buns, currants, four ounces of candied orange peel 
cut into small pieces, half a nutmeg grated, 
half an ounce of mixed spices, and mould the whole into 
buns ; jag them round the edge of the dish with a knife, 
and proceed as with plain buns. 

A quarter measure of rolong, one tea- 
To make buns. cupful of toddy, quarter cup of butter, two 
table-spoonfuls of milk, made warm; yolk 
of two eggs well beaten, a little salt, cinnamon, cloves, 
and nutmeg, pounded fine ; two table-spoonfuls of cur* 
rants, two table-spoonfuls of sugar; mix the rolong, toddy. 



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AND COOKERY. 303 

and milk together ; put it in the sun covered over till 
risen; then mix in the other ingredients; divide it into 
six round cakes; rub each bun over with white of egg; 
bake them one hour. 

Having mixed one pound and a half of 
American buns, flour and half a pound of butter, finely 
together^ add four eggs beaten to a high 
froth, four tea-cupfuls of milk, half a wine-glassful of 
brandy, and a wine-glassful each (of yeast or toddy) wine 
and rose-water; sift in a pound of flour/ beat the lumps 
fine, form into buns and set to rise for four hours on the 
tin in which they are to be baked. 

To two pounds of flour made into a dough 
BatA buns, with toddy, add half a pound of fresh butter, 
some nutmeg and salt, the well beaten yolk 
of two eggs and the white of one, and six spoonfuls of 
cream; cover it and let it rise for a couple of hours or 
more; then shake in four ounces of carraway comfits, form 
the buns and strew a few over the top, and bake them 
over, buttered tins. 

Sift a pound of flour, and rub in half a pound 
Another. of butter r add a spoonfal of yeast or equal parts 
of cream and toddy as will make it into dough ; 
let it rise, add an ounce of small carraway comfits, make 
it up in small rolls or cakes, and strew an ounce of the 
comfits over. 



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CHAPTEE XVII. 



BAKING. 

Take two pounds of good, dry flour^ and a 
Bread, lea-spoonful of salt; place it on a pasteboard, 
slab, or table ; pour into the centre a portion of 
good fresh toddy that is in a state of fermentation; 
knead this into a tolerable stiff dough for twenty minutes 
or m6re ; then set it aside on a dish to rise ; cover with 
a cloth, and generally it will be fit for the oven in two 
or three hours ; divide into loaves or rolls, sprinkling the 
surface of the slab or table on which it is divided with 
a little flour to prevent its sticking. The more the 
dough is worked the better and lighter the bread. 

03«.— Where toddy from either the date or palmyra is 
not to be had, a fermenting liquid may be made by 
soaking fresh dry peas, or dhal, split, in warm water, until 
fermentation commences; this liquid strained is to be 
used to raise the dough. 

Is to be made in the same way, only 
Brown bread flour that has not had all its bran sifted 
from it is to be used, a little more fer- 
menting liquid is required, and kneading the dough for 
a longer time. 

Mix three pounds ^f flour and a quarter of 

SubsUCute an ounce of carbonate of soda along with the 

for yeaaU ^^tjol quantity of salt; knead the whole, up 

with sour butter-milk ; if very sour, half water 

and half butter-milk will do, but all butter-milk is pre- 



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INDIAN DOHlSnC ECOXOlfT AND COOKERY. 305 

lerable. The dough will be ready for baking in a quar- 
ter of an hour as the fermentation goes on while kneading, 
but it will take no harm by standing one> two, or three 
hours ; the butter-milk must be acid, the soda pounded 
small and well mixed with the flour, and the oven brisk, 
or the bread will probably be not so good, and will taste of 
the soda. 

Obi. — In making rolls or loaves, it is necessary when 
cutting the piece from the mass of sponge, that it should 
be kneaded with a little flour, sufficient to keep it from 
adhering to the board. 

Flour one pound, jaggery or treacle 
Parliament 6»»- one pound, butter two ounces, carbonate 
per bread. of soda one tea-spoonful. The jaggery, 

if used, to be melted over the fire in a 
very little water till it is of the consistence of thick trea- 
cle ; mix well the flour and soda ; then rub in the butter, 
afterwards pour in the treacle ; mix it and knead it well, 
keep it covered until the next day, roll it out thin, and 
cut it into flat cakes with a tin of a proper shape, notch- 
ed at the edges. 

Take one pound of sugar, a quarter of a 
Ginger bread, pound of ginger, a pint of water, two 
pounds of flour, and six ounces 6f candied 
orange peel ; pound and sift the ginger, and add a pint 
of water ; boil it five minutes, then let it stand till cold ; 
pound the preserved orange peel, and pass it through a 
hair sieve ; put the flour on a pasteboard, make a hole in 
the centre, and put in the orange peel and ginger, with 
the boiled water ; mix this up to a paste, and roll it out ; 
prick the cakes before balding them. 

Plour and treacle each one pound, butter one 

Another* ounce, sub-carbonate of magnesia one ounce or 

one and a half^ with two ounces of the usual 

Pl 



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306 INDIAN DOKESnC ICONOUT 

spices, principally ginger; to which is added cit^namon, 
nutmeg, allspice, cayenne pepper, and in the inferior 
kinds, black pepper. This is fit for baking in a few 
hours^ time* 

Ploar two pounds, sub-carbonate of magnesia 
Another. half an ounce, treacle or thick jaggery syrup 
one pound, butter two ounces, mixed spices to 
the palate four ounces, tartaric acid one quarter of a 
ounce, water a sufficient quantity to make into dough. 
This is ripe for the oven in half an hour. 

Half a pound of dry ginger pounded and 
Ginger bread sifted, three pounds of jaggery or goor, cla- 
nuts. rified with a little water; and the white 

of eggs boiled to the consistence of treacle, 
two pounds of good butter beat to a cr^am, two and a 
half pounds of plain flour, a tea-spoonful of salt, one 
tolah weight of cloves, cinnamon and mace pounded, also 
a nutmeg ; four table-spoonfuls of carraways, and half a 
pound of preserved orange peel finely chopped up : mix 
all well together, and knead it into a paste ; let it stand 
for two or three hours ; then roll out thin, and cut with 
a wine-glass ; put in the oven to bake. 

Take two eggs well beaten up, one cup 

Ginger Nuts, of flour, half a cup of sugar, two chittacks 

plain. of butter, and two spoonfuls of ginger ; mix 

all together, and it will make four dozen. 

One pound of flour, one pound of jaggery 
Anotlier. boiled to a thick syrup, with a little water, 

four ounces of candied preserve cut small, 
twelve ounces of moist brown sugar, half a pound of but* 
tcr creamed, one and a half ounce of ground ginger, with 
half an ounce of carraway seeds ; mix all well together, 
and let it stand for three or four hours ; make into nuts^ 
and bake on a tin. 



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AND COOKIET. 307 

Take tiro pounds of flour ; mix well three 
Another, chittacks of butter ; then add one ounce of 
powdered ginger, one ounce of carraway seeds, 
one tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda ; having done this, 
beat two eggs well up, and mix them with two pounds of 
treacle, cold; add the flour by degrees, until firm, and 
make into thick* cakes and bake them slowly. 

Mix a pound of almond paste with a pound 
Almond of sifted sugar, two ounces of rice-flour, and 
bUcuiU. six eggs ; mix well ; season with mace, cloves, 
cinnamon, and lemon zest ; butter the moulds, 
fill, and sift sugar over. A very little time bakes them ; 
they may be coloured, pearled, or powdered, with citron, 
pistachio, almonds, nuts, &c. 

Take a pouni of the finest flour ; add a tea- 
BiscuiU. spoonful of salt; mix it with cold water very 
carefully into as thick a paste as possible ; beat 
it out with a rolling pin, cut it into pieces, lay them one 
over the other, and again beat it out ; roll it very thin, 
cut with a tumbler or glass into biscuits, and prick them 
well with a fork ; or else roll them into small balls, and 
press with a stamp. 

To one pound of flour, add eight ounces 
Sweet biscuits, of pounded sugar, two beaten eggs, a tea- 
spoonful of carraway seeds, and a quarter 
of a pound of butter ; mix all well together, roll it 
out thin, cut into biscuits, prick with a fork and bake 
upon a tin. 

Dissolve four ounces of butter in a quar- 
Milk Hscuiti. ter of a pint of warm milk, and make it 
into a stiff paste with two pounds of flour ; 
beat and work it perfectly smooth, roll it out very thin, 
and cut into biscuits ; prick them well with a fork, and 
bake them upon a tin in a quick oven. 



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.308 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERT. 

Obs, — ^You may make these biscuits sweet and lighter 
bj adding a small tea-spoonful of pounded sal volatile 
(carbonate of ammonia), and after working it up well, let 
it stand to rise for two or three hours, covered with a 
doth ; then divide as above directed. 

Beat half a pound of sifted sugar with four 
Carraway eggs, for ten or fifteen minutes, well together; 
drops, then add two ounces of carraway seed, and ten 
ounces of flour ; lay some paper on your tins, 
put the mixture into a biscuit funnel and drop it out the 
size of a company's rupee ; sift sugar over, and bake it 
in a hot oven. 

Are made in the same manner as 
Savoy biscuits drops, only omitting the carraways and 
two ounces less flour ; put them in the 
biscuit funnel, and lay them the length and breadth of 
your 'finger on common paper; strew some sugar over, 
and bake in a hot oven. 

Stick drop biscuits with caramel in any form 
Caramel of basked, oval» round, contracted at the top^ 
basked, or with an overlying edge without any ornament, 
or like a vase, cup or basin. 

Obs. — These are very ornamental for a supper table, 
and may be filled with preserved fruits, &c. 

Biscuit Is simply dry, plain biscuits pounded ; and 

powder to insure its being pure and free from dirt, 
make it at home. 



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CHAPTEE XVIII 



SWEET DISHES, Etc. 

almonds May be served at the dessert in their skins 
or blanched. 



-Put them on the table with their shells unbrok- 
en, and when required for cakes^ &c., they are better for 
being blanched the day before. 

Put a pint of cream on a slow fire, with 
Almond eight eggs that have been well, beaten and 
butter, strained ; stir them one way until they are 
ready lo boil ; then add a glass of any rich 
sweet wine, and continue stirring it until it eurdles; 
strain oflf the whey; pound the curd with two ounces of 
almond paste and a couple of spoonfuls of pounded 
sugar; put it into patty pans, or turn it out in small 
fancy moulds. To be eaten with bread or sweet zests. 

Blanch one pound of sweet, with half an 
Almond ounce of bitter almonds ; put them into a mortar . 
patste. with one pound of sugar-candy; beat the whole 
into a fine paste, adding orange-flower, rose, or 
plain water in a sufiicient quantity to keep from oiling. 

Should be blanched like almonds in hot 

Walnuts for water, and the skin taken off ; they are 

dessert much more wholesome in this way, and 

saves a great deal of trouble ; if the walnuts 

are old, soak them for an hour in milk. 



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310 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Boil slowly a pint and a half of good 
Blancmange, cow's or buffaloe's milk with an ounce of 
picked isinglass, the rind of half a lemon 
peeled very thin, a little cinnamon and a little mace and 
two table-spoonfuls of pounded sugar; blanch and pound 
eight bitter, and half an ounce of sweet almonds very fine, 
with a little rose or orange-flower water, and mix them 
with the milk; strain it through a napkin into a basin, 
with half a pint of good cream ; give it a warm up : then 
pour it into a jug or basin, and let it stand for half an 
hour for any sediment to fall to the bottom ; when it begins 
to cool, fill your moulds; when wanted, put your fingers 
round the blancmange and take it out and set carefully in 
the centre of your dish. 

N, B. — A glass of noyeau may be substituted for the 
almonds or a few peach leaves boiled in the milk. 

Put an ounce of isinglass in a tea-cup of 
Blancmange^ water and dissolve it gently over the fire ; 
j^lain. then take a quart of rich bufialoe-milk, and 

put the peel of a lime cut very thin, a few 
peach-leaves, a little cinnamon and mace with two table- 
spoonfuls of pounded sugar and the dissolved isinglass, and 
give it a boil for a few minutes, stirring, the whole time ; 
then strain through a' napkin and let it settle and cool, 
when pour it into your moulds. 

Obi, — ^To remove it, dip the mould, if necessary, for a 
second or two, in warm water, clap it with the hand to 
loosen the edge, put your dish over the mould, and turn 
it out quickly. 

Make a small hole at the end of as many 

Blancmange eggs as you please ; let out all the egg care- 

^999 for a fully ; wash and drain the shells ; then fill 

ien'^nesL with blancmange; place them in a deep dish 

with clean sand to keep them steady, or any 

grain will answer; when cold and firm, remove and gently 



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AKB COOKBHY. 311 

break off the shell ; cut the peel of a lemon into delicately 
fine shreds, and lay the eggs upon it or put them into 
coloured cream or upon candied lemon or orange peel. 
This latter is then calledi, ''A hen's nest/' 

Mix half a pint of cold water with two 
Arrowroot ounces of good arrowroot; let it settle for 
blancmange, fifteen minutes ; pour off the water ; add a 
little peach-leaf water or almond essence in 
water, and a little sugar; sweeten a quart of new milk; 
boil it with a little cinnamon and the peel of a lime, cut 
very thin; strain through a napkin upon the arrowroot, 
stirring it all the time, and give it a simmer upon the 
fire ; put it into a mould, and serve the following day. 

Put a tea-cupful of whole rice into the least 
JRiee hlanc- water possible, till it almost bursts ; then add 
mange, half a pint of good milk or thin cream, and 
boil till it is quite a mash, stirring it the 
whole time it is on the fire, that it may not burn ; flavour 
with spices, lemon peel, &c., and sweeten with pounded 
sugar added with the milk, and take out the lemon peel 
before you put it in the mould ; dip a shape in cold water 
and do not dry it ; put ifi the rice, and let it stand 
until quite cold ; when it will turn easily out. This dish 
is eaten with cream or custard and preserved fiuits. 

Slice some bread nicely, lay it in the bottom 
White poU of a dish, and cover it over with marrow ; sea- 
son a quart of cream or new milk with nut- 
meg, mace, cinnamon, and sugar ; boil and strain it ; beat 
six yolks and put them to the cream and pour it over the 
bread ; bake in a moderate oven, and sift sugar over it, or 
rasped almonds, citron, orange peel and sugar. 

£lanch and pound with two table-spoonfuls of 

Almond orange-flower water, a quarter of a pound of al- 

Custard, monds ; add rather more than a pint of cream 



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S12 INDIAN DOMESTIC SCONOlfY 

or milk and the well beaten yolks of five eggs ; sweeten 
with pounded loaf-sugar; stir it over a slow fire till it 
thickens ; do not let it boil ; serve in a glass dish ; pal 
over the top sifted loaf-sugaf or grated nutmeg. 

Blanch and pound six ounces of sweet, and 
Another, half an ounce of bitter almonds with two table- 
spoonfuls of sifted sugar and a large spoonful 
of rose-water ; add this, by degrees, to a pint of warm 
milk that has been flavoured with a little cinnamon and 
lemon peel; strain the whole through a fine sieve and 
add a pint of cream with the yolks of eight eggs and the 
white of three, well beaten; put over the fire, and stir 
until it is of a good thickness; then remove from the 
fire, and continue stirring until nearly cold to prevent 
its curdling. 

Ofo.— rThis may be baked in cups or in a dish, with a 
puflF paste round it. 

Beat up one pint of cream to a froth with 
Medeira three quarters of a pound of white sugar ' 
custard, dissolve one ounce of isinglass and stir it in 
together with six glasses of madeira; beat all 
well together and pour it into the dish it is to be served 
in : it must stand in a cool place three or four hours : 
serve sweet cakes with it. 

Sweeten a quart of good milk with 
Plain custard. pounded sugar ; boil it with a bit of cin- 
namon, and the peel cut thin of a lime, 
and if you wish to flavour it of almonds, add three 
pounded bitter ones, or four or five peach leaves; strain 
it, and, when a little cooled, mix in gradually the well 
beaten yolks of ten eggs ; stir it over a slow fire until it 
is perfectly thick; pour it into a basin, and add a table- 
spoonful of brandy or noyeau ; keep stirring it every now 
and then till cold. 



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AND COOKSRY. 313 

Obs. — This makes the custard thick enough for baking, 
or to put into a trifle ; for glasses four eggs is sufficient 
for a pint of milk. Two pr three bitter almonds blanch- 
ed and pounded into a paste, may be added. The whites 
should always be turned to account, and not wasted ; they 
answer for lemon cream, trifle, or may be boiled and cut 
into zests, &c. 

Sweeten the strained juice of ten oranges 
thanqe with pounded sugaV, stir it over the fire till 

custard. hot, take off the scum, and when nearly cold, 
add to it the beaten yolks of ten eggs and a 
pint of cream ; put it into a saucepan, and stir it over 
the fire until it thickens ; be careful not to let it boil ; 
serve in glasses or a dish. 

Is prepared by adding cold milk and su- 

Mangoefool gar to the pulp of green boiled mangoes in 

such quantity as the maker chooses ; the 

milk must be added by a little at a time, stirring it well 

with the mangoes, otherwise it will not be smooth. 

Take a good sized lemon or three limes. 
Lemon or and squeeze the juice into a large bowl or 

orange cream, pan ; make it very sweet ; pare some of 
the rind thin, and put it into the pan ; 
put three pints of boiling hot cream into a teapot^ and 
setting the pan on the ground, pour the cream upon the 
lemon, holding the teapot high that it dribble ; some one 
should be stirring the bowl as you pour in the cream to 
mix well the lemon ^nd sugar ; it will then be fit for 
use. One orange and half a lemon is very good, but 
orange alone requires more juice. 

Seweten a quart of cream ; boil and skim it 

Fyramid and boil it again till all the cream that will 

cream. rise has been procured; add any seasoning or 

lemon juice to it, which will make it very 



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812 INDIAN DOMESTIC SCONOlfT 

or milk and the well beaten yolks of five ejp^ 
with pounded loaf-sugar; stir it over a sl^ ^ 
thickens ; do not let it boil ; serve in a / ^^ ^ 
over the top sifted loaf-sugaf or grated - ^ ^ ^ 

Blanch and pound six^l-^ ^ ^^ ^ 
Another, half an ounce of bitter £ g ^ |^ ^ •^' 
spoonfuls of sifted su^ ^ ^^ jf 5 iJ 
of rose-water ; add this, by f ^ ^ ^ ^ .^ ^^ 
milk that has been flavoure*'^ ^ ^ P' i5 ^ C 
lemon peel; strain the vrV^: ^ i -:* ^^ ^, f 
add a pint of cream wit^/^ ^ ^ #i t- ^. ""^ 
white of three, well b^/l^ t :' ij ' 
until it is of a goof^ fa ,1 ^ 

fire, and continue ^^^ / ^| ^^^ly 

its curdling. f^iP^ . very thin; 

Ofe.-rThis r p '^ ^ ^1^^^® ^^^'' *^® ^^ 

puff paste ro ' • ^'^^^ "^^^^J <5<>1<*\ ^tir in 

-*ower or rose-water. 

^ith a quart of cream, the thinly pared 
Meddra ,. of a large lemon, or three limes and four 

cusf spoonfuls of strained juice; sweeten with pound- 
ed sugar, whisk it in a large pan, and, as the 
^^ ^ rises, lay it on a sieve or a strained cloth over a 
* j^ ; as it drains, continue to pour the cream back into 
^e pan until it is all done; remove the lemon peel, put 
g piece of inuslin into an earthen-ware or tin shape with 
holes in it, fill it with the whipt cream heaped as high 
as possible, set it in a cool place, and turn it out 
in twelve hours. 

Ohs. — ^This cream had better be served in a glass dish 
as soon after it is made as possible. It does not stand 
long in this climate. 

Sweeten a pint of cream with fine pounded 

Italian sugar ; boil it with the thinly pared rind of a 

cream, ripe lime and a bit of cinnamon ; strain and 



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\ 



ANB COOKERY. 315 



e- 



*{th half an ounce of dissolved isinglass; add it 
o the well beaten yolk of six eggs ; stir it till 
^ ^ put it into a shape or mould. 

*^^ '^ U two table-spoonfuls of strained lime 

\^ "^ 'pon four spoonfuls of pounded sugar ; 

^ sk table-spoonfuls of brandy and one 

^%^ \ from one cup into another until 

^ ^^ %. ^* 'C\ ' cream with the peel of a 

^ %^**^*y ''*rH ^ sweeten it with pounded 

V'-Cr^'^^^'''' * ^^® y°"^ ^f six eggs 

'J, •^^ oie-spoonful of arrowroot 

jje-flower water and of ratafia; 

^ w hen cold mix it with the eggs and 

vir it over the fire until it is as thick as 

. , put it into a dish^ strew sifted sugar over the 

and brown with a salamander: serve it cold. 

Beat with the yolk of four eggs a table- 
Anoth&r spoonful of flour^ the grated peel of a lime, 

Ifnitatio»m and three pounded bitter almonds ; sweeten 
it with sugar, and stir it over the fire till it 
becomes as thick as a custard ; put it in the dish it is to 
be served in ; boil with a little water some pounded sugar- 
candy until it becomes brown, but do not stir it till 
taken off the fire ; by degrees pour it in figures over the 
top of the cream. It may be eaten cold. 

Steep the thinly pared rinds of eight 
Zemonjimi limes in a pint of water, for twelve hours; 
cream. strain and dissolve it in three quarters of a 

pound of sifted sugar and the juice of the 
limes strained, and the well beaten whites of seven with 
the yolk of one egg; boil it over a slow fire, stirring it 
constantly one way, till it is like a thick cream, and pour 
it into a glass dish. 



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316 INDIAN DOMESTIC ICONOMY 

Put six ounces of raspberry jam to a quart 

Raspherry of cream ; pulp it through a fine sieve ; mix it 

cream. with the juice of a lime or two and some 

pounded sugar; whisk it till thick; serve in 

..a dish or glasses. 

Eub on a lump of sugar the rind of two 
Italian limes or a lemon and scrape it off with a knife 

cream, into a deep dish or China bowl, and add half a 
wine-glass of brandy , two ounces and a half of 
sifted sugar, the juice of a lemon or two limes and a pint 
of thick cream, and beat it up well with a clean whisk: 
in the mean time, boil an ounce of isinglass in a quarter of 
a pint of water till quite dissolved ; strain it to the other 
ingredients; beat it some time and fill your mould; and 
when cold and set well, turn it out on a dish and garnish 
with candied orange or lemon peel cut in slices and 
place round. 

Ofe. — It may be frothed with a chocolate miller. 

Boil half a stick of vanilla in a quarter 
Vanilla cream, of a pint of new milk until it has a very 
high flavour; have ready a jelly of an 
ounce and a half of isinglass to a pint of water ; which 
mix with the milk and a pint of fine cream ; sweeten with 
fine sugar unbroken, and stir till nearly cold; then dip 
a mould into cold water and pour the whole into it ; 
make it the day before it is wanted, or else set it in ice 
to get firm. 

Cover the bottom of your dish with sponge 
Trifle. cakes or Naples biscuits divided into quarters, 
with some broken maccaroons or ratafia cakes ; 
just wet them through with sweet white wine or any 
other ; cover the maccaroons with raspberry jam, or any 
other jam with some guava jelly ; then pour over a rich 
thick custard, and cover the whole with a whipt cream 
as high as you can place it, sprinkling trifle ^ comfits on 



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£ND COOKERY. 317 

the top ; or garnish with different colored sweetmeats. 
Make your whip astfollows : Mix in a large bowl a quar- 
ter of a poand of finely sifted sugar^ the jmee of two 
lemons^ some of the peel grated fine, two table-spoonfuls 
of brandy or noyeau and one of sweet wine, and a pint 
and a half of good cream ; whisk the whole well and take 
off the froth as it rises with a skimmer and lay it on a 
sieve ; continue to whisk it till you have enough to 
cover your trifle. 

06s. — ^A little noyeau or marisquino may be added to 
the sponge cake ; in fact it may be flavoured as fancy 
directs, and covered with everlasting syllabub. 

Beat the whites of eight eggs until they 
Snoto effffsfor form a very thick froth, which will take 
trifles, 8f€. at least half an hour ; put a pint and a 
half of milk to boil, and when it boils, 
place upon its surface as many table-spoonfuls of the 
whipt whites of egg as will stand upon it without 
touching each other ; as each spoonful becomes cooked 
and assumes the appearance of snow, take it off and put 
on another until all the whip is done ; as you take off 
the snow from the milk, put it on a hair sieve to drain ; 
when all the snow is done, add to the milk a bit of 
lemon peel and sugar, enough to sweeten it well ; as soon 
as it has acquired the flavour of the lemon peel, stir into 
it the yolks of the eight eggs beaten up, with a table- 
spoonful of orange-flower water ; when of proper consis- 
tency, but not so thick as cream, pour it into a cream 
dish, and use it as directed for trifle, ornamenting the 
snow with thin slices of red currant jelly. 

Make a good rich custard, and lay it in a 
Floating trifle dish ; then for the foundation of the 
island, island, place in the centre of the dish a circu- 
lar layer of slices of sponge cake or French 
roll dipped in wine ; then a layer of calf s foot jelly, then 



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318 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

cake or roll, then red currant jelly or any other, then 
cake, and so on ; lay any preserve alternately with the 
cake, varying the colours, and taking care to preserve an 
equilibrium ; diminish in ascending pyramidically, and crown 
tlie summit with a good whip, sprinkle with trifle comfits 
and very small bits of coloured preserves ; avoid too great 
a weight at the summit. Decorate the dish with paste or- 
naments or ratafia cakes. 

Devonshire syllabub is made with one pint 
Syllabubs, of sherry, and the same quantity of port, with 
sugar to taste ; it is then put into a bowl, and 
milked upon until nearly fuU ; in twenty minutes, it is 
covered with clouted cream, some pounded cinnamon, and 
nutmeg grated over it. The milk must be warm from the 
cow to have it in perfection, but as it is liable to be 
attended with accident, the safest way is to pour the milk 
warm and fresh taken from the cow on to the wine from 
a height into the bowl. 

In some countries, cyder, home-made wine, ale or vir- 
juice is used. 

Sift half a pound of sugar-candy into a 
Syllabub pint and a quarter of cream, half a pint of 

everlasting. sweet wine, the juice of six limes or three 
small Seville oranges, the zest of four ripe 
limes zested with sugar, and a spoonful of orange flower 
water ; froth it well with a chocolate miller, and dress it 
into glasses. 

Turn some new milk, as for curds, in a 
Devonshire wide shallow dish; when firm, pour over the 
junket. top clouted cream mixed with pounded sugar^ 
a little brandy, and some grated nutmeg. 

Mix two or three table-spoonfuls of arrow* 

Arrowroot root, with half a pint of cold water ; stir it up 

mili. well to clean it; let it stand for a few mi-. 



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AND COOKERY. 319 

nuies^ and ponr off the water; stir in some pounded 
sugar; boil a pint of milk, and pour it gradually upon 
the arrowroot ; give it a boil up^ and keep stirring it the 
whole time; or it may be made with water^ in which 
a little essence of lemon has been dropped or the peel 
boiled with a glass of port or white wine^ and a little 
nutmeg stirred into it. 

Boil the peel of half a lemon or a • lime in 
Arrowroot a quart of water ; pour it over a table-spoon- 
water. ful of arrowroot that has been washed and the 

water poured off; stir it well; sweeten with 
sugar and give it another boil; squeeze in a little lime 
juice, ailid let it cool. This is a most grateful drink to 
a sick person. 

Steep the peel of a lime in a wine-glass of 
Arrowroot hot water, and three or four bitter almonds 
jelly. pounded ; strain and mix it with three table- 

spoonfuls of arrowroot that has been well 
washed, three spoonfuls of lime juice, and one of brandy ; 
sweeten and add a pint of clear water ; put it on the fire, 
and stir until quite thick; turn it into a mould or jelly 



With a quart of new milk, mix the grated 
AU po99eL crumb of a roll (or a teacup of crumbs), the 
beaten yolk of one egg and a little butter; 
put it into a saucepan on the fire, and stir it till it boils, 
and let it simmer for a short time; then stir in a pint of 
hot ale, some sugar, and grated nutmeg; boil all together, 
and serve in a dish. 

Bruise coarsely one pound of wheat ; then 

Fumienty. boil it in water until it is soft ; pour off the 

water, and warm it up in a quart of milk 

with half a pound of dried currants and a pound of ra- 



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320 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

sins stoned, some sugar, cinnamon, and nutmeg. It takes 
about twenty minutes to boil the ingredients. 

Put a seer of wheat into an earthen ves- 
Flummery of sel, and cover it with water ; let it simmer 
wheat. very gently until it becomes a jelly; then 

add twice its quantity of fresh milk with 
four table-spoonfuls of currants boiled; beat up with a 
little milk the yolks of four eggs, and mix all together; 
set it over the fire, but do not let it boil ; sweeten with 
sugar and season with grated nutmeg and cinnamon. It 
may be eaten hot or cold. 

Are all prepared in the same way, and vary 
Souffles only in the flavour given to them, they should 
be served as soon as ready or they are liable 
to sink and not fit to be eaten. 

Prepare the case by lining a raised pie 
Souffles h la mould with paste, fill the centre with bread 

vanille. crumbs to prevent its falling, and finish the 
edges as for a raised pie, bake it of a light 
brown colour, when done remove the crumbs, tie a band 
of buttered paper four inches broad around the top and 
it is ready to be filled, or else use a souffle case made of 
silver or tin, but as they fall sooner after being taken 
from the oven, the paste is to be preferred. 

Put half a pound of butter in a stewpan, and mix in 
three quarters of a pound of fine flour without melting it, 
have ready a quart of milk luke-warm that has been well 
flavoured with vanilla, pour it over the flour, stir it over 
a sharp fire, and boil for five minutes, then add quickly 
the beaten yolks of ten eggs with half a pound of sifted 
sugar, and let ijb cool. An hour and a quarter before you 
serve, whip the whites of the eggs very firm, stir them 
into the mixture lightly, pour it into the case, and bake 
in a moderate oven for near an hour, when ready to 
serve, remove the band of paper from the case, take the 
souffle out of the mould, and serve immediately. 



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AND COOKERY. S21 

Take half a pound of pipe macaroni. 
Souffle an ma- boil it carefully until tender, then drain 
caroni, upon a cloth and cut it into very small 

pieces, make half the preparation as direct- 
ed for soufBes a la vanille, flavour with a little essence of 
bitter almonds; when the paste is becoming thick over the 
fire stir in the macaroni, and again nearly boiling the 
yolks of ten eggs ; and when cold add the whites, finish- 
ing as previously directed. 

Procure the finest tubers, boil first and 
Soufflds of sweet then bake them in hot embers until dry 
j^otatoe. and floury. Scoop out the inside, and 

mix with half a pint of cream that has 
been boiled and flavoured with lime peel; to this add a 
little sugar, butter and salt. Mix up the yolk of four 
eggs only, and add to the potatoes, next beat up the 
whites of six well, and mix, pour the whole into a souffle 
dish, add to it a table-spoonful of fresh butter and bake 
in a moderate oven ; when done, sift a little sugar over, 
and use the salamander: common potatoes may be used 
instead of the sweet. 

Take four table-spoonfuls of ground rice, a 
"Riceflum- pint and a half of new milk, the zest of a 
mery. ripe lime, and sweeten to taste; mix the rice 
first with a little of the milk; boil, the rest, 
and stir the rice into it ; continue boiling for a few 
minutes, when turn it into a mould or basin until quite 
cold ; serve with custard or cream poured over it. 

Put a pint of milk lukewarm into a dish ; add 
Whey, to it half a table-spoonful of rennet; when the 
curd is formed, put it on a sieve and divide it 
with a spoon to allow the whey to escape. 

Put half a pint of new milk on the fire ; 

White mfie the moment it boils, pour in as much white 

whey. wine as will turn it, and it looks clear; let it 

R 1 



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388 INDIAN DOMESTIC KCONOMT AND COOKIRT. 

boil up ; then set the saucepan aside till the curd sub- 
sides, and do not stir it ; pour the whey off ; add to it 
half a pint of boiling water and a little white sugar. 

Prepare six pints of milk as in the first 
Clarified milk receipt; add the whites of three eggs and 
loAey. half a drachm of cream of tartar ; boil 

and filter through a napkin. 

Make a pint of milk boil ; put to it a 

JF/Ule mne glass or two of white wine ; put it on the 

whey, fire till it boils again; then set it on one side 

till the curd has settled; pour off the clear 

whej^ and sweeten it as you like. 

Take the juice of two limes and add it to 

Lemm whey* a pint and a half of milk ; let it simmer a 

little, and strain; sweeten with pounded sugar. 

Obs. — The curd may be used for several purposes: 
such as cheese cakes, butter, &c. 

If you wish it thin, mix by degrees, in a 
Caudle, basin, one table-spoonful of oat-meal with three 
of cold water: if it is to be thick, add two 
spoonfuls of oat-meal ; have ready in a saucepan a pint of 
boiling water or milk ; pour this, by degrees, to the mixed 
oat-meal ; return it to the saucepan ; set it on the fire to 
boil, for a few minutes, stirring it all the time to prevent 
its browning at ,the bottom of the pan; skim and strain 
through a hair sieve; add ale, wine, or brandy, with su- 
gar and nutmeg ; without these ingredients it is plain gruel. 

Bub smooth a large spoonful of oat-meal 
Water gruel, with two of water, and pour it into a pint 
of water boiling on the fire ; stir it well and 
boil it quick, but take care it does not boil over ; in a 
quarter of an hour strain it off, and add salt and a bit 
of butter immediately before being eaten, stir until the 
butter be incorporated. 



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CHAPTER XIX. 



JELLIES AND JAMS. 

Take four calfs feet; wash them well; slit 
Calfifett them in the middle; take away the fat; wash 
Jelly. them again in lukewarm water ; then put them 
in a stewpan, and cover with water ; when the 
liquor boils, skim it well, and let it simmer gently, for 
six or seven hours, that it may be* reduced to about two 
quarts; then strain it through a sieve, and set the liquor 
to cool (this may be done the day before,) when you may 
remove all the fat and oily substance. Put the liquor into 
a stewpan with a pound of sugar, the peel of two lemons, 
the juice of six, six whites of eggs and shells beat together, 
a pint of white wine, and a little 'cinnamon ; whisk the 
whole until it is on the boil ; then set it on one side, 
and let it simmer for a quarter of an hour ; strain it 
through a jelly bag, and then return what is first strained 
back again, when it will be quite dear, and ready for 
the jelly moulds. If the weather is very cold, the bag 
must be kept near the fire or lighted charcoal in chafing 
dishes placed close to it. 

Obi. — Be very particular that your jelly bag is sweet 
and clean, else the jelly will certainly be tainted ; mix 
the jelly, if looking ever so clear, with a glass of wine, 
and you will detect the musty disagreeable flavour imme- 
diately. It may be flavoured by the juice of fruits and 
spices, coloured with saffron, cochineal, red beet juice, spin- 
ach, claret, &c. Bipe fruits, such as green or red grapes^ 
peaches^ &c. may be laid in the mould just as it is thickening. 



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324 INDIAN DOVISTIC ECONOMY 

ObS' — Six or eight sheep's trotters are fully equal to a 
fine calfs foot ; they require cleaning and preparing in the 
same manner. If the jelly is required to be very strong, 
add half an ounce of isinglass dissolved in a wine-glass of 
water ; let it remain a little longer on the fire to boil up. 

Take twenty-four or twenty-eight sheep's 
SAeep's/eet trotters ; clean them nicely, and prepare ex- 
Jelly. actly as for calves^ feet jelly ; cover them with 

water, and when the liquor boils, skim it 
quite clear, and let it simmer gently until reduced to a 
couple of quarts; strain it through a tammis or sieve 
and let it stand until quite cold, when you may remove 
every part of the fat and oily substance without wasting 
any of the jelly ; put it into a stewpan to melt with half 
a pound of sugar, some cinnamon and a few cloves, the 
thin cut peel of two limes, the juice of eight, six whites 
of eggs well beat together, and a pint of white wine : 
whisk the whole well up until it is on the boil; then put 
it on the side of the stove or fire, and let it simmer a 
quarter of an hour ; then strain it through a jelly bag as 
directed in the last receipt. 

Obs. — Jelly may be made of chickens, cow heels, sugar, 
and lemon ; and instead of wine, brandy, noyeau, or cura- 
coa; it is better for being broken and set in glasses bn 
the table, as the air improves the flavour. 

Such as bunches of grapes and strawberries, 

FfuiU in have a handsome appearance when moulded in 

Jelly, jelly ; or peaches, greengages, cherries, apricots^ 

&c. preserved in brandy, are also elegant. They 

must be dipped in water, dried, and put into the jelly as 

it is about to set. 

Red. — ^Boil very slowly in a wine-glass 

Colouring for of water till reduced to one half, twenty 

jellies, cream, grains of cochineal, the same quantity of 

ice^y 8fc. alum and cream of tartar finely pounded ; 



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AKB COOKERY. 325 

strain and keep in a phial. Yellow. — Use an infusion of 
saffron or sappan seeds. Green. — Wash well and peel in* 
to bits a handful of spinach leaves^ put them into a close- 
ly covered saucepan with a glass of water, and express the 
jnice after boiling a few minutes. Bed beet also yields a 
deep purple red ; so does the ripe fruit of the prickly pear. 
Parsley greening is also used, prepared as spinach. 

Zest three lemons or six limes, two 
Orange or Seville oranges and two sweet ; mix this 

lemon jelly, wi^h the juice of the whole, and leave it 
for twelve hours ; boil half a pound of re- 
fined sugar in two wine-glasses of water to near candy 
height ; put it into a basin^ and when cool, strain the juice 
into it ; put an ounce of isinglass into a pint of water, 
and simmer it gently until it becomes a strong jelly; 
mix in the lemon juice and sugar and stir it until it is 
almost cold, when fill your moulds or glasses. 

05*.— Grape, currant or any other fruit jellies may be 
made in the same manner. 

Make a quart of firm calfs foot jelly, to 
Marisquiuo which, when melted, add six liqueur glassfuls 
JeUy-, of marisquino and two of brandy, or else 

dissolve an ounce and a half of isinglass in a 
pint of water, the juice of three large limes with half a 
pound of sugar, pass through a napkin or jelly bag, add 
two wine-glassfuls more water with the marisquino and 
brandy ; when partly cold, place in your mould, and set 
it in ice. 

Pick the fruit' when perfectly ripe, and 
Jelly of grape ^ as soon as it is clean, put it into a stone 
raspberry, and jar, and set it in a saucepan three parts 
currants. filled with cold water, with some straw 

beneath ; set it on a gentle fire, and 
simmer it for half an hour ; take the jar from the sauce- 
pan, and pour the contents into a jelly bag; strain the 



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326 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

juice twice, but do not press the fruit ; to each pint of 
juice add a pound and a half of sugar ; put it into the 
preserving pan, and simmer it gently for thirty or forty 
minutes, stirring and skimming it the whole time until it 
is perfectly clear, when put it into jars and cover carefuUy. 

O69. — Half a pint of either of these jellies dissolved 
and added to brandy or vinegar, will make either of the 
same name. All fruit jellies are made precisely in the 
same manner, and if less sugar is employed they require 
more boiling, by which there is a great waste of juice 
and flavour by evaporation, besides^ the appearance is 
often lost^ and the best way is the cheapest in the end. 

Take four seers of ripe guavas; peel and 
Guava Jelly, divide them into quarters ; boil them in a 
small quantity of water, and strain the juice 
through a cloth or bag; add the juice of ten limes with 
one pound of sugar*candy ; boil and skim it very carefully 
until it is reduced to a proper consistency, and the colour 
of a deep reddish brown, when pour it into a jar at 
once; if bottles are used, the jelly must be first allowed 
to cool a little. 

Oi*.— In making a large quantity of jelly, from thirty 
to forty seers of guavas, the juice that runs from them 
must be well reduced by boiling and skimming before the 
sugar is added; perhaps a little more sugar may be ne- 
cessary than the quantity laid down. My receipt says 
two tea-cupfuls of sugar-candy to four seers of guavas. 
The above receipt will only make two * tea-cupfuls of jelly, 
though the same quantity of sugar be added to it. 

Get the finest fruit quite ripe, wash it 
Jamoon Jelly, well to four pound, add half a pint of 
water, and boil the whole in a saucepan 
till quite soft, then strain the fruit through a towel, and 
to each pint of juice add two table-spoonfuls of lime 
juice; reduce it again by boiling to one half, and to each 
pint that remains add one pound and a half of sugar- 



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AND CX)OILEBY. 827 

candy ; boil the whole over a clear charcoal fire, removing 
the scum as it rises, try the jelly in a spoon, and when 
it sets remove and fill your jars or bottles. This jelly is of 
a deep purple colour and equal to the Boselle or any other. 

Wash your tapioca in cold water two or 

Tapioca Jelly, three times ; then soak it in fresh water 

five or six hours (add a little lime peel) ; 

simmer it in the same until it becomes quite clear ; then 

add lemon juice, wine, and sugar. It thickens very much. 

Take two table-spoonfuls and boil it in 
Tapioca in a pint of water, adding sugar to the taste. 
mUk. Milk may be substituted instead of water. 

Cut the crumb of a roll into thin slices. 
Jelly, invalid, and toast them equally of a pale brown ; 
boil them gently in a quart of water till it. 
will be a jelly, which may be known by putting a little in 
a spoon to cool ; strain it, add a little lemon peel and 
sugar. Wine may be added. 

Wipe or clean the peaches with a soft 
PeacA Jam. brush, so as to remove all the dust ; then 
scald them in a stone jar by placing it in a 
kettle of boiling water over the fire until done ; then 
turn out the fruit, remove the skin and stones, and add 
an equal quantity by weight of pounded sugar-candy to 
it ; place the whole in a preserving pan over a clear 
charcoal fire, and let it boil up gently three or four 
times ; skim it carefully, and a few minutes before you 
remove the jam from the fire, mix with it the blanched 
kernels and fill your jars or wide-mouthed bottles ; wheh 
cool, stopper or cork them down tight. 

Prepare the peaches as for cheese in the 

Peach Jam next receipt; to each pound of pulp add a 

witA Oreen large green mangoe, peeled and sliced, with 

Mangoes. one pound and a half of sugar-candy ; put 



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828 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

the whole into a preserviug pan, and let it boil, stirring 
it from time to time that it may not burn ; remove any 
scum that rises, and when it thickens and will jelly on 
a plate, it is done enough ; before taking from the fire* 
add the blanched kernels ; put it into jars or wide-mouth- 
ed bottles for use. 

Pick any quantity of ripe peaches, put 
Peach Cheese, them into a stone jar and bake them in au 
oven until they are soft ; or boil the jar 
in a kettle of water ; then stone and rub them while hot 
through a colander ; put the pulp and juice into a pre- 
serving pan, adding to every pound of pulp and juice a 
pound and half of sugar ; (blanch the kernels of the stones 
and keep them on one side ;) simmer gently and remove 
any scum ; then add the bleached keriVels of the stones ; 
stir these well in, a few minutes before you remove the 
pan from the fire ; put into moulds sprinkled with arrow- 
root, and set to dry. 

Put bread crumbs and red currant jelly 
Another Jelly, or any other alternately into a tumblar 
until half full then fill up with milk. 

Weigh equal quantities of pounded sugar 
Apricot Jam. and of apricots ; pare and cut them quite 
small ; as they are done, strew over them half 
of the sugar ; the following day boil the remainder, and 
add the apricots ; stir it till it boils ; take off the scum, 
and when perfectly clear, which may be in twenty minutes, 
add a part of the kernels blanched, and boil it £^ minute 
or two more. 

06s. — Dried apricots strung on thread, are brought from 
Bussorah and sold in the bazars at the Presidencies, and 
require, like all other dried fruit to be soaked before using. 

Pare and stone ripe apricots ; slice them, 

Apricot Mar- and boil a pound of sugar for each pound 

tnalade. of fruit ; let it nearly come to a candy 



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AND COOKEBT. 889 

height ; then add the froit, and boil it v^y quicks removing 
the scam carefully ; when clear, take it from the fire, 
and in potting put in the kernels. 

Collect the ripest fruit and skin them ; lay 
Fig Jam. them in a China bowl for a night, sprinkled 
over with pounded sugar-candy ; to each pound 
of fruit allow the same quantity of sugar, place the whole 
in a preserving pan, over a clear fire, and . skim it clear 
until the fruit begins to jelly, when remove and fill the 
pots in which it is to remain. 

Bruise gently with the back of a wooden 
Ratpberry spoon, six pounds of ripe and freshly gathered 
Jam. raspberries, and boil them over a brisk fire, for 

twenty-five minutes ; stir to them half their 
weight of good sugar roughly powdered, and when it is 
dissolved, boil the preserve quickly, for ten minutes, keep- 
ing it well stirred and skimmed ; when a richer jam is wish- 
ed for, add to the fruit at first its full weight of sugar, 
and boil them together twenty minutes. 

When the fruit is not an object, pare, core 
Quince mar- and quarter some of the inferior quinces, and 
fnalade. boil them in as much water as will nearly 
cover them, until they begin to break ; strain 
the jnice from them, and for the marmalade put half a 
pint of it to each pound of fresh quinces; in preparing 
these, be careful to cut out the hard strong parts round 
the cores ; simmer them, gently until they are perfectly 
tender ; then press them with the juice through a coarse 
sieve, pat them into a perfectly clean pan, and boil them 
till they form almost a dry paste ; add for each pound 
of quince and the half pint of juice, three quarters of a 
pound of sugar in fine powder, and boil the marmalade for 
half an hour, stirring it gently without ceasing. It will 
be very firm and bright in colour. If made shortly after 
the fruit is gathered, a little additional sugar will be re- 

8 I 

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330 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

quired ; and when a richer and less dry marmalade is bet- 
ter liked, it most be boiled a shorter time and an equal 
weight of fruit and sugar must be used. 

Take two seers of unripe red tamarinds ; clean 
Red tama- the pods and take out the seeds ; then soak the 
rind Jam. pods in cold water, for two hours ; make one 
and a half seer of sugar into syrup ; then put 
the tamarinds with a little cinnamon in the syrup ; boil it 
for ten minutes on a quick fire ; remove the tamarinds 
from the syrup, and boil it until thick ; then put back the 
tamarinds to the syrup, and slowly boil the whole for 
fifteen minutes. 

Take off the outer peel, and then split 
Tamarindi^ to the tamarinds lengthways in order to take 
preserve, out the seeds; take four times their weight 
of sugar ; after the seeds have been taken 
out of the tamarinds, make it into a thick syrup, which 
must be well boiled with the juice of three or four limes 
squeezed into it ; strain it and put in the tamarinds ; 
let them remain for a few minutes on the fire ; then take 
the pan off, and put them with syrup into jars well 
covered. In the course of a short tune a thick crust will 
appear on the top of the jar, which will exclude all the 
air, and preserve ttie tamarinds good for a long time, if 
not disturbed. The tamarinds should be selected of the 
finest red, and gathered before they are ripe, otherwise 
they will be stringy, scarcely any pulp left, and the seeds 
difficult to extract. Care should be taken not to allow 
the tamarinds to remain long in any brass or copper 
vessel. The syrup should be thick at first, because the 
juice of the tamarinds will speedily thin it. 

Gather the tamarinds before they are ripe ; 

Tamarind take off the skin ; slice them in two, and re- 

preeei've, move the stones; let them soak in alum and 

water during one night, and preserve them the 



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AND COOK££T. 331 

next day. To three seers of fruity put two and half seers 
of sugar-candy made into a syrup; let the fruit boil 
gently until it becomes quite soft ; then take it out of the 
syrup, and allow the latter to boil until it becomes thick ; 
then put the tamarinds into jarSj and pour the syrup 
over them. 

Take any quantity of French plums ; 

Trench plums give them one boil in plain water ; strain 

preserved. it from them, and spread them out on a 

dish or cloth ; make a syrup of sugar, and 

put the plums into it ; simmer them gently for a quarter 

of an hour, and then put them in a jar for , use. 

Scrape and clean your green ginger well; 

Green ginger to each pound of ginger, put a pint and a 

preserve, half of water; boil it down to one pint or 

less; skim it carefully while boiling; then 

strain off the liquid and 'add one pound of sugar-candy 

and boil the ginger in it until tender. 

• Carefully remove the skin, cut it up 

Orange chips, le- into thin slices, and soak in salt and 

mon or pulped water for a couple of days ; then throw 

marmalade. the salt and water away, and add fresh 

water only, removing the chips as soon 

as the salt is taken out, and boil them till tender ; clarify 

two pounds of sugar in a pint of water, for each pint of 

juice and pulp ; boil it together till clear ; to every pound 

of this jeUy, add half' a pound of the chips that have 

been previously prepared as follows : (dissolve a pound of 

sugar in a wine-glass of water to each pound of chips, 

and boil it clear for twenty minutes) ; then boil altogether 

for a few minutes, and put it up in pots. 

When the chips have been prepared, as 
Chips only, above directed, in syrup, for twenty minutes, 
remove, and dry them in a stove or else in 
the sun, sprinkling fine sugar over them. 



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332 INDIAN DOMSSnC KCONOMY 

Qr€M^e dips Are prepared in a similar laaoner. 

Take the ripest and yellowest fruit, fresh 
Putnplemose from the tree; slice the outside into quar* 
peel, candied, ters or more, down to the fruit, and pare 
it off clean; then cut away very thin the 
external rind and remove as much ' of the soft inside as 
will leave the slices a little more than a quarter of an 
inch thick; soak them in water for twelve hours; then 
boil them in fresh until soft; strain and let them cool. 
Make a stroug syrup with the juice of the fruit, some 
water and sugar-candy, in this, place and boil the ped 
until it is perfectly saturated with the syrup; then drain 
off the syrup from the preserve, which place on a dish 
in the sun, and sprinkle it well with sifted sugar; when 
dry» bottle it. 

Obs» — Soft sugar may be used, and one pound, if 
fine and clean, will be sufficient for a moderate sized 
pumplemose. 

Boil the peels in several waters till they 

Orange peel lose their bitterness; then put tbran into a 

candied. syrup till they become soft and transparent; 

when they may be taken out, drained, and 

dried in the sun ; sprinkle a little pounded sugar over them. 

Take any quantity of the finest unripe 
Mangoes, to mangoes ; peel and divide them in half, stones 
preserve. and all, removing the seeds ; then weigh the 
mangoes ; tx) each pound, allow a pint of water 
and a pound and a quarter of sugar-candy ; put the whole 
into a stewpan, and boil gently, removing all the scum as 
it rises ; when the mangoes appear clear and sufficiently 
done, remove from the; fire, and let stand till cold ; then 
put into bottles or jars for use or keeping. 

Cut and peel any quantity of unripe man- 

Mangoe jelly, goes free from the stone; put them into a 

preserving pan with a sufficient quantity of 



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AND COOKERY. 333 

water to cover them, and boil gently till quite soft ; then 
strain tlie contents through a jelly bag or cloth ; to each 
pint of juice, add a pound and a half of good sugar pound- 
ed ; and when it is dissolved, put it into the preserving pan, 
set it on the fire, and boil gently, stirring and skimming it 
the whole time, till no more scum rises, and it is clear and 
fine; pour it into pots while warm, and when cold, cover 
them down close. 

Cut off the lower part of the stem from 
OseUle or the fiuit with a portion of the top ; remove 

Rosellejam the seed; wash and pick the fruit clean; 

and jelly, then put it into an earthen jar or rather 
vessel, which place in a large saucepan of 
water; add to each pound in weight of fruit, a wine-glass 
of water ; boil the whole for several hours at a good pace 
or until the fruit has formed into a jelly; when remove it, 
and to each pound add the same qaantity of sugar ; put 
the whole iq|o a jelly pan, and boil it as any other jam. 
If jelly is to be made, clean the fruit as directed, and pre- 
pare it by boiling in a similar manner ; then put it into a 
bag or cloth, and strain off all the juice ; add the sugar 
in the same proportion as for jam; skim it carefully 
whilst boiling, and when made, turn it out into your jars. 

Oi*.— This jelly, if made with fine sugar-candy, is as 
clear as any red currant, and of equal flavour. 

Pick the fruit and wash it clean; place it in 
Kumnder a jar or other vessel, which put into a sauce- 
jam. pan of water, and boil until the whole of the 
juice is expressed; then strain it through a 
cloth or bag, and add equal quantities of sugar-candy; 
boil and skim it carefully ; try its consistency by placing a 
httle on a plate; when ready, turn it into pots. Cape 
gooseberries may be made in the same way. 



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CHAPTEE XX. 



TEA, COFJPEE, Etc. 

To be made well, must have the water poured 
Tea, boiling hot upon it. The quantity for common pur- 
poses is a tea-spoonful for each cup, and it should 
never be allowed to stand long, otherwise the bitter quali- 
ty is extracted. Persons travelling, will find a tincture of 
tea, prepared as follows, very useful and convenient. Fill 
a wide-mouthed bottle with fresh tea, green or black, and 
pour as much brandy or rum upon it as the bottle will 
hold; keep it well corked in the sun, for a few days, 
shacking it occasionally, when strain it off clear: a tea^ 
spoonful of this, put into a cup of boiling water, will, 
with a little milk, furnish a cup of excellent tea. 

Obs. — Tea should be made with water the minute it boils. 

Sasp or slice a cake or square of chocolate 
Chocolate* (about two ounces) into a pint of boiling 
water; set it on the fire to simmer, and mill 
it well until it is quite dissolved ; then add an equal quan- 
tity of milk or half the quantity of cream, with sugar 
sufficient to sweeten it, and mill it thoroughly to a frotk 
before serving. 

Oh8. — The cakes are prepared by pounding the berries 
of the cacslonat with beef suet; to which the* Spaniards 
add sugar and spices. A substitute for the regular choco- 
late miller may be made by splitting a moderate sized 
bamboo at the end into four divisions to the length of 
eight or ten inches ; tie some twine tightly above the split 
part, and insert a piece of cork^ of a cone shape, so as to 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. 335 

keep the divisions open. This ans^vers for frothing creams 
as well as milling, spruce, &c. 

Allow six or eight nuts for each cup; have 
Cocoa, them carefully roasted, but not burnt; then 
pound them well in a mortar, and add cold water 
in proportion to the quantity of nuts, one-third more than 
required ; boil gently until the excess of water is reduced ; 
strain, and it is ready for use; add milk and sugar. 

Oha. — After the cocoa is prepared, you may add the 
water and boil it down to one half; then mix it with an 
equal quantity of milk, and when it has boiled up again, 
strain it through a muslin bag into the pot or vessel it 
is to be served in. 

This beverage, so generally admired when pro- 
Coffee, perly made, is seldom presented in a state fit to 
drink, being often weak, cold, and muddy, possess- 
ing neither flavour nor strength. To be good, the great 
secret lies in making it immediately it is roasted and 
ground, allowing a sufficient quantity for each cup. If 
you would have it of the finest flavour, procure the coffee 
of the best quality; — ^Mocha stands in the highest esti- 
mation. The machines advertised for making superior cof- 
fee by pressure, steam, &c. are numerous, but for a work 
like this, I shall only give such receipts as are most likely 
to be available by the plain coffee-pot for boiling, the 
filtering biggin and the common saucepan. The quantity 
of ground coffee for each cup, is from three to four tea- 
spoonfuls, equal to an ounce; those persons, who drink it 
without milk or sugar, may prefer it stronger. Put the 
coffeb into the pot with the proportionate quantity of cold 
water, allowing a little more than the quantity required; 
let it boil for ten minutes and keep stirring it to prevent 
its boiling over, when the coffee will fall to the bottom 
and become perfectly clear. 

Od«.— The grounds may be allowed to remain in the pot 
for the next day, as a third of coffee is saved by it. 



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336 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Scald the biggin well ; take oat the presser ; 
To make it put in your coffee in the proportion laid down^ 
in a biggin, and with reference to the size of the biggin ; 
then press it down tight and put on the strain- 
er with the large holes and pour upon it the quantity of 
boiling water required; place the biggin in a basin of hot 
water to keep the coffee warm ; as soon as it has filtered 
through, pour it out immediately, either into cups or into 
the vessel it is to be served in, which should be kept closed 
and warm; if parties are to help themselves, accompany it 
with hot cream or milk, and pounded sugar-candy. 

In the morning, pour upon a quarter of 

To make coffee a pound of fresh coffee about two quarts 

where much is boiling water ; stir it for three or four mi- 

required/or a nutes ; cover it closely, and let it remain ; 

family. pour it off clear, and boil it up for use. 



Beat up an egg with a litle water; mix 
Another way, it with four ounces of fresh roasted and 
ground coffee; then pour one quart or three 
pints of water upon it, and boil for five minutes ; let it 
settle a few minutes to clear, or strain through a napkin^ 
flannel or muslin bag. If this is done, it requires heating 
again ; or instead of clearing with an egg pour a little cold 
water into the pot before taking it off the fire. It may be 
made this way on the previous night of marching; the 
dear part, bottled and corked^ made treble strong, will keep 
for many days. 

Obs. — ^This is a very useful way to prepare it for travel- 
lers; if it is required before starting in the morning, as 
your servants then are much engaged, have it made over- 
night, the quantity of milk and sugar added, put in a bot- 
tle, corked, and it will then only require warming, which 
may either be done over the servants' fire, or the lamp you 
are dressing by. 



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AND COOKERY. SS7 

Take as much clear coffee prepared in the 
Milk Coffee^ proportion of foar ounces to one quart of wa- 
ter (though I would advise six ounces instead) ; 
then add as much milk as coffee^ sweetened to your taste; 
warm it, but do not let it boil, and in pouring it out, froth 
from a height as you would a foaming liquid out of a 
bottle. 



Tl 

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CHAPTEE XXI. 



SYRUPS, Etc. 

To every pound of sagar^ add half a pint of 
Clarified water ; put into a clean stewpan ; dissolve the 

s^rup. sugar, and set over a moderate fire; the white 
of an egg is sufficient for four pounds of sugar; 
put it to the sugar before it gets warmed and stir well 
together ; watch it as it boils, take oflf the scum, and keep 
it boiling till no scum rises and it is perfectly. clear; run 
it through a clean napkin, and put it into close stoppered 
bottles. 

Obs. — If sugar-candy is used, two-thirds of a pint of 
water may be allowed to a pound, or even more, if required 
for immediate use. 

To two seers of moist sugar, add a pint and 

Syrup. a half of water with the white of an egg well 

beaten ; strain the whole, put it on the fire, and 

as it boils, remove all the scum, and continue boiling 

until sufficiently thick. 

Obs, — This is a convenient article for domestic use, 
answering the purpose in many cases of sugar-candy, be- 
sides being divested of all impurities. 

As generally prepared in Europe, is made 
Capillairef with essence of neroli and clarified syrup, or 
with orange-fiower water and syrup ; mix four 
ounces of orange-flower water to one pint of syrup ; and 
it is ready. This is what is generally sold in England for 
capillaire ; in America it is made by infusing one ounce 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC TCONOHY AND COOKEEY. 339 

of the capillaire bark in varm water, adding a pound of 
sttgar^ clearing it with the white of an egg, and boiling 
to a syrup. 

Is made from an extract first obtained 

Oinger syrup hy infusing in a quart of boiling water two 

ounces of ground ginger; filter it through 

paper, and add to it two pounds of sugar, and boil it into 

a syrup* 

Put a pint of fresh lemon juice to a 
Sjrup qflemoiu. pound and three quarters of sugar-can- 
dy; dissolve it by a gentle heat; skim 
it till the surface is quite clear ; add an ounce of thin cut 
lemon peel ; let them simmer (very gently) together for 
a few minutes, and run it through a flannel; when cold, 
bottle and cork it closely, and keep it in a cool place. 
Or, dissolve a quarter of an ounce of citric crystallized 
lemon acid in a pint of clarified syrup; flavour it 
with the peel. 

Of fresh outer rind of Seville orange or 

Byrup of lemon peel three ounces, apothecary's weight ; 

orange or boiling water a pint and a half; infuse them 

Unum pteL for a night in a close vessel ; then strain 

the liquor ; let it stand to settle, and, having 

poared it off clear from the sediment, dissolve in it two 

pounds of double refined loaf sugar ; boil it to a syrup 

with a gentle heat. 

OU* — In making this, if the sugar be dissolved in 
the infusion with as gentle a heat as possible to pre- 
vent the exhalation of the volatile parts of the peel, the 
syrup will possess a great share of the fine flavour of the 
orange or lemon peel* 

Rub down half a dozen almonds and a 

Ginger drops, little candied citron or orange peel ; add a 

little sugar, and rub it till it comes to a 



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840 INDIAN BOHlsmC SCONOMT 

fine paste; incorporate well half an ounce of the best 
pounded ginger; put a pound of sugar upon the fire with 
a little water ; skim it and put in the paste ; let it boil to 
candy height, and drop it as other drops. 

Take a pound of fine sugar-candy; mix 
Lemon drops* in the juice of two lemons or four good 
limes with the white of two eggs beaten 
to a froth; put in, while it is finishing, by degrees, the 
zest of the lemons or limes; boil to a candy height; cover 
some oven tins with paper, sift sugar over, and drop 
them and put them in the stove. 

Take fine pounded sugar half a pound, with 

PqtpermifU the white of two eggs; drop into it one hun- 

drops. dred and twenty drops of the oil, and mix it 

well; drop them off the point of a knife on 

to the sugared paper, and gently dry the drops over the 

fire or oven. 

Make goor or jaggery into a thick syrup with 
To make water ; clarify with the white of an egg ; strain 
treacle, it and boil until of a proper thickness. 

Put clarified syrup, containing some rasp- 
Barley sugar, ed lemon peel, into a saucepan with a lip, 
and boil it to caramel height, carefully skim- 
ming it as it boils ; have ready a marble slab, slate, or the 
back of a large dish, well buttered, and pour the syrup 
along it of the thickness required for the sticks of barley 
sugar ; twist every stick at each end while hot, to give it 
the usual form. 

One pound of treacle, one pound of moist sn- 

Toffey. gar, and half a pound of butter ; it must be done 

over a clear fire, and in a saucepan large enough 

to allow of its boiling fast ; first take the butter, and, widi 

a knife, rub it on the bottom of the saucepan until it is 



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AND COOKBBY. 341 

melted; then add the treacle and sugar, stirring all gently 
with the knife until the whole is in a boiling state ; have 
dose at hand a basin of cold water, in which, after it is 
boiled for about ten minutes, drop a little from the knife 
point ; if you can take it from the water in a crisp state, 
it is done enough. .This will require very nice atten- 
tion, or it will be spoilt by tasting burnt. Have ready a 
large dish rubbed over every part with a small portion 
of butter ; when the toffey has arrived at the crisp point, 
immediately put the whole into the dish, and let it 
remain until cold; then turn the dish, and give it a rap 
or two on the bottom, and the toffey will fall out in pieces. 
It must not be allowed to be exposed to the air, but 
kept dry in a canister or bottle. 



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CHAPTEE XXII. 



DRINKS, LIQUEUES, Etc. 

Pound very fine eight ounces of sweet 
Almond drink almonds (blanched) and half an ounce of 
or orgeaU bitter, in a marble mortar, with two table- 
spoonfuls of orange-flower water to keep 
them from oiling ; them mix with them half a pint of rose 
and the same quantity of pure water; rub it through a 
tammy cloth or sieve until the almonds afe quite dry; to 
this must be added a pint and a half of clarified sugar or 
clear syrup; boil it for a minute, and when cold, put it 
into small bottles close corked. A table-spoonful is suffi- 
cient for a tumbler of water. 

A quarter of a pound of sweet and one 

Orgeat (or cU* ounce of bitter almonds are to be blanch- 

mond drink) for ed and thrown into cold water ; then beat- 

present use. ^en in a marble mortar and moistened with 

a little milk or rose-water to prevent their 

oiling; three pints of fresh milk are to be mixed gradually 

with them, and sweeten with pounded sugar or syrup; this 

is then boiled, stirred until cold, and strained ; when a 

glass of white wine or brandy is to be added. 

Take half a pound of sweet almonds, and 
Anotker way. pound them finely with a little orange-flower 
water, one quart of pure water being added 
by degrees; sweeten with refined sugar or syrup; strain 
through a napkin, and put into a bottle to be iced or 
cooled. 

Ofo.— This will only answer for the day it is to be used. 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOltT AND COOKEET. 843 

Take the juice of four limes, tlie rind 

Barley mead, pared thin of two, four table -spoonfuls of 

honey and half a pound of pearl barley; 

put it into a jug or other vessel, and pour two quarts of 

boiling water upon it; let it stand to cool and strain it. 

One ounce of pearl barley, half an ounce 
Barley water, of sugar, and the rind of a lemon or couple 
of limes put into a jug ; pour upon it a 
quart of boiling water ; let it stand for eight or ten hours ; 
then strain off the liquor, adding a slice of lemon. This 
makes a very grateful drink for invalids. A little wine may 
be added to convert it into negus or rum for jiunch. 

One bottle of wine, half a pound of sugar or 
Negus, cappillaire and a sliced lemon or two fresh limes ; 
add three quarts of boiling water, and grate nut« 
meg to the taste. 

Pour two quarts of boiling water upon three 
Another, ounces of pearl barley, a quarter of a pound of 
sugar, and a lemon sliced ; when cold, strain the 
liquor, and add a pint of wine and a glass of brandy. 

Take the juice of six fine limes, the peel of 
Milk le- three pared very thin, two wine-glasses of syrup, 
manade. half a pint of madeira or sherry, and one quart 
of boiling water ; put it into a covered vessel, 
and let it stand twelve hours ; then boil half a pint of new 
milk, and pour it upon the mixture ; after which, run it 
through a jelly bag till it is quite clear. 

Put the rinds of thirty limes pared fine, 
Mili punch, in a bottle of rum ; let ^it stand twenty-four 
hours ; then take three bottles of water, one 
bottle of lime juice, four pounds of powdered sugar, two 
nutmegs grated, and six bottles of rum, arrack or brandy; 
mix all together; add two quarts of milk, boiling hot; let 
it stand two hours ; then strain it through a flannel bag. 



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344 INDIAN DOMESTIC BCONOUT 

Pare sixty limes as thin as possible ; pour 
Another. over the peel one bottle of ram ; plac e it 
covered up in the sun three days ; afterwards 
boil four quarts of milk down to half the quantity over a 
slow fire ; take five quarts of water^ three quarts of rum, 
the lime peel and rum prepared as above, one quart of lime 
juice, three pounds of China sugar ; stir up well ; grate six 
nutmegs, and pour quickly over the whole the two quarts 
of boiling milk ; cover it up close ; keep half an hour ; 
then strain it through a double Qannel bag until perfectly 
clear ; bottle and cork. This makes one dozen. 

Take two handfuls of thinly sliced lime 
Another. peel, put it into a jar or wide mouthed bot- 
tle with two quarts of rum. In a second 
bottle put half a tea-cupful (of each) of finely pounded 
mace, cinnamon and cloves, with the same quantity of 
mm as with the lime peel, stop both close and put oat 
into the sun or stand near a fire for twenty-four houra-^ 
take six pounds and a half of fine white sugar and dis- 
solve it in nine pints of water, let it stand on the fire 
until the scum breaks, then take it off and let it remain 
until the next morning, when skim and pour the clear 
syrup into a large vessel, add one bottle of strained lime 
juice, then the contents of the lime peel and spices from 
the jars or bottles, with four quarts of boiling milk, stir 
all well up and carefully strain through a flannel bag 
or napkin. 

Obs, — Should it run thick at first return it into the 

bag, but be careful not to disturb the curd. This is a 

west Indian recipe. 

• 

Mix seven pounds of molasses in four 

Spruci Beer, gallons of boiling water and four gallons of 

cold; put in three table-spoonfuls of spnice 

essence; whisk it well up with three spoonfuls of yest or 

half a pint of toddy ; put it in a cask^ and roU it ; bottle 



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AND COOKERY. S45 

it when the working ceases, and wire or tie and put it 
in a cool cellar. 

Two gallons of water, two and a quarter 
Ginger beer, ounce of ginger, three quarters of an ounce 
of cream of tartar, two pounds of sugar-candy, 
one lime; the whole to be mixed with the water boiling 
hot, and a tea^spoonfol of sweet toddy added to each bot- 
tle before corking: ready in two days. 

Obs. — ^The corks must be tied tight down. 

Take two table-spoonfuls of finely pound- 
Ginger beer, ed ginger, one tea-spoonfd of cream of tar- 
(my way, J tar, put these into a jug, and add a quart of 
hot water; let the liquor stand until cool; 
then pour or strain it dear from the sediment into & 
large bowl or soup-tureen; take the juice of six limes, 
four or five table-spoonfuls of clear syrup, (add two glass- 
es of white wine if you like) with five pints of pure water 
and a claret glass of scindie or toddy in a state of fer- 
mentation; keep working the whole well up together for 
a minute or two, and bottle in soda-water bottles (if pro- 
curable,) tieing the corks well down with string, which 
if properly managed, both will last for several batches* 
This quantity should fill nine bottles, one of which must 
always be kept for the next brew ; and in this way may be 
continued for any length of time. By this means all the 
unpleasant taste of the toddy is got rid of; some persons 
add a little beer, which is a matter of mere taste. Impe- 
rial is made in the same way, substituting half an ounce 
of cream of tartar, instead of ginger, which should be dis- 
solved in hot water and the peel of a couple of limes cut 
thin allowed to soak in it. This gives a flavour and is 
generally approved of. After once or twice making these 
drinks, a person will be enabled to judge of their quality, 
and add or take away any ingredients accordingly. The 
bottles should be kept in a cool place under wet straw or 

TJl 



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346 INDIAN. DOMESTIC SCONOHT 

near a tatty or in earthen coolers. It will be fit to drink 
in less than twenty-four hours. 

Take a bottle of good ale, a glass of 
Cool tankard white wine, or a glass of brandy, as much 
or mug. syrup of capillaire as wQl sweeten it, a sprig 
of blam, mint, or borrage--« toast well cover- 
ed with nutmeg, and pour the liquid over it. 

Obs. — It should be made at least a quarter of an hour 
before required, that all the ingredients may incorporate* 

Take a bottle of good ale or porter; put 
Mug (my into a covered jug the juice of two limes, part 
way,) of the peel cut thin, a glass of white wine 
and some grated nutmeg, enough syrup to 
sweeten it, a handful of fresh mint or a leaf or two of 
borrage; pour upou this a pint of water, and put it to 
cool and stand for fifteen minutes; then add the bottle 
of beer or porter. 

Ohs* — ^It may be made at once and drunk, only adding 
the beer last. 

Take the peel of pumplenciose cut very titiB, 
Biitera. or of lime, lemon, or bitter orange ; put into a 
wide-mouthed bottle, and fill up either with 
brandy or white wine; cork tight and place in the san 
for a few days. This forms a most useful and elegant 
bitter. 

Obs. — It may be also made with dry peel from any of 
the above fruits. 

Take four ounces of pounded augar, a 
Sack posset, pint of sherry and some grated nutmeg; 
warm them over the fire until the sugar i» 
dissolved; then beat up ten fresh egga, and strain them 
into a quart of new milk that has beoi boiled (but st<Nid 
until oool)> and add the wine and sugar ; put the whole 



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▲HO OOOKS&Y. 347 

into a dean saucepan on the fire, and keep stirring until 
it is nearly boiled^ when remoye, or it will curdle. 

Mix two or three table^poonfuls of ho- 
AthoUbroie. ney with brandy, whisky, or rum; make it 
of a proper consistency. Some add . the yolk 
of an egg beaten up in it. 

Take Seville orange juice or lime one 
Sir%b, Ume pound and a half; strain and add four pounds 
or orange, of whit« sugar with four pints of best Jamai- 
ca rum. 

Put two quarts of brandy into a large 
Skfigb brandy, bottle, with the juice of five lemons and 
the peels of two; stop it up, and let it 
stand three days; then add three pints of white wine, a 
pound and a half of loaf-sugar and half a nutmeg ; strain 
it through a flannel bag, and it will be found excellent. 

Take the rind cut very thin of twenty- 
Punch ciam- four limes, and soak twenty-font hours in 
pagne. twienty-four glasses of hot French brandy; 

th^ add ^the juice of forty-eight limes 
and six pounds of fine pounded sugar, twelve glasses of 
rum, twdre glasses of marischino, six bottles of cham- 
pagne, six bottles of wat^; let it stand for six or eight 
days in a vessel; then strain it dear through a flannel 
bag ; bottle and cork it wdl : smaller quantity in the 
same proportion. If required for immediate use, pass the 
whole through a flue lawn strainer until it is perfectly 
dear^ bottle and cool it. 

Pare, as thin as possible, the rinds of two 

BsgenU. China oranges, of two lemons and of one Seville 

orange, and infuse them for an hour in half a 

pint of thin cold syrup; then add to them the juice of 

the firuit ; make a pint of strong green tea ; sweeten it well 



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348 INDIAN BOMBSTIC BCOKOMT 

with fine sugar^ and when it is quite cold, add it to the 
fruit and syrup, with a glass of best old Jamaica mm, a 
glass of brandy, one of arrack, one of pine apple syrup 
and two bottles of champagne; pass the whole through a 
fine lawn sieve until it is perfectly clear ; then bottle and 
put it into ice until dinner is served. 

Cut a ripe pine apple into slices, put it 

Pine apple into a deep bowl with two pounds of fine su- 

cardinal, gar, let it remain three hours, and then pour 

over it one bottle of sherry, one of Bhenish 

wine and one of champagne: let it stand a short time 

before it is served. 

Clean and scald the peaches as directed 
Peach Liquor* for jam ; when ready turn them out inlo 
a sieve or jelly bag, and let the juioe 
drain from the fruit without squeezing; add to each pint 
of juice an equal quantity of light French brandy, or spirits 
of wine, and the same proportion of cold syrup to the 
whole, when filter and bottle the liquor. 

Put six ounces cut thin of dried pumple- 
Pumplemose mose skin and coarsely pounded, into a bottle 
liguor. of French brandy; after it has been infused 
ten or twelve days in the sun and strained, 
add a quart of clarified syrup and filter, though the latter 
will be found hardly necessary if the infusion has been 
properly cleared. 

Take a tea-spoonful of tincture of cinnamon, 
BaUamum and put it with a little sugar in a glass of 
vita. sherry or madeira with the yolk of an egg 

beaten up in it. 

Take one drachm of oil of cinnamon; add 
Cinnanum two ounces of the best French brandy or proof 
essence^ spirits of wine. 



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AND COOK£ET. 349 

Fat three ounces of braised cinnamon in- 

Tincture o^ to a bottle of French brandy ; let it stand 

Cmnaman. for a fortnight, shaking it occasionally, then 
strain it. 

Pimento, so called from possessing the fla- 
AlUpice* vour combined of cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs 
and pepper. 

Take oil of pimento one drachm, to which 
Essence, add, by degrees, proof spirit two ounces. A few 
drops is sufficient to flavour a pint of gravy. 

May be made by bruising three ounces of 
Tincture allspice and adding a bottle of Trench brandy ; 
put this out daily in the sun^ for ten or twelve 
days, shaking it occasionally ; then strain or* filter off the 
liquor clear. It is very useful for flavouring mulled wines, 
gravies, and potted meats. 

Heat any quantity of wine with nutmeg, 

Winejlip* cloves, and sugar; to every gill of wine, allow 

a yolk; mix it with a little cream or cold 

wine, and pour it backwards and forwards tiU well mixed. 

Put a quart of ale on the fire to warm, and beat 
FUp. up three or four eggs with four spoonfuls of moist 
sugar, a tea-spoonful of grated nutmeg or ginger, 
and a quartern of ' good old rum or brandy ; when the 
ale is near boiling, put it into a jug and the rum and eggs 
into another; keep pouring* from one to another until it 
is as smooth as cream. 

Take boiling water instead of ale ; sugar 
Another, and spice it; beat up four eggs with four 
glasses of madeira or sherry, and treat in . the 
same manner. 

Obs»—T]m is a pleasanter and lighter beverage than the 
former* 



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350 INDIAN DOMESTIC BCONOMT AND COOK£RY. 

Is prepared at Oxford as follows : whisk up 
Sumjwtian to a froth the yolks of six eggs and add 
them, to a pint of gin and a qnart of strong 
beer; boil up a bottle of sherry in a saace-pan, with a 
stick of cinnamon or nutmeg grated^ a dozen large lumps 
of sugar^ and the rind of a lemon peeled very thin; 
when the wine boils, it is poured upon the beer and gin 
and drank hot. 

May be made with claret, madeira, &c.. 
Mint Julep, but the usual way is as follows : Put into 
a tumbler about a dozen sprigs of the 
tender shoots of mint; upon them put a table-spoonful 
of finely pounded sugar or syrup, with equal proportions 
of peach and common brandy, so as to fill it up nearly 
one-third, and fill up the remainder with rasped or pound- 
.ed ice; as the ice melts you drink it. 

Mix three bottles of red wine ' with three 

Sangarie* half pints of water, a whole nutmeg grated^ 

a little cinnamon and sugar to your taste ; set 

the mixture on the fire to boil, then take it off, let it 

remain covered till cold, strain and bottle it. 



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CHAPTEE XXIII. 



CORDIALS. 



In making cordials, the best spirit that can be used 
is rectified spirits of wine, as imparting less foreign taste 
than any other and extracting and" imbibing any flavour 
that may be given to it without altering it in any way. The 
next article of importance is the syrup, which should be 
made from the best sugar, as laid down elsewhere, and 
never mixed hot with the spirit. In some cordials, the 
flavouring article is to be mixed with the spirit first ; in 
others, with the syrup; and in some the sugar is to be dis- 
solved in an infusion of the flavouring substances: much 
depends upon the colouring matters — red, pink, yellow 
and green being only generally used. 

Is made with one ounce of pounded cochi- 
Pink or red neal infused in two ounces of spirits of wine ; 
let it stand in the sun for a few days, shak- 
ing it from time to time. 

Put into a four ounce phial half a drachm of 
Yellow, sailron, or two drachms of sappin seed pound- 
ed ; add two ounces of spirits of wine, and put it 
out in the sun as the last; when strain it for use. 

Fill a wide*mouthed bottle with vine or spi- 
Green, nach leaves; and add as much spirits of wine 
as it will hold; put it in the sun, and when of a 
bright green, strain it for use. 

06s. — ^The juice of the ripe jfruit of the prickly pear an- 
swers as well as cochineal. 

Take half a pound of blanched bitter almonds 
Noyeau. or peach kernels, the thinly pared rind of a cou- 



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352 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

pie of limes cat into bits ; Bruise them in a mor- 
tar as fine as possible ; put them into a large bottle with 
two quarts of rectified spirits of wine; cork the bottle- 
put it out in the sun for a week, shaking it well; then 
strain the liquor from the almonds, and filter through 
white blotting paper or muslin ; then add the syrup, mixing 
it well with the spirit. It may be used immediately, but 
it is better for keeping. 

Obs, — ^To prepare the funnel for filtering, put a few slips 
of wood or bamboo down inside the funnel. To make the 
filter square, a sheet of blotting paper put corner to cor- 
ner, and double it again ; the slips of wood prevent the pa- 
per adhering to the funnel, and accelerate the proceai^. 

Into a quart of spirits of wine, put twen- 
Ncyeau, white, ty drops of good essential oil of bitter al- 
monds, and six drops of oil of orange, shake 
it well, and then add a quart of syrup; filter it through 
paper until it is clear and bright. 

To a quart of spirits of wine add fifteen 
Noyeau,pini. drops of essential oil of bitter almonds^ 
three drops of oil of roses, four drops of oil 
of aniseed, and one drop of tincture of vanilla; shake it 
well, and add a quart of syrup with a sufficient quantity 
of the pink colouring matter to make the liquor of a de- 
licate colour ; after, filter and bottle for use. 

To a quart of spirits of wine, add twenty 
AnUeite. drops of essential oil of aniseed ; after shaking 
it welly mix with it a quart of syrup ; then filter 
and put into bottles. 

Add forty drops of oil of cloves to a 
Cream of Cloves quart of spirits of wine ; after shaking it 
— Creme well, mix with a quart of syrup as much 

de girofle. red colouring matter as will impart to 

it a good colouring. Filter through pa- 
per and bottle immediately. 



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AND COOKEEY. 



853 



To a quart of spirits of wine add twenty 

Cream of drops of oil of cinnamon and two of oil of 

cinnamon ' roses^ with three of oil of nutmeg ; shake the 

^■^OrSme mixture well^ and when the oils are dissolved, 

de eanelle. add a quart of syrup and a sufficient quantity 

of the red tincture to produce a bright full 

colour; filter and bottle. 

Into a quart of spirits of wine, put 

Hose cream twelve drops of oil of roses and three of 

— Creme de oil of nutmeg ; shake it well and add a 

Soie, quart of syrup, with a sufficient quantity of 

the pink tincture to produce a rose colour. 

Into a quart of spirits of wine, put twelve 

Cream of drops of tincture of vaniUa ; shake it well and 

vanilla. add a quart of the syrup ; when well mixed, 

let it stand ten minutes; then filter it twice 

or thrice if necessary* 

Into a quart of spirits of wine, or four 

Curagoa. ounces of spirits of orange, drop one hundred 

and twenty drops of oil of bitter orange ; when 

the latter is dissolved, add one quart of cold sjrup ; then 

filter and bottle the liquor. 

To a quart of spirits of wine, add twelve 
Golden water, drops of oil of aniseed, six drops of oil of 
cinnamon, eight of oil of citron, and three 
drops of oil of roses; as soon as the oils are dissolved, 
mix with the liquor a quart of the syrup ; filter it, and before 
you bottle the liquor, stir into it a square of leaf-gold cut 
into very little bits ; if silver leaf is added instead, it goes 
by the name of silver water. 

Into a quart of spirits of wine, put sixty 
Crime de drops of oil of citron (or olium de cedra) ; 

citron or shake it well, and add a quart of cold 

lemon cream. syrup ; add two ounces of the yellow colour- 
ing matter; and filter through filtering paper, 
w 1 

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CEAPTEU XXIV 



COOLING FLUIDS. 

The simplest and most economical system of cooling 
fluids, is by evaporation, and which has been long known 
and practised by the inhabitants of the East. The excel- 
lency of all vessels for the purpose, consists in their uniform 
porosity and thinness. The generality of the commou 
coojah, are so thick that the water passes through them slowly 
and the evaporation of the surface is wasted on the air 
around and comparatively little reaches the interior ; 
many parts of India are celebrated for their coojahs or 
guglets. The finest are brought from Bussorah, being 
light, thin, and porous, made of a white clay. The Egyp- 
tian guglets are also of a similar description, and equally 
celebrated. When the exudation from a guglet ceases from 
use, and its porosity is destroyed, it may be partially 
restored by being boiled. A bottle of liquid, cased in a 
wet cotton cover and placed in a plate or saucer of water 
and exposed to the wind or draught of air, soon has its 
temperature considerably reduced, or laying the bottles 
in wet straw in the shade where the wind can blow freely 
upon them, answers the same purpose; but the straw 
must continually be sprinkled over with water* Another 
method is to have a sort of bamboo cradle made of open 
trellis work, and suspended like a punkah in the shade; 
the bottles are put in safely with wet straw or in cotton 
bags and this is agitated backwards and forwards and will 
cool the fluid so treated very considerably. 



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INDIAN DOMESTIC EGONOMT AND COOKERT. 355 

A «imple mode of procuring cold by evaporation; is to 
have several poroas earthenware vessels suspended in the 
shade in an open verandah (filled with water); or any 
place where the sun's rays cannot penetrate, having a free 
circulation of air; in these, bottles may be placed, and 
the temperature will generally be found reduced eight or ten 
degrees below the surrounding atmosphere. Wine, soda* 
water, &c. is not in any way injured by remaining in 
those vessels; but beer once cooled and not used that 
day, should be returned to the godown, and allowed some 
time to recover before it is cooled again, else the chances 
are that it is rejected and thought to be bad, which really is 
not the case, and only required a little warmth and rest in the 
recovering godown — many a bottle of beer has been con- 
demned on this account from want of a little careful 
treatment. 

TO FUEIFX IVAT^B. 

A simple and efficient filtering and purifying machine, 
is easily made by suspending two common, native, porous 
chatties in a frame-work of wood or bamboo (both easily 
constructed) one over the other; each chatty of a size to 
contain several gallons ; a small hole must be made in the 
bottom, large enough for a pea to pass through; this is 
to be filled up with a bit of cloth or rag very loosely ; in 
each chatty place a layer of coarsely pounded charcoal, 
then a layer of fine river sand, and so on alternately, till 
the vessels are half filled. When they are ready to re- 
ceive the water for filtering, a jar to contain the water as 
it drips through, must be placed underneath ; the upper 
vessel is then filled with water, and it is ready for use. 
If the water passes through too fast, the rag or cotton in 
the hole must be screwed a little tighter; the muddiest 
water will pass through this filtering machine, pure and 
limpid. The charcoal and sand requires to be occasionally 
renewed. Water, however impure, may be readily cleared 
by a solution of alum, or by stirring a little alum on the 



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356 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKEET. 

surface; in a few hours it is perfectly clear; the small 
quantity of alum sinking with the residue to the bottom 
of the vessel. The natives use a nut, called "nirmulee" 
the {Strychnos PetatorumJ by rubbing it over the inside 
of the chatty previous to filling it with water, when all 
the impurities fall to the bottom. 

The artificial method of cooling liquids with saltpetre 
and other salts, is well, known. The proportion of nitre 
is one part to two of water : a bottle or metal guglet, 
having its mouth closed, is stirred in this, for a few 
minutes ; when it is perfectly cooled ; a still higher refri- 
gerant mixture is produced by the addition of two parts 
of glauber salts. The following tables show the cold capa- 
ble of being produced by the ordinary freezing mixtures. 

All cooling apparatus for wine, beer, water, fee, in 
which ]>sfrigeranls are used, should be externally well lined 
with some non-conductor of heat, and the cover fit close to 
exclude as much as possible the surrounding air. The 
out^r interstices of the machine may be stuffed v^^ith felt, 
charcoal, wool, or dried oatmeal, and any one of the 
refrigerant mixtures employed. 



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CHAPTEE XXV. 

FREEZING MIXTURES WITHOUT ICE. 



Thermometer 



Degree 



Parte, ^"^^^^ of cold 

Mixtures. froducei. 

Muriate of ammonia, 5T 

Nitrate of potash, 5 V From+SO" to+10" = 40^ 

Water, 16 J 

Nitrate of ammonia, 11 

Carbonate of soda, 1 ^ From+50* to+ 7*= = 46° 

Water, ij 

Nitrate of ammonia, ^lFrom+50* to+ 4° = 46*=* 

Water, 1 J 

Sulphate of soda, 3] From+50° to+ 3° = 53° 

Diluted nitric acid, 2 ) 

Muriate of ammonia or sal 

ammonia, 5 

Nitre of potash or saltpetre, 5 I jij^jj^^Sqc ^^^ 40 _ ^qc 
Sulphate of soda or glauber 

salts, 8 

Water, 16^ 

ffits^'tid.r.:;;: «} ^'^^^' •«+ ^- - "- 

Sulphate of soda. 6^ 

Diluted nitric acid, 4 ^ 

In order to produce the effect, the salts employed 
must be fresh crystallized, and reduced- to a very fine 
powder ; the vessels in which the freezing mixture is made, 
should be very thin and just large enough to hold it ; and 
the materials should be mixed together as quickly as pos- 
sible. To produce great cold, they ought to be first re- 



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358 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONO^IY AND COOKEET. 



duced to the temperature marked in .the table, hj placing 

them in some of the other freezing mixtures, and then 

they are to be mixed together in a similar freezing mix- 
ture. 



FREEZING MIXTURES WITH ICE OR SNOW. 

Thermometer 



Founded ice or snow.... 
Common salt, « ... 

Pounded ice or snow,... 
Soda, 



Paris, 

8 

1 



3 

1 



1- 



Pounded ice or snow,. 
Muriate of soda 

t 

Pounded ice or snow, ... da 

Muriate of soda, 2-^ 

Muriate of ammonia,... 1 ^ 

Pounded ice or snow,... 24 | 

Muriate of soda, 10j>j 

Muriate of ammonia, .... 5 
Nitrate of potash, 5 

Pounded ice or snow,... 12 
Muriate of ammonia,... 5 

Muriate of soda, 5 

Snow, 3 



)- 



to = 



= to == 






to == 



"Degree 

of cold 

produced. 

82" 
5" 

12" 



to 



to 



= 18" 



25" 



Snow, 3 ■) 

Diluted sulphuric acid, 2 jrrom+32» to £3« = 55° 

tetic"a^idZ;;:::::.' 5 }From+32»to27« = 59« 



Snow,.. 
Diluted nitric 



ic'acid;;::::: * |rrom+32» to8o< 



62' 



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CHAPTER XXVI. 



MAKING ICE. 

For the information of persons desirous of producing 
ice by Master^s patent freezing machine, I have appended 
his directions with a few observations of my own, the re- 
sults of several successful attempts. 

The machines are both with double and single pails, 
and answer extremely well for cooling liquids at the same 
time the Ice is being formed, and will cool wine or other 
liquids to any extent for a large party. 

1. The agitator must be placed tightly on the bottom of 
the freezer. 

2. Pill the cylinder with pure water, and insert it in 
the machine. 

3. The charge of mixtures for the machine No. 2, con- 
sists of: 

f4 lb. Sulphate of soda (glauber salts) ^ 

§ - I 24 lb. Sal ammoniac „ , , 

"^'SHai lu o u . ^ well pounded, 

o S. j 24 lb. Saltpetre [ '^ 



I 



10 Pints of water J 

Where glauber salts cannot be easily, procured, add more 
of the sal ammoniac and saltpetre in the same proportion 
as above ; but in England glauber salts are used on account 
of their cheapness. 



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360 INDUN DOMESTIC £CONO]IY 

4. First put in]ithe sulphate of soda well pounded, next 
the water; [afterwards the saltpetre and sal ammoniac also 
well pounded. 

5. Having prepared the mixture for dessert ice, say from 
a pint to a pint and a half to each freezer, pour into them, 
and commence operation by turning the handle of the ma- 
chine. 

6. The first charge will require to be drawn off by means 
of the tap into the cooler below, in about ten or twelve 
minutes, according to the temperature of the water, and 
immediately recharged; and if you find the second charge 
insufficient, charge a third time. In Paris they generally 
use four charges, owing to the temperature of the water 
being generally higher than in England. By changing 
the mixture as above, boiling water may be reduced to so- 
lid ice, and the freezing power may be kept up any length 
of time. 

1. Each succeeding mixture keeps up the freezing power, 
three or four minutes longer than the preceding one. 

8. It should be remembered that, after a certain time, 
the freezing mixtures generate heat, which would of course 
tend to dsssolve the ice already frozen, if not drawn off by 
the tap as before directed; which can be ascertained by 
the thermometer, a necessary appendage to the machine, 
more especially when chemical mixtures are used. 

Oi««— The thermometer should have the lines of indica- 
tion graduated on a glass back, as the freezing mixture 
removes all the marks from a metallic or ivory one. Ice 
can seldom be made with less than four charges, and not 
under one hour and a half. It requires a great deal of 
attendance ; the salt midces much dirt and the mixture cor- 
rodes every thing. Ice is sooner formed with the mineral 
acids, but they are dangerous and troublesome to use 
from their destructive nature, In using the salts, they 



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AND COOKERY. 361 

most be minttiely pounded, and free from all dirt, and the 
water I add to them in the machine, last of all. To save 
the continued trouble of weighing each material, I used 
a half pint pewter wine-meaaure, which I found to contain, 
as near as possible, ten ounees in weight of the ground 
salt. A native chukkar stone is an expeditious way of 
grinding the materials : the glauber salts are seldom dry 
enough to bear or require it; particular attention is neces- 
sary to be paid to the instruetions laid down when usbg 
the ice machine. The materials must all be prepared and 
should be ready at hand as required, with a sufficient quan- 
tity of each of the salts for four charges at least ; see that 
the tap is all ^ right and not turned off before adding the 
water, and never put more salts to the solution in use, 
as it is only wasted ; but as soon as the thermometer 
indicates an increase of temperature, fresh charge the 
machine. 



The salts in a combined state, may be partially recover- 
ed from the solution drawn off by solar evaporation or 
boiliBg, and afterwards applied to the reduction of the 
temperature of prepared ice mixture and the water, pre- 
vious to charging the machine with the salts for freezing. 
These salts finely pounded with water in equal quantity, 
sink the thermometer twenty-five degrees. The method of 
prepaoring cream or water ice in the common freezing 
pail> with ice and salt, is as follows : place the mixture to 
be frosen in the freezer, and close it ; beat up the ice 
small with the due proportion of salt; put into the tub, 
and insert the freezer, which must be turned quickly 
round, and as the cream sticks to the side, scrape it down 
with an ice spoon or wooden spatula until it is froz« 
eD» Tbe more the cream ia worked to the side with the 
spatida the amootber and better flavoured it will be ; 
after it ia well froaen, take it out and put it into ice 

X 1 

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362 INDIAN DOMBsnnc bconoht 

Are essentially different from cream ices; bol^ 
WcUer ices as r^ards the preparation and taste : the one 
having the richness of the latter, the other 
being only pore water flavonred by froit. 

Are prepared of all kinds of firuits, which if re- 
Ices quired, are acidulated with lemon juice or crystals, 
flavoured with their essences if necessary, and co- 
loured agreeable to the receipt for the same. They may 
be also made of wine, punch, liqueurs, or any other mix- 
ture, according to taste. 

All fleshed fruits must be boiled and pulped ; the ker- 
nels to be pounded and strained, with the fruit mixed to 
a proper consistency, sweetened, and iced. 

In forming cream ice, should the cream be found not 
to freeze so quickly as you wish, add a little more new 
milk. This applies to all cream ices. 

One ounce of cochineal, one ounce of salts 
Colouring, of wormwood, one pint of water; boil for five 
minutes over a slow fire three ounces of cream 
of tartar and one ounce of roche alum; take it off the 
fire before you add the last two ingredients, which must 
be put in very slowly, or the mixture will overflow. If 
for keeping, use clarified sugar instead of water. 

Pick some fresh strawberries into a basin 
Stratoherry or pan ; add sugar in powder, with a quan- 
ted cream. tity of strawberry jam equal to the fruit, the 
juice of a lemon or two, according to palate, 
a small quantity of new milk and a pint of fresh cream; 
mix and add a little colour from the receipt given ; 
freeze. One quart. 

To half a pound of apricot jam, add one 

Apricot ice pint of cream, the juice of one lemon, six 

cream, bitter almonds pounded, one glass of noyeau; 

mix in a mortar \ rub through a hair sieve ; 

freeze. One quart. 



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AND COOKERY. 3G3 

Bruise six ounces of the best preserved gin- 

Oinger tee ger in a mortar ; add the juice of one lemon^ 

cream. half a pound of sugar^ one pint of cream ; mix 

well ; strain through a hair sieve ; freeze. One 

quart. 

Take one pint of cream ; rasp two lemons 

Lemon ice on sugar, scrape off into the vessel you are 

tfteam. about to mix in, squeeze them and add the 

^uice with half a pound of sugar ; mix ; freeze. 

One quart. 

Basp two oranges slightly, lest the cream 

Orange ice become bitter ; squeeze them with the juice of 

cream. one lemon, one pint of cream, half a pound 

of sugar ; pass through a siere, and freeze. 

One quart. 

Pound two sticks of vanilla, or sufficient to 
Famllaice flavour it to palate in a mortar^ with half a 
cream. pound of sugar ; pass through a sieve ; put it 
into a stewpan with half a pint of milk ; boil 
over a slow fire with the yolks of two eggs, stirring all 
the time, the same as custard ; add one pint of cream, 
and the juice of one lemon; freeze. One quart. 

When fresh strawberries cannot be procured^ 
Jutotker. take one pound of strawberry jam, the juice of one 
or two lemons, one pint of cream, a little milk ; 
colour, freeze. One quart. 

To one pound of raspberry jam, add the 
Baspberryi ice juice of one or two lemons, one pint of 
cream* cream, a little milk ; colour, freeze. One 

quart. 

To half a pound of preserved pineaple 

Pineapple or a raw pineapple pouifded with sugar, add 

ice cream, sugar and lemon juice to palate, one pint of 

cream and a little new milk ; mix, freeiSe. 

One quart. 



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864 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

Take a middling sized pineapple ; cut it in 
Another, pieces ; bruise it in a mortar ; add half a pound 
of sugar^ and the juice of one lemon ; rub them 
well togetlier in the mortar ; pass through a hair sieve ; 
freeze. A few slices of preserved pineapple may be add- 
ed when frozen. One quart. 



Hasp two lemons on some sugar ; express 

Italian ice the juice of the lemons, to which add one 

cream. pint of cream, one glass of brandy, one glass 

of noyeau, half a pound of sugar ; freeze. 

One quart. 

Take one pint of cream, a little milk, half 
Ratafia ice a pound of sugar, the yolks of two eggs^ two 
cream, ounces of ratafias ; put them in a stewpan 
over a gentle fire; set as thin as custard, add 
the juice of half a lemon : when cold, freeze ; take two ounces 
more of ratafias, rub them through a sieve, and add when 
the former is frozen, together with one glass of noyeau 
or maraschino. One quart. 



Take six ounces of the best Turkey coffee' 
Coffee ice berries, well roasted ; put them on a tin, and 
cream, place them in an oven, for five minutes ; boil 
one pint of cream and half a pint of milk to- 
gether, and put them into a can; take the berries from 
the oven, and put them with the scalding cream ; cover 
till cold ; strain and add one ounce of arrowroot ; boil 
like custard, and add half a pound of sugar ; freeze. One 
quart. 

One pint of cream, half a pound of sugar, one 
Tea ice ounce of tea, or a sufScient quantity to make 
cream, one cup : mix with the cream ; freeze. One 
quart. 



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AND COOKCET. 365 

Infose four or six onnces of chocolate, 
Chocolate ice mix it well with a pint of cream, a little 
cream. new milk, and half a pound of sugar, strain ; 

freeze. One quart. 

One pint of cream, the juice of one le- 
Maraschino mon, half a pound of sugar, two glasses of 
ice cream, maraschino ; mix, freeze. One quart. 

Take one quarter of a pound of pistachios 
Pistachio ice and the same quantity of Jordan almonds ; 
cream. blanch and pound in a mortar till fine ; add 

the juice of one lemon, half a pound of su- 
gar, one pint of cream ; pass through a sieve ; freeze. One 
quart 

One pint of cream, the juice of one lemon, 
Noyeau ice half a pound of sugar, two glasses of noyeau ; 
cream. mix, freeze. One quart. 

Take one pint and a half of lemon ice, and 
Timchice. add one glass of maraschino, two of cham- 
pagne and one of rum, and the juice of two 
oranges; freeze. One quart. 

To one pint and a half of lemon water ice. 
Another. add one glass of white rum, one of champagne, 

one of pale brandy, and half a glass of warm 
jelly; freeze. One quart. 

Basp two lemons ; take the juice of six le- 

Another. mons, the juice of two oranges, half a pint of 

tea, one pint of clarified sugar ; mix ; add one 

glass of rum and one glass of brandy ; freeze. One quart. 

Take twelve limes to one quart ; rasp 

Lenum or lime three at four of them on a lump of sugar, 

footer ice. and scrape it into the vessel you are about 

to mix in; squeeze the limes and add the 



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366 IKDUN Doinssnc economy 

juice of two oranges, a pint of water, and half a pint of 
syrup; freeze. One quart. 

Obs. — If lemons are used| take only half as many as 
limes. 

Take any number of oranges in the same 
Orange-water proportion as limes for lime-water ice, and 
ice. proceed as in the lime-water ice, only rasp- 

ing one half of the oranges, but be care- 
ful not to rub the oranges too hard, or the ice will be bit- 
ter ; E table-spoonful of warm jelly may be added at plea- 
sure; strain, freeze. 

The juice of four limes, the raspings 
Grape water ice. of one orange, a pint of water, and half 
a pint of syrup, two glasses of grape-sy- 
rup, one glass of sherry; strain; freeze. One quart. 

Take half a pound of fresh pineapple 
Pineapple water bruised fine in a mortar ; add the juice 
ice. of one lime, one pint of water, and half 

a pint of syrup \ pass through a sieve ; 
freeze. One quart. Pineapple may be added as describ- 
ed in the recipe for pineapple cream. 

Take one pint of cherry water, the juice 
Cherry water of two limes, half a pint of syrup, one glass 
ice. of noyeau, and a little colour ; strain ; 

freeze. One quart. 

Take one pound of currant jelly, the 
Currant water juice of two limes, half a pint of water, 
ice* half a pint of syrup, with a little colour; 

strain ; freeze > One quart. 

Found two sticks of vanilla (or so much 
Vanilla water as may be deemed sufficient to give a pre- 
fer, per flavour) in a mortar ; put half a pint 
of water in the mortar so as to get all out; 



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AND COOKEEY. 367 

put it into a stewpan with one pound of sugar ; boil to- 
gether ; strain through a fine sieve ; add the juice of one 
or two limes; freeze. One quart. 

Take six pounds of sugar and six pints of 
lb clarify water, half the white of air egg well beaten up, 
9ugcr. and mix it to the water ; boil ten minutes, re- 
moving all the scum. 



TO PRESEEVE ICE FOR COOLING WINES, I>pc. 

The ice basket or box must be thickly wadded with numb- 
dar (a coarse woollen rug made in the country) inside 
and out, and this wrapped in double or treble blankets 
or cumblies, large enough to fold over the whole ; if a box 
is used, holes must be made for draining off the water at 
the bottom — a basket is therefore preferable,* it is to be 
kept in a closed dark room in the coolest part of the house 
that can be appropriated to it. The ice, if broken and 
loose, must be compressed into a ball, and tied firm in a 
doth (as it dissolves, the cloth or bag tightened); it is 
then to be placed in the centre of the basket or box, which 
should be large enough to contain the quantity of bottles 
or articles to be cooled ; the edge only of each touching 
or resting on the bag of ice, is sufiicient for as many bot« 
ties as can be placed in this position; carefully wrap up 
the basket after removing any of its contents, and take 
care that the water, as the ice dissolves, drains off imme- 
diately. 



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CHAPTER XXVII. 



VOCABULAEY OP CULINARY TERMS. 

A savoury transparent jelly, in which game, poul- 
Aspic^ try, fishy &c. may be moulded — ^used aUo for gar- 
nishinpc them. 



.}■ 



jg ' J* ) A dish which is handed round the table 

f only ; such as fondeaus, and other prepau 
Volante. V rations, which require to be eaten hot. 



Blanquette. A fricassee. 

Bauilin. Quenelles formed into balls and either poached 
or fried. 

Baine Marie. Any flat vessel^ containing hot water. 
BouiUL Boiled meat, but more generally boiled beef. 
BouiUie.' A sort of hasty pudding. 
Bouillon. Broth. 

Braise. A rich seasoned gravy, in which particular arti- 
cles are stewed. 

Braiaicre. A braising pan, made of copper or tin, deep 
and long, with two handles and a lining 
inside with the same, to help to take out 
the contents ; the lid indented so, that fire 
may be placed upon it. 

Bttisson, e».— Pastry piled on a plate like a pyramid. 



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INDIAN DOVBSTIC KCONOMT AND COOKERT. S69 

Casserole. A stew pan^ or rice crust moulded in the 
from of a pie and baked, to be filled with 
mince, or puree of game, &c. 

Court -% A preparation of vegetables, herbs and wine. 

Bouillon, ^ in which fish is boiled. 

ConeammS, Clarified rich gravy or broth. 

Croustade. A case, or crust of fried bread, in which pu- 
rees of game, &c. are served. 

CrofiUon. A sippet of bread. 

Borure. The yolk and white of an egg beaten up to- 

gether. 



Entree de 
Besserte. 



f A dish made of the preceding day's remains. 
Entree. A dish of the first course, served with the fish. 



Entremets. Dishes of the second course, served between 
the meats and dessert. 

Emince. The fleshy part of a fowl, game, or meat, chopped 

fine. 

Espa^nole, or Spanish sauce. A brown gravy of high flavour. 

Farce. Forcemeat of chopped meat, fish, or herbs, with 

which poultry and other things are seasoned. 

Fondee. A cheese souffle. 

FeuiUetage. Puff paste. 

^' 1 Inside small fillets. 
none. •' 

Gateau. A cake— also a pudding — sometimes a kind of 

tart. 

Tl 



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370 IlflUAN DOlCBflTIC XOOKOHY 

Glacef I To redace a saace by boiKng to a proper tkick- 

(to glaze.) i ness, sofficieiit to adhere firmly to the meat. 

Gratin. The burnt to in a saucepan. 

Gratiner. To redace the liquid to dryness by fire. 

Horsd' auvres.^tasiX dishes of the first course, served as 
relishes. 

Lardoire. An instrument for larding meat. 

LiaUon^ A thickening with two or four eggs. 

Macaroncinu A small kind of macaroni. * 

Marinade. To preserve meat or fish in wine and vin^ar, 
with seasoning herbs. 

Mark. 1\> prepare the meat which is to be dressed in a 

stewpan, 

Ma^h Is to cover with some sauce or ragout. 

Maigre Made without meat. 

Matelotte. A rich stew of fish (mostly) with wine, &c. 

Meringu^. Covered or iced with a Meringu^ mixture. 

Meringues. Cakes of sugar and white of eggs, beaten to a 
paste and baked. 

NouillSs. A paste made of flour and yolks of eggs, then 

cut small like vermicelli. 

Noixofveal. That part to which the udder is attached ; 
the flat part under it, is called sous noix ; 
the side part, contre-noix ; the petites noix 
are found in the side of the shoulder of veal. 

Puree. Meat or vegetables reduced to a smooth pulp, 

and then mixed with a sufiicieut liquid to form 
a thick sauce. 



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AND COOKERY. 371 

P^indelA pat of butter, from one ounce to one and a 
ieurre. J half. 

Paner. To sprinkle with crumbs either fish, cutlets, &c. . 
if for frying, egg only must be added, but if 
for boiling, butter, to preserve a good colour. 

FanureB. Every thing that has bread crumbs over it. 

Parer. To trim meat of skin, nerves, &c. 

Paujneties Are slices of soles, fowls, &c. on which a farce 
of the same is thinly spread, rolled and trim- 
med. 

Piquer Is to lard with a larding pin the exterior of 
veal, fowl, game, &c. ; and to lard is to cut fat 
bacon, tongues, &c. into small square shapes to 
lard through, giving the meat a mottled ap- 
pearance. 

loSle. Almost the same as braizing, the only difference 
is that what is poSl^, must be underdone, braize 
must be thoroughly done. 

QueneUes. French forcemeat, in which calf s udder is ge- 
nerally used with meat, game, fowl, &c., 
minced in proportions. 

Biiiolet* Small fried pastry, either sweet or savoury. 

Baux,ipiite-\ Is prepared with melted butter and flour, 
or brovm. ) either boiled white or fried brown. 

Sauter. Is to lay fillets, cutlets, &c. in a stewpan, after hav- 
ing dipped them in the least quantity of but- 
ter, with a little salt and pepper, covered with 
paper to exclude the dust, and set aside till 
dinner time; a few minutes before serving, 
put the saute-pan on a hard fire, and when 
the contents are done on both sides, drain them. 



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87£ INDLLN DOVSSrnC XCONOIIY AND COOKERY. 

Salpicion. la meat^ mushrooms^ truffles^ &c. cut into small 
squares, all of which must be dressed and 
put into a very reduced espagnole, and when 
cold, used as directed. 

Sparghetti Naples ▼ermicelli. 

Stock. The unthickened broth or gravj which forms the 
basis of soups and sauces. 

Singer. To dust flour from the dredging box, which af- 
terwards must be moistened in order to be 
dressed. 

Tammis. A strainer of fine thin woollen canvas for broths, 
sauces, &c« 

7 I Are found at the extremity of the ribs. 

Tourte. A delicate kind of tart, baked in shallow tin pans, 
or without any in a crust made with fluted tin 
cutters. 

Vol au Vent. Made only of the lightest and finest puff 
paste. 

Zita. Naples macaroni. 



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CHAPTRE XXVIII. 



ORIENTAL COOKERY. - 

PBELIMIXART RBMARKS. 

The culinary processes followed by the Mussulmen and 
Hindoos of Asia differ as widely as did the plain household 
cooking of the English, in former times, from that of their 
continental neighbours the French. In the Hindoo Sans- 
crit receipts, meat is never mentioned, whereas in the Ko- 
ran, Niamut, and other works in Persian, the followers 
of the Faithful indulge in it as well as other luxuries the 
produce of the East, game, meat, fowl, fish, with spices 
and other condiments. 

The Hindoo delights in cakes of wheat and various grains, 
rice dressed in different ways, curries prepared from v^e- 
tables, ghee, and oil, flavoured with spices, and the acidity 
of vegetables, accompanied with chatneys of various descrip- 
tions, and pickles made either with vinegar, oil, or salt, 
and above all, milk and ghee. 

The Mussulman prepares his food more substantially, 
using meat freely, but from the mode of dressing the lat- 
ter, knives and forks are superfluous, for after their meat 
has been roasted or broiled, it is in the driest state pos- 
sible, and may be torn asunder with ease, the same with 
their boiled meat, rendering both nearly as indigestible as 
leather. 

The native fire-place is made with clay ; the two sides of 
equal length; the centre having a convex surface to raise 



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374 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

the fire, so that the heat may be as near the bottom of 
the vessel as possible. They fry their cakes on brass, iron, 
or earthen dishes ; the two former generally have rings or 
handles attached; the vesseb in which they dress pillans, 
corriesi &c. are made of the same materials; a wooden 
roller, simikr to an English rolling-pin, is used for cakes 
and rubbing down moistened substances; a long iron flat 
spoon and ladle and one bored with holes, serves to add, 
remove, or stir the ingredients while cooking. A vegeta- 
ble cutler and scraper, a flat stone with roller for grinding 
the curry musalahs, an iron or stone mortar and pestle, 
with a coarse knife or two, form the principal part of their 
culinary apparatus and is chiefly all that is required by 
them. 



The principal dishes of the Mussulman are pillaus, 
curries, brianees, ashes, and cakes. 



The pillau is a purely oriental dish, and is, in fact, the 
only way of dressing meat intended to be eaten without 
the assbtance of a knife ; thus vension, meat, kid or poul- 
try are always stewed down, and the gravy containing the 
essence of each, with onions and spices, is used to flavour 
the rice, and the latter forms the principal part of a com- 
mon pillau. When meat is added, it is either roasted, 
grilled, or boiled first, with seasoning, and then put into 
the rice, and rather steamed than boiled in it; the same 
with fish or forcemeat balls. When the latter is used, a 
portion of the meat is generally set aside for the purpose 
of making them with other savoury additions. Therefore 
to make a pillau, the prescribed quantity of rice is first 
parboiled ; it is then removed from the water and strain- 
ed ; the gravy which has imbibed the flavour of the meat 
is added to it, with spices and onions, and occasionally 
vegetables. The meat previously prepared, is placed in the 
centre* and the saucepan with its contents set over a char- 
coal fire to simmer gently; some fire also being put on 



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AND COOKBRY. 375 

the top of the saucepan. When the rice is sufficientlj 
dressed, the pillau is served ; occasionally a part of the 
rice is only flavoured with the gravy, and the rest boiled 
plain or coloured, and melted butter or ghee poured over 
the rice before* taken from the saucepan; but if the pillau 
is to be sweetened and made a Cbarcheneedar, this ia 
done after by pouring acidulated syrup over it. 

Sometimes the rice, or part, previous to being boiled, 
is roasted or fried a light brown in ghee, in which cloves 
and sliced onions have been fried, aud then prepared ; 
bat whether this is the case or not, the first essence of the 
meat, game, fish, &c. forms the principal medium for 
flavouring the pillau, and hence a native entertainer, in 
asking you to partake of venison, game, or fowl, would 
oidy mean as to the pillau so flavoured— the articles 
themselves seldom appearing in their original state. 

The native method of roasting is genenJly over char- 
coal, or in a closed vessel, with a portion of melted butter, 
onions, spices, &c. with which the meat or fowl becomes 
flavoured ; and I may here remark on the subject of roast- 
ing in this way, that it is by far the cleanliest, especially 
in camp or marching, where the wind and dust cannot be 
otherwise kept off. 

Curries consist in the meat, fish, or vegetables being 
first dressed until tender, to which are added ground spices, 
chillies, and salt, both to the meat and gravy in certain 
proportions; which are served up dry, or in the gravy; 
in fact a curry may be made of almost any thing, its prin- 
cipal quality depending upon the spices being duly proper* 
tioned as to flavour, and the degree of warmth to be given 
by the chillies and ginger. The meat may be fried in 
butter^ ghee, oil, or fat, to which is added gravy, tyre, 
milk, the juice of the cocoanut^ or vegetables, &g. All 
of these, when prepared in an artistical manner, and mix- 
ed in due proportions, form a savoury and nourishing re- 



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376 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

pasty tempting to the organs of scent and taste ; bat if 
carelessly prepared^ are as equally disagreeable to the eye 
and stomach. 

In the preparation of native dishes, the term Boghar is 
constantly used, and the only explanation given of it is, 
that the article, whatever it may be, is placed with spices, 
ghee, or the substance mentioned, in a closed saucepan or 
vessel, over the fire, to admit of its imbibing the flavour, 
and this is sometimes directed to be done two or three 
times. The nearest approach to the meaning in English, 
would be to give it a warm up with so and so, but the 
native idea is, that by adding one substance to the other 
and placing fire on the top of the lid, as well as under 
that, the preparation imbibes a fiavour by this means. 
Again meat or fowl . is directed to be rubbed over with 
some particular article, such as Bassun, (fiour of ground 
horse-gram) and to be immediately washed off; after that 
some spice is to be used, and treated in the same way, or 
Moultan mud (which is believed to be yellow ochre) ; in 
some of their dishes, the paun soparee leaf is directed to 
be used, and even metallic preparations. Most of these 
would be disagreeable to a European palate, and are there- 
fore omitted, though found in the receipts ; and which, if 
copied, a literal translation would require. One or two are 
given, more as a curiosity than supposing they will ever 
be tried, however piquant they may be to an Asiatic palate. 

Brianees are spiced dishes, resembling a mixture of pil- 
lau and curry; the meat, fish, or cheese, &c. being high- 
ly seasoned and partially fried, then put into a saucepan 
with other condiments, such as rice, gravy, ghee, milk, dhye, 
&c., in various proportions, covered carefully down and 
boiled or steamed. The native method of performing the 
latter operation is very simple, merely placing a cloth 
stretched across the vessel above the water, and the article, 
whatever it may be, is put upon it and the lid covered 



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AND cookrhy. 877 

down ; or^ by potting straw or grass into the vessel^ so as 
to be above the water, and placing the meat or cakes upon 
it^ as will be found directed in several receipts. If they 
wish to prevent a substance from being burnt to the bot- 
tom of the pan in which it is cooked, from its being cov- 
ered over and not able to be seen> they lay slices of bam- 
boo split across the bottom, and place the article upon 
them, this is not unusual in JSiiropean cookery. 

Are meat and vegetable cut into slices, and 
KAubah^ spiced> or eke pounded and formed into balls; 
they are then strung on wires or wooden skewers 
and roasted or fried; served dry or with gravy. 

This is composed of meat, flour, pulse, vegetables, 
kit. fruit, sugar, milk, dhye, and spices in various quan- 
tities, and from the manner 6f preparing, in some 
instances resembles an hotch-potch rfe' others cakes are 
stewed, and some approach a simple ^rH^e. 

All of which differ widely ^frpia the Euro- 
Bread and pean» and would not generally jbe aj^proved of ; 
eake$^ the dough being heavy from the i. use of leaven 
and its exclusion from other fermenting sub- 
stances, 
0&»«— The best kind are Buka Kanah and Sheer Mahl« 

Are composed' of all description of vegetable 
Ciatneyt substances, made hot with chillies, mustard, pep- 
per, &c. and are both sweet and sour, according 
to the material. 



7l 

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878 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMT 



ASH MAKOODEE KCX)PTA. 



Matton, . . 
Mineed Meat, 
Ghee, - - - 

Eg?. - - No, 
Onions, - • 

Choknnder, 

Carrots, 

Sugar, 

Lime juice. 

Cinnamon, 

Cloves, 

Cardamons, 



1 Seer« 
i » 



i^etch. 



Almonds, 
Black] 



Cut the mutton into small sUoes, 
the size of almonds, and fry it with 
some of the onions sliced in ghee; 
then add as much water as will boil 
the meat; when done, remove it from 

}the gravy and give it a "boghar*** 
) „each. ^[\ji the cloves, and a little more 
. 2Masha8. ghee; then take the raw minced 
j i| Mcach. meat, with the rest of the onions 
I "^ifaiJ! ^**" and green ginger chopped fine, the 
o^^SerMediT l**^®^* salt and black pepper, mix or pound 
chiiUes, ... 2 Mtthas. these well together, add the white of 

Green ginger, 2 Tolaht. _ j ^ i.i_ • * n 

Salt, . - - - 3 » the egg, and form the mass mto small 

^^^"^^ ■* » balls, the size of marbles, and fry 

them in ghee; make a syrup with the lime-juice and sugar, 
and put one half of the fried balls into it, and the re- 
mainder of the balls into the gravy first made from the 
meat, with the chillies and coriander seeds roasted and 
ground as for a currj; mix these well together, then add 
the fried meat, cinnamon, and cardamons, with the vege- 
tables previously dressed; grind the almond with the rice 
in a little water, and mix this also ; cover the saucepan 
close, and give it a boil for a few minutes, when remove 
from the fire and add the fried balls and syrup. Serve 
with the saffron sprinkled over it« 



1 Seer* 
A Mashai. 



MattoB, 

Ohee, - 

Onions, • 

Green Giiiger, 2 Tolahs. 

Bioe, - - . -4 Seer. 

Chennah, peeled,! Tolahs. 

l^re* - - - 1 Seer. 



ASH MASTHANA. 

Phice the meat in an empty vessel 
over the fire; allow it to draw until 
a scum forms on the meat, which 
must be scraped off; then slice the 
meat and the onions, and grind the 



* For an explanation of this term, see Atk Jait, page 360. 

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Xmo COOKEKT. 



879 



Sii»o;/.il£l.. """»«»l«i"*; put the whole into a 
g^ljMioM. 1 ^ , J- ' saucepan with the paluk, the chen- 
Chimes, f sha. iiah^ and the rice soaked the previous 

Co^udbr routed, 9 Tobhs. ^^g^t; add the saffron with some 
■^*»/ - -/^ » water, and boil it briskly until the 
meat is done; strain the tyre and 
add it with some ghee, a little zeerah, salt, a clove or two 
of garlic, and the mint chopped; mix the whole together, 
gire it a boil up and serve. 

ASH SUNGSHERE. 



Mvttoi, . - - 1 Seer, 



i&. 



.): 



Bioe, • - • " f M* 
White Cheniuh, 2Tolafae. 
Blanched Almond, 2 „ 
Onians, "1 

8ojaGTee]is,J 



Cut the meat and onions in slices 
and fry them in ghee; add a little 
water and the chennah to it and boil 
until the meat is done ; strain off 
the gravy, fry the meat again in a 
little ghee with the cloves and cori- 
ander seeds ground, until it is dry; 
Cudamoni,'"|each 1 Ma- then put it into a sauccpau, with 
Coriander "| the milk and tyre strained, and give 

Gree^nger, f^htha. *" it ja boil ; add a few tolahs weight of 
G^anoD, - . 1 Mah. ffoxmi rice, and stir it well ; then 
throw in the remainder of the rice, 
together with the spices, the carrots^ soya and paluk; next 
by the almonds in a separate pan; mix the whole to- 
gether, and simmer gently until cooked. 

ASH BOGURRAH. 



Hvtiim, . - • 1 Seer. Cut the meat in pieces, slice the 

Qiiae,'.'.*. -| r> onions, grind the musalah into a 

SJSW. JtL., V^^ ^itt a Uttle water, and add 

^^*™*™^» leach 2 to- it to the meat, and fry the whole in 

CirdamoMjJ ^^ 



ghee till brown; then add a propor- 



^ AU the apices or aeaioniDg ingredients used ia nativo cookery, are called 
"Mu 



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280 



INDIA^r DOKXSTIC ECONOMY. 



SSS-'. " i^^** tionate quantity of water and simsucr 
Saffron, - - - 1 Mash^ the nieat till tender : next knead the 
flour into a paste with some toddy or 
lummier; roll it out fiak, double it into six or «even 
layers and cut it into slices about two inches long and haU 
an inch in breadtE ; boil these in water and add to the 
meat; shake the whole over the fire for a few minuies 
and remove. Serve with the saffron sprinkled over it. 



ASH LINGUA JAGURATH. 



Mutton, - - 
Hard IVte, 
Wheat Flour, 
Ghee, - - 
Oniona, - - 
Chennah, • 
Boont, 
Cinnaraoii, 
Cazdamoj 
CloTes^ 
CapBiouB. 
Oreen gioger, 
Coriander, 
aaffron, - 
GarHc, - - 
Salt, . . 



Boont, - - 
[^innaraoii, "^ 
ISazdamojiB, m 
JloTes, T 

^apBifium, J 



1 Seer. 



i Tolahs. 



each 2 Ma- 



Cut the meat in pieces, grind the 
musalah into a paste with the green 
ginger and garlic, and fry the wh0|*e 
in ghee; next knead the flour as in 
the last receipt ; roll it flat and cut 
it into small i»quare pieces; strain 
the tyre through a cloth and boil the 
dough thus prepared in it with the 
chennah and boont ; then add the 
meat with a small quantity of water, 
and simmer till the meat is tender * 

give the whole a " boghar" with the cloves, and serve, 

sprinkling the safl'ron on the top. 



1 Tolah. 

1 

1; 

6 

2ToUha. 



ASH LUNGARA CHASNEDAR. 



Mutton, ... 1 Seer. 
Ghee, • - - i 
Jloar, - - - 
Sugar, - - 
lime juiee, - 
Onions, - - 
Chnkunder, - 
Carrots, 

Soya gleans, \ ^^ 

Cinnamon, 

Cloreii, teach 2 Ma- 



Cardamons 
Saffron 



non, "^ 

nons, r 
». J 



shas. 



Boil the meat with the chnkunder 
and carrots; cut into slices with 
the musalah ground into a paste; 
then remove from tlie vessel^ and 
strain off the gravy; "boghar" it 
with ghee and onions; add to the 
gravy the paluk and soya; prepare 
the flour as in ash bogurrah; put it 
with the gravy, containing the paluk 



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AND COOKE&T. 



381 



Ones S^BS^> 
CajpiiciUD, - 
Bi3^- - . 
Coruiidir, • 



STolalm. 

1 MaslM. 

2 TohliB. 



and soya ; boil up the wfaide ; then 
throw in the meat^ and remove from 
the fire ; when cold^ mix in the syrup^ 



spiinUe over the safiron ground in vater> and serve it. 



ASH KOOSHTHULLEE. 



\ifhni flow. 



Sal 

White Chennah ) 

or Bhall, j 

Chnkimder, ^ • 

Carrots, • - • 

Pihik. ] 

Native greens, j 
Saffotn, > • • 
Onions, - • 
Sngar, . - - 
Oreen Oinger, • 
dloves, *) 
Canbmons, Vcadi 1 Hasha. 
Capsicoms, 3 
dsnuBOiia • • 2 M 
LimejoiDe, - • 4 Seer. 
Salt,. . • . i 



1 Seer. 

• t »» 

9 Tolahs. 
^Seer. 

i . 
IMaAa. 

^ Seer. 

IToiah. 



Fry the onions in ghee till brown; 
cut the meat into pieces and throw 
it into the stewpan, with the corian- 
der previously roasted and ground, 
and fry it brown; then add a seer 
of water and simmer till done; next, 
boil in a separate vessel the chennah, 
chukonder, poluk, and the carrots ; 
when BufiBdently dressed, put them 
with the meat and rest of the musalah 
ground mto a paste ; knead the flour 
with water and make a dough, which 
form into small balls, and gradually 
throw them into the pot; take the vessel from the fire; 
remove its contents into a separate dish^ mix the sugar 
prenoosly made into a syrup, with the lime juice, and 
lastly the saffron ground in a small quantity of rose water ; 
mix this with the whole, when it is to be served. 



Tolah. 



ASH BAYURTHA. 



Motton, 
¥kmr. 



- 1 Seer. 
- i « 

Chennah* - 1 Toiah. 
^••nt^ - • - J -«_ 
Bard tyn, 2 Seers. 

Onioos, --in 
Qreen ginger, 1 Tolah. 
Gaiiic, - - 4 w 
Cinnamon, ^ 
Gloves, I 

C toibun ons, Veach2 Maihas. 
Saffiran, I 



Take half of the meat, cut it into 
small pieces, and fry with a part of 
the pounded musalah in a portion of 
the ghee, till brown ; mince the re- 
mainder of the meat, and fry it with 
the chennah and boont and the re- 
maining ground musalah; knead the 
flour with water, and form it into 
square cakes; place the fried mince 



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SSi INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOUT 

Coriander weds, t Toiaiu OD one side^ and tom over the other* 
Gariic, '-'- • 2 Muhas. SO as to endose the meat and fona 
a triangle in shape, and press the 
edges close ; fry them first in ghee ; then remove and bo9 
them in water mixed with the tyre; now place a clean pan 
on the fire with some garlic, clovesi and ghee; throw into 
it the cakes together with the meat that was first fried ; then 
add the water in which the cakes were boiled^ and allow the 
whole to simmer till the meat becomes soft ; remove the pan, 
grind the saffron in water, and mix it with the ash. 

ASH JOW. 

Boil the jow three successive times 

^**B»riqr' ^ - \ 8e«^. ^ * ^^^ quantity of water ; the 
Heat, - - - In fourth time add a little more than 

Onions, - - - t It 

^*'^^» \ each 1 Maaha. on the former occasion and continue 
boiling; cut the meat in pieces, and 
mix it with the usual musalah for a good curry and dress 
it ; when the meat is quite soft, strain the gravy, and add 
the meat to the boiled jow; now put in a clean stewpaa 
with some ghee, the sliced onions, garlic, and a little spice; 
place it on the fire until the onions are browned. The jow, 
meat and gravy are to be now quickly thrown in^ and eaver- 
edj and the mixture is to remain only a minute or so on the 
'fire, shaking and repeating it three successive times. This lat- 
ter process is termed by the Mussulman cooks — BogAar. 

ASH MAHECHA. 

Grind the musalah ; cut the meat 
into pieces, and fry altogether in the 
ghee; when nearly dry, add water in 
proportion, and allow it to simmer ; 
next form the flour into a thin paste 
with water, cut it into small cakes, 
and throw it into the meat ; mix the 



Mutton, . - - 1 Seer. 


rionr, - - - 


» 


Ghee, - - - 


n 


Onions, - - 


n 


Sngar, - - - 


n 


Limes, - - - 


» 


Blanched Al^ \ . 
monds, - j ■ '» 


Baisins, ^ 


Pistachio • each i „ 


nuts, ^ 





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AND COOKEBT. 883 

Cmnamon ^ whole ; when the cakes are quite cook- 
cio?e», ' feach 3 Ma- ed, boghat the whole three succes- 
GBidaaons, J sive times; allow it to cool and mix 
SSSiSri "uh.^ '^^ in the lime juice and sugar made in- 
Salt, - . - 3 ToUhs. ^ gyj^p . jjQ^ bruise the pistachios 

and almonds^ add them with the raisins to the whole^ and 
serve for use. 

ASH AGRA SHEER. 

Take any quantity of dough ; spread it out with a roller ; 
sprinkle some dry flour on the surface; roll it up and cut 
it into very thin slices; open them out, expose it for a short 
time to the air, boil it in water, remove it, press it gently 
with a cloth, aid throw it into warm sugar-candy syrup 
and milk; it is fit for use* 

ASH DERBAHESTH. 

Boil the milk ; make the sugar in« 
Wbwtiour,^ - iBeer, ^ ^ ^^^ syrup ; mix both together 

^^ " ■ ' 1 " ^^ ^^ i* aside; knead the flour in- 

to a paste; spread it with a rollar, 
ud cut it into pieces of the shape and size of almonds; 
expose it for a short time to the air; then fry them in 
ghee; mix them with the milk and syrup: boil the whole 
for a few minutes; after which, it is ready for use. 

MYHE JOGURATH. 

Strain the tyre through a cloth; 
SnJ^r.'.i^'' dry on the fire a little of the rice; 
Biee,- • - - 4 „ pound it and mix into the tyre; set 

the saucepan on a gentle fire, next 
wash the remainder of the rice, and throw it in; when 
nearly boiled, add the milk, and continue boiling till done; 
it is then fit for use; add either salt or sugar according 
to taste. 



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S84 



Milk, - . 



cooked. 



INDIAN Domsnc zcoKoirr« 
MYHE JOQURATH. (Another.) 



Mix the tyre and milk together^ 
and boil them; now wash the lioey 
throw it into the vessel, and contiiiue 
boiling until the rioe it saffieiently 
Sugar or salt may be added to the iaate. 



- 1 Smt. 



BRIANEE. 
ZAREBEIAN PUKNEEZEE. 



\ ToUht 



Bioe, - 

Gbep, 

^w, • - • t 

Onions, - - - 
Myd*, - - . 
Ore«n Chennah ) , q^^ 
Dhall, ] T^^- 

Cinnamon, • - 2 Haahas. 
CaidamonO 
Cloves, Veach 1 
Hnldie, J 



Cat the cheese in small round slices 
and sprinkk tiiem with the myda, 
and fiy in ghee till bvown ; then grind 
the cardamons and safion ; mix in 
the tpe, and put with the cheese ; 
spread on the bottom of a saucepan 
some bamboo sticks, and place the 
&«ngiasi. - 1 Toldi. cheese upon them; fry the onions. 
' ' ' " green ginger and curry stuff and put 

widi the cheese ; then parboil the 
rice, and put it over with a smaU quantity of the rice 
water; cobur a Utile rioe with saffiron, put it info the 
saucepan under the tice on one nde and the green chen- 
nah dhall on the other^ and pour over some hot ghee ; 
make a plain biscnit or cake with a little flour and water 
and place it upon the rice; cover the saucepan, and put 
a little live charcoal on tiie top and boil the whole till 
the rice is done. 

ZAREBB.IAN NOOBMAHALEE. 



Heat, ". 

Rioe, - 
Ghee, • 
Tyre, 



ISear. 
1 « 



Oreen Chennah ) 
Phall, } 



Sear. 

\ n 



Gut the meat in large slices, and 
season with a littie sdt aad* some 
pounded ginger, and let it remain 
for half an hour ; then soak it in the 
tyre for an hour; put half d the 



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AND COOJUSRT. S85 

CinuuBoii, . • 1 Haaha. ghee with somc sliced onions into 
SSSSoiis,leMh 1 „ * saucepaii, and fry them ; when the 
^JJI^ 4^^ J onions are brown, put in the meat 

Green ginger, - 1 ToWi. and fry it a little ; then pour over 
Corander Meda, * 1 ULuht^ it a Small quantity of water with 
the coriander seeds, ground, and boil till the water is dri- 
ed up ; then add the spices and mix them together with 
the meat; parboil the rice in plain water, and put it up- 
on the meat; have ready a little rice coloured with saf- 
fron and place it in the centre of the rice, and spread over 
the green chennah dhall, and pour upon it some hot 
ghee ; cover the saucepan close and place it on a charcoal 
fire for one hour, when it will be ready for use. 



ZAEEBfilAN BOOAfEE. 

Cut the meat in large slices, and 

Meat, . . - -i Seer. scasou it with some bruised crreen 

Ghee, - - - -A „ ginger, conander and salt and soak 

Sitena, '.'-"-I " i* for an hour; grind some carda- 

^nainon, - - 2 Mashaiu ^ons, saffrou and clovcs, with the 

^2^[ each 1 ^ tyre, and rub it in the meat and let 

seeds, J it stand for a few minutes : then 

Coriander seeds, - 1 Tolab. x -i. • j. -. , , , 

Sait^ . . . . 8 „ put it mto a saucepan and add all 
the remaining spices with half of the 
ghee ; soak the rice in water for half an hour, and wash 
it two or three times and put it over the meat; pour upon 
it half a seer of water with the remaining ghee, and cover 
dose the saucepan; place some charcoal fire upon the 
cover and let it gently simmer until the water is whoUy 
reduced. 



ZAREBRIAN JUNTHUB. 

Jtot, .... 3 Seen. Cut the meat in large slices, and 

Coaiieiyre, -.2 \] soak it in somc bruised green gin- 

* " ger and salt for an hour ; grind the 

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386 



INDIAN DOHKSTIC ECONOMY 



Onions, • - • 1 Seer. 
Black pepper, - 2 Mashas. 
Cinnamon, - - 4 „ 
Green ginger, • 2 Tolahs. 
Cloves, "i 
Carda. • each 2 liashas. 


mons, ) 
Cnnunin seeds. 
Coriander seeds, 
Saflron, - - 
Salt, - - - - 


2 Tokhs. 

- 1 Masha. 

4Tokhs, 



cardamons and saffron witli Iialf the 
tyre and coriander seeds; add these 
together and rub over the meat and 
let it stand for a short time; put 
the meat into a saucepan with the 
cummin seeds and spices and a little 
ghee; soak the rice in water for a 
few minutes^ and wash it in two or three waters; then mix 
a little salt in another basin of water, and put the rice 
into it ; stir it well and wash it again and mix it with the 
remaining half tyre; put it over the meat, and cover it 
close, simmer it gently until the tyre is dried up ; then 
pour over it a little ghee, and let it stand near the fire 
for an hour. 



ZAREBRIAN KHOORASANEE. 



2 Seers. 
1 „ 






Meat, - - - . 
Bice, - - - - 
Tyre, - - 
Ghee, - - 
Onions,- 
Cloves, ^ 

Black pepper, J 
Cinnamon, - - 4 „ 

Cammin seeds, - I Masha. 
Salt, .... 4 Tolahs. 



Take and divide the meat as usual, 
and soak it for an hour with the 
juice of the green . ginger, some fried 
onions and some pounded salt; grind 
some cardamons, cloves and saffron 
and add to it, with a little coriander 
seeds, water and tyre; mix the whole 
together and rub into the meat; put 
it into a saucepan ; season with the 
curry stuff, and pour over it the re- 
maining ghee ; wash the rice in two or three waters, and 
boil it till half cooked ; put half of the rice over the meat 
with a little water and the remaining half of the rice with 
some ghee and place a biscuit in the middle of the rice ; 
colour a little rice with saffron and place this also under 
the rice on one side; cover close the saucepan, and boil 
till the water is dried up on a slow fire ; then remove it 
and let it remain by the side for half an hour longer, when 
it will be fit for use. 



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AND COOKEEY. 387 

ZAREBfilAN MAHEE. 

Take and cut the fish in large 
Rfa, \W'/\ ^"" pieces ; clean and wash it well in 

2^T*» \ » three or four waters and rub over 

Ghee, - - - - .1 . them the gingly oil and let it stand 

Roosted Chenaah - f j* i ii. ^ g j 

Cbves, >each 2 Ma^ for half an hour ; then wash it again 
01^0^- -"!^i n "^'^^ ^*'^'' ^^^ ^^« chennah and 

S^Vg-;.'. 2ToL. ^'^^'^ ^^^ ^'^^ ^""^ ^^" ^^«^ ^^i 
Coriander seeds, - 2 „ wash it again and soak it in half of 

Cammin seeds, - - IMasha. i i. i 

Anise, - - - - ) Toiah. the tvrc for an hour : grind some car- 

Salt, 4Ma8has. , "^ , , j - -^ xi. 

Gingly ou, - - - sToiahs. damons and cloves ~ and mix it with 
a little pounded salt and some juice 
of the green ginger and some fried onions ; mix these 
together and rub well into the fish and let it remain for 
half an hour ; then rub it with a mixture of tyre and saf- 
fron and put it into a saucepan with the curry stuff ; par- 
boil the rice in plain water and put it over the meat and 
pour over it the ghee and place in the middle of the rice 
a biscuit and a little rice coloured with saffron; cover 
close the saucepan, and place some charcoal fire upon 
the cover, and boil it on a slow fire till you hear the sound 
of the ghee; then take off the fire from the top, and let 
it simmer near the fire for half an hour. 

ZAREBRTAN MAHEE BAYKHAR. 



Fish, - 
Rie^ 



- 2 Seen. 
- 1 



Coane tyre, . i „ 

Onions, - - | „ 

Chennah floor, j „ 

Gingly oil, - 2 Tolahs. 

Cinnajnon, - 4 Maahas. 

^^•^'^'*"®"*»^ea2 
CloTea, S " 

Green gin- i 

ger, S-ea.2 Tolahs. 
Coriander, V 
Unldie, -) 
Cominin >ea.l Masha. 

seeds, j 
Anise, ... 1 Tolah. 
Ghee, . - - x Seer. 
Salt, ... 4 ToUhs. 



Cut the fish in large slices; clean 
and wash it well three or four times 
in water and soak it in the gingly 
oil for half an hour; then wash it 
again with water; rub it over with 
the chennah flour, and wash it again ; 
then rub it with some more flour 
and wash it again; bruise some le- 
mon leaves and put into a basin of 
water and rub the slices of fish with 
it; tie the slices of fish in a cloth 



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388 INDIAN OOMSBTIC SCONOMT 

and boil in water until nearly done ; then take them 
oat and remove the bones if necessary; mix up half the 
carry stuff and saffron, after it has been ground *with a 
couple of egg9» and spread it over the fish as for a cutlety 
and fry it; put a saucepan on the fire and spread into it 
some bamboo sticks and place the cutlets upon them and 
add the curry stuff; parboil the rice in plain water and 
put it on the cutlet and pour over it a little ghee ; fhuse 
in the centre a biscuit and a little rice coloured with 
saffron^ and cover close the saucepan ; put some charcoal 
fire upon the cover^ and boil it on a gentle fire till yon 
hear the sound of the ghee bubbling; then remove the 
fire from the top, and let it simmer for half an hour. 



ZAREBRIAN MAHEE NOORMAHLEE. 

Scale and wash the fish well and 
Kice* -' . / 1 „ ' cut it in large pieces and wash it 

CoSetyri^.' t I ^ff^^^ ' ^^^^ 'ub it OVCr with giuglj 

oSLf*^'.'.} : oil 5 set aside for half an hour, and 

cSISXS;.' 1 T* ^^'^ '^'^ ^^^^ ^°d grind the anise 

CiXnonL, j^^ ^^ it again in water ; then rub it with 
Cinnamoii, - 2 „ basuu ; mix the tyre with the fish 

Salt, '- .*-" 3 ToUh8. and let it stand for half an hour, 
washing it again; bruise some oni- 
ons and green ginger ; put it into a basin and mix into 
it a part of the curry stuff and a little salt and rub over 
the fish and fry in the ghee; then add a little tyre, and 
boil it till it is dried up; then take it from the fire; take 
the slices of fish out of the pan, and rub them over with 
some tyre and saffron; spread some bamboo sticks into 
a saucepan and place the fish upon them and pour over 
it the gravy and the remaining curry stuff; parboil the 
rice in plain water and put it over the fish, with a little 
of the rice water; colour a little rice with saffron and place 



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AND COOKERY. 389 

it on the rice and pour over some ghee; make a biscuit 
to put in the centre of the rice; cover the saucepan close 
(and boil it till the whole is done) ; fix on the cover tight^ 
and put some charcoal fire on it for a time; then take 
off the fire from the top, and let it simmer for a few 
minutes, when it will be fit for use. 



ZABEBRIAN KIIASAH. 

Mnt, ... - a Seers. ^^^ ®^® ^®^^ ^^ ™®^* ^"^ ^^^ ^^ 

5**» • " " • 1 » in larffe slices and score it with a 

Coanetyre, - - J » ° 

Ghee, - - - - I ^ knife; take one tolah of the green 

Blanched al^ " " ginger bruiscd, with half of the curry 

G^ pngir/ / I T6llhfl. stuff pouiided, and add the tyre, salt 

^iJJU^J^ I ea. 2 Mashas. and somc fried onions ; rub the meat 

Blade pep. ") over with these ingredients and keep 

per, >ea. 1 Masha. , . . 

cloTei, ) it for an hour; then put it into a 

Coriander seeds, - 1 Tolah. j jj j. •*. ai. • •„ 

Huidie, - - - 1 Masha. sauccpau and add to it the remaining 

^^ * '^^^^' curry stuff and some of the ghee ; 

keep it on one side^ cut the remaining meat as usual, and 
put it into a saucepan with a proper quantity of water, 
some sh'ced onions, green ginger, fine salt, pounded, and 
coriander seeds with a little ghee ; mix these together and 
boil till the meat separates freely from the bones, and strain 
the gravy through a coarse cloth into a saucepan; mix 
into it a little tyre and the almonds, well pounded ; then 
boghar it three times in ghee with cloves, and boil it till 
it is reduced to one half the quantity ; parboil the rice in 
plain water and mix it with the gravy, and boil till the 
gravy is nearly dried up ; then put it over the meat with 
some rice, coloured with saffron, and pour over the whole 
a little ghee; let it simmer near the fire for an hour, 
when it will be ready for use. 



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39i) 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECaNOtfY 

KUBAB. 



Meat, - - - - 1 Sccr. 
Tyre and ghee, \ „ 
Eggs, - - No. 2 
Green giager, - 2 Tolahs, 

Salt, -) 

Coriander > each 3 Toklu. 

seeds, j 
Cinnamon, - - 4 Mashos. 
Pothee-Greeua, 1 Tolah. 



KUBAB DARAHEE. 

Cut the meat into small sqaares ; 
season it with the juice of the green 
ginger, tyre and salt, and give it a 
boghar in ghee, with some fried oni- 
ons; roast the coriander seeds, grind 
and add it to the meat, with the salt 
and a small quantity of water; boil 
it gently until it is nearly dried up ; 
then mix in half of the curry musalah, well ground ; shake 
it and let it stand over the fire for a short time, when take 
out the meat, set it on one side, and put in the potbee ; 
boil the eggs hard and cut them into thin round slices ; — 
likewise some onions, and colour them red in the juice of 
the pothee; sprinkle the meat with the saffron ground to 
a powder, and stick the slices through the middle on a 
wire or wooden skewer, first the meat and then onion and 
egg, and so continue filing until all are skewered ; rub 
the remainder of the curry stuff over them, and fry in ghee ; 
when add a little water to finish the cooking, and serve 
them up. 



KUBAB THICKAII MAHEE. 



Fish, - - - - 1 Seer. 
Ghee and i ea. ^ ,, or 

onions, i 2 Chittacks. 

Tyre, - - - i Seer. 

- 1 Masha. 

(ea.1 Tolahs. 
Green ginger,) 
Gingly oil, - - 2 Tolah. 
Bhick pepper, - 4 Mashas. 
Cummin seeds, - 4 „ 
Some Bftsan (or Chennah 
Flour) and Salt. 



Cloves, 

Coriander, 

Anise, 



Cut the fish into thin slices the 
shape of dice ; rub it with the ginglj 
oil and wash it in water; then rub 
it over with the chennah fiour; let 
it remain a short time and wash it 
off; sprinkle over the meat some salt 
and the juice of the green ginger; 
then rub it over with tyre and curry 
stuff; cut some onions the same as 
the fish, and stick the pieces one by 



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AND COOKERY. 391 

one» on a wire skewer made for the purpose ; after all are 
filed, roast them on a charcoal fire, and while roasting, 
mix some water, tyre and ghee, and baste them till they 
are done; then pour over them some fresh ghee, and they 
are ready. 

KOOFTHA MAHEE SHAMY. 

Rub the fish with gingly oil ; then 
Ghee, - - - i „ * wash it in water and rub it with 
GroondgTwsnj t^'J^j^ chenuah flour; soak the fish in tyre 



I 3 
nah flour, J ' '» tolahs Weight ; cut the remaining fish 



khuSS^im"* * - ^^^ ^^^ hours and afterwards wash 

gioimd. 
Roasted Che 

nah flour, 
Aoiae seed, - - 4 „ . n . , . . 

Chennaii flour, - 8 „ luto small picces, and give it a boghar 
Cm^om, I ®*^^ ^ ^MhR, in ghee, with some fried onions and 
Biack^^r,"." I ;; *^he ground coriander and salt; mix 
Greeo^j^ger, - I ToUiia. ^j^^^ together ; when it is done, take 
Gingly oii - - 2- ", the fish out and chop it up with a 
s^eTyie." " ^ " knife; grind the green dhal, khua- 
khus flour, and the roasted chennah 
flour with the white of an egg, and mix with the five to- 
lahs' weight of uncooked fish, the anise flour and tyre ; 
slice the green ginger and onions and add the other curry 
stuff; mix the whole together well with the liand, and 
form into balls ; — fry them with one-fourth seer of ghee ; 
if you wish to fry it as a kooftha in a mahee tayah,*^ do 
not mix the anise flour, nor chop the meat, so small ; but 
if to serve as a chasneedar, put the koofthas in a pan, 
with some sugar made into a syrup, and fry till all the 
syrup is dried up. 

KUBAB TIIULAVEE. 

Gut the meat into thick slices, and 
Meat, - - . - 1 Seer, season with ffrceu ffincer juice and 

Ghee, and (each i , or . . \ u i n 

Tjre, 5 4 c&ttacks. tyre ; give a boghar to the same lu 

* A thin iron or brass pan used 'for frying. 



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S92 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



Hyda and ) each i Seer or 2 

Oaions, { Chittacks. 
Em, - • No. 2. 
Cloves and j j ^g^^ 
Cardamons, j «»■ * J«i»"»- 
Cinnamon, • • 2 „ 

Some Salt and black pep- 
per. 



ghee, with some fried onions ; shake 
all well together; after the tjre is 
add the coriander seeds 



dried 



up, 



ground and roasted, with a littk 
water, and let it boil till cooked ; 
take the slices of mutton from the 
saucepan and strain the gravy; mix the myda, the white 
of the eggs, the pounded curry stuff and salt together 
with the hand ; rub this over .the meat and fry it in ghee. 
If you wish to make it as chasneedar, add one-fourth aeer 
of lemon juice and one-fourth seer sugar ; make this into 
syrup, and when you have fried the kubab thulavee in 
the ghee, put in the syrup and boil until all the gravy 
has evaporated. 



KOOFTHAY KUBAB SHANEY. 



Meat, .... 1 Seer. 
Ghee, - - - 
Onions, - > 
Tyre. - - - _ 
Egg, - - No. 1 

^n"SrrSL',"l2Tolah. 

C«d«non.,j^,,M^,^ 

Cinnamon, * -2' „ 
Green jringer,) 
Coriander, ^ea. 1 Tolah. 
Anise flour, j 
Snet, ... .2 „ 
Black pepper, . 4 Mashas. 
Salt, .... 2 Tolahs. 



Mince the meat and boghar in 
ghee with some fried onions; mix 
with it some of the salt and ground 
coriander seeds with a little water, 
shaking the pan over the fire till the 
water is dried up ; take the onions^ 
green ginger, suet, anise and chennah 
flour; mix them together with the 
meat and pound the whole in a mor- 
tar ; then add the ground curry stuff 



with tyre and white of the egg ; mix 
all well together with the pounded meat; form it into 
moderate sized cakes or balls, and fry them in the remain- 
ing ghee. 



THICKAH KUBAB. 



is?, : 

Ghee, 
Onions, 



No. 1 

. - 1 Sccr. 



Cut the meat in thick slices; chop 
them well with the back of a knife, 
and rub them over with some salt, 



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AND COOK££T» 



S93 



Siiiick pep-^' 

ClOTM, {"*• 

CardamonsiJ 
Cinnamon, - 
Grwn gin-*^ 

ComSder, f •** 

seeds, J 
S«h, ... . 



iSeer. 
IMasha. 
2 Mashaf. 
1 Tolah. 



the juice of green ginger, and onions ; 
grind some curry stufif, and add with 
it a little ghee and tyre; mix these 
together well and rub over the meat ; 
string the meat on a wire, and roast 
over a charcoal fire ; mix some ghee 
and tyre and baste it. while roasting. 



KUBAB KOOFLEE. (Another way.) 

Cut the meat in small pieces ; slice some onions and 
unripe mangoes, and fry them together in ghee ; then mix 
some curry stuff with them, and rub over the rolls of meat 
^ separately ; then string the slices on a skewer cross-ways 
and bind the whole with a string tight together and roast 
over a charcoal fire ; while roasting, take a little flour and 
pounded almonds and mix in the tyre and give it a boghar 
with some cloves in ghee ; apply this to the meat while 
roasting. 



Some esn. 
Meat, . . 

GUiee, - • 
Onions, - < 



Blanched 

Almonds, 
Black pepper, 
doves, 
Gardamons, 
Cinnamon, . - 2 
Green ffinger, i , 
Coriander, ) **• * 
Some Salt. 



1' 



KUBAB BYHEZAH. 

Make a hole in the eggs, take out 
1 Seer. ^^^ inside and keep in a basin ; slice 
i n the green ginger and onions, grind 

I I the curry stuff, beat the eggs well and 

mix all together ; fill the shells with 
the mixture, and close the holes up 
with paste ; then boil them in water ; 
Tolah. '^^^^ ^hey are done, take them from 
the saucepan, and remove the shells; 
prick them all over with a fork or pin 
and string them on a wire skewer. Cut the meat in slices 
and boil with water as *' Hegney ;" strain the gravy in a 
sancepan ; add some ground almonds, tyre, and mytha ; mix 
them together, and give a boghar to it in ghee, with some 
doves ; roast the eggs over a charcoal fire and baste them 
with the gravy till they are properly done. 

B ^ 



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394 



IKOUN SOlTESnC ECONOlfT 



MTHEE KUBAB. 



1 Se«r. 



-.1 

[each i 



in I 



2 . 
S Tolahs. 



ea. 2 



Clean the fish well,^and cut off the 
heads ; prick them all over with a 
fork and rub over ^thcm the gingly 
oil and keep them for two hours ; af- 
terwards wash them in water ; now 
rub over the anise with the cummin 
seeds ground and wash them again ; 
then rub them with chennah flour^ 
and after a little time, wash it off; 
soak the fish in tyre for two hours ; 
take them out 'and 'dry '^them ; then 
rub a little ground ginger, salt, oni- 
ons, and some curry stuff pounded 
over them and let them rest for a short time ; mince the 
meat well, and give a boghar to it in ghee, with some fried 
onions ; add some salt and coriander seeds, with a little 
water and fry it well ; take some onions and fry in ghee ; 
cut the green ginger thin ; clean the raisins well ; take a 
little ground curry stuff and some tyre ; mix all these 
well together with the meat, and boghar the whole in ghee ; 
stuff the fish with this mince and sew them up ; rub them 
over with ground safEron ; put them on a skewer or small 
spit and roast over a charcoal fire ; when half done, mix 
some tyje and ghee, and baste the fish with it until pro- 
perly roasted. 



Fish, - 
Ghee, - 

Oniom, 
ChenniJi 

floor, 
Rainns 
Cloves, 
CardamoDs, / 
Saffron, > ea. 1 Mashft. 
Black pep- I 
per, -/ 
Cinnamon, • 
Green iringer, 
Coriaaaer, - 
Cummin 

seeds, 
Anise, 

Gingly Oil, ) 
Salt, j 



KUBAB KHANZ. 



Goose, 
Meat, . - 
Blanched 
Almonds 

} each I 
Green gin- " 

fcer. 
Tyre, - . - 
Coriander seeds, 
Onions, - - 
Chennah floor, 



1 

i Seer. 



Clean the goose and wash it in wa- 
ter two or three tiines ; then dip it 
in hot water and prick it all over 
with a fork ; grind some anise and co* 
riander seeds ; mix them together in 
a sufficiency of water ; strain it into 
a saucepan and soak the goose in it 



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AND COOKEBT. 395 

cioye§, I ea, 2 Ma- for two houTs : afterwards wash it and 

Caraamoni, J shat. , ' 

Black peppe^ -In Fub it well with one-fouTth seer of 

▼Md, *" } ^ '^^^ ghee, and wash it again in water j 
c^wnon - - 4 * grind somc sandalwood and mix this 
in the water and soak the goose in 
it for two hours and wash it again in water ; grind one- 
fourth seer onion, ginger and salt, and rub over the goose 
and lay it on one side ; mince the meat and give a boghar 
in ghee with some fried onions and add in it some ground 
coriander seeds, water, and salt ; mix them together and 
shake it well while frying, and fry the other one-fourth 
seer of onions and grind the curry stuff and mix these to- 
gether ; add the raisins after being stoned and cleaned ; 
mix all these with the above meat and stuff into the goose ; 
sew it up with a string and put it in a saucepan with a 
sufficient quantity of water, and boil it gently (if it is a 
young goose, boiling is not necessary); when it is half 
boiled, take it out of the saucepan and put it on a spit 
over a charcoal fire ; take some of the gravy in which the 
goose was boiled, and grind some roasted almonds and a little 
rice in the same gravy and add a little tyre, curry stuff, 
and ghee ; mix these well together and baste it with the 
same till it is properly roasted ; after it is done, rub over 
it a little good ghee and take it from the fire. 

MTHE KUBAB QOOSTHIE. 

Cat the meat in slices ; shape them 
gS^ "-'."- I ^'* like fish, and season with curry stuff 
ChiSfl^ur; J : . and salt; boil them in ghee with a 
gnnamon, - 2 Mashaa. little Water iu the sauccpau for about 
CwdamoM, j **• ^ » ten minutes : then take them out of 

Black pepper, * » ,i u *i. * 

Green ^ the sauccpau ; rub over the meat a 

Ga^^'j***^ little chennah flour, garlic, and cur- 

cwlderscad^ 1 „ rystuffmixcd together, and fry them 

in ghee ; have ready some water mix- 
ed with garlicj and after the slices of meat arc fried, dip 



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S96 



INDIAN DOyESnC ICONOUT 



each slice in the garlic sauce and let it remain for abooi 
one hour to cool ; separate all the crusts from the meal, 
when it will taste like fish. 

KUBAB MYHEE. 



Wash the fish well, and cover it ot 
a sufficient thickness with some com- 
mon paste and roast it in hot wood 
aJ^hes, until the paste is of a brown 
colour ; then take the fish out of the 
paste and remove all the bones ; take 
one-fourth seer of raw chennah flour 
and the fish ; mix them well together 
with the ground curry st^ifF, the egg, 
roasted chennah flour^ anise floor and 
tyre, and form it into the shape of 
small fish ; put some water in a Sauce- 
pan and spread some grass over the water and place the 
fish, one by one, on ,the grass and cover close the sauce- 
pan and boil it till the fish are firm enough to fry in ghee.^ 
If you wish to make a chasneedar, take half a seer of su- 
gar and one-fourth seer lemon juice, mix these and make 
syrup ; after the fish is fried, dip them in syrup ; when the 
syrup is dried, put some ground saffron over them. 



lish, - - - - 1 Seer. 
Ohee, - - - - 4 „ 
Onions, - - - i ti 
Chennah flour, -in 
Ere. - No. 1 

Cinnamon, - - 2Mashaa. 
Cloves, "I 

Cardamons, >ea.l „ 
Black pepper, J 
Saffron, - - - 1 „ 
Eoasted '\ 

Oreen pnger,J 
Tjre, . . 8 « 
Salt, - - - 2 „ 
Eoasted I o 

Chennah, \ ** 



THOOEAHEE KUBAB. 



Thoonhee, 
Meat, . • 
Tyre, - - 
Ohee, • - 
Onions, - 
Cinnamon, 
Cloves, 
Cardamons, 
Black pcppeiTj. 



ISeer. 



u 



Cut off the tops ; divide them down 
the middle and take out all the in- 
side and ruh them with salt ; mince 
the meat, put it into a saucepan and 
add some curry stuff and give a bo- 
ghar to the same in the ghee with 



* Or steam the fish, 



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JLND COOKIBT. 



897 



Coriander seeds, 1 Tolah. !• • i • •.. , 

Green ginger, - I « somc fned omons ; pour m a little wa- 

stuff this mince meat into the thoo- 
rahee and tie them with a string; file them on a skewer; 
roast over a charcoal fire; when they are becoming brown, 
have ready some curry stuff, tyre, and ghee mixed together, 
and rub over them till they are sufficiently done; then 
spimkle them with plain ghee and remove from the spit. 
The brinjai and cuddoo may be dressed in the same manner. 



KUBAB FOWL OR MEAT. 



Fowl. 

Coriander seeds, 1 Chittack. 

Green ginger, 2 „ 



Clean the fowl and prick it well 

over with a fork ; roast the corian- 

cler seed and grind it with the gin- 

Bi^ pepper. 1 « g^j.^ cardamous, cloves, black pepper, 

Cieaii. je«^h»Cluttacks. ^nd salt : mb this into thp fowl • frv 



Onions,* - 
Ghee, - 
Turmeric, 
SiJt, - . 



and salt; rub this into the fowl; fry 
ichittack. the onious, sliced, with the turmeric 

6 Mashas. 

2 . pounded, in ghee ; then add the cream 



and tyre ; put the fowl to roast and 
baste it while dressing with the cream mixture, to which 
may be added some sliced almonds, with a few kishmises or 
currants. A shoulder of mutton may be dressed in the 
Same way. 



KHAGINAH. 

Beat the eggs well up ; strain off 
the water from the duhee and mix 
the curd together with all the other 
articles previously ground very fine, 
(except the ghee) which is to be put 
on the fire, and when properly hot, 
pour in the prepared mixture of eggs, 
&c., which when done on one side, 

must be turned on the other ; then divide it in squares 

and serve it. 



Eto - - - 2 

Gram' Hoot l**-^, ^^'^ 

parched, J ^^^*' 
Salt, .... 2 Tolaha. 
Pepper, - . 4 Mashas. 
Coriander aeede, 2 „ 
CloTe«, \ ^ - 
Cardamons, J®*- * »» 
Onions, - . - 1 Chittack 
Tyre, - - . 2 „ 



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S9S 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMT* 



SHANAH KUBAB. 



Take a shoulder of mutton with its 
bone weighing about one seer ; prick 
it well with a fork and rub it over 
with the green ginger ground^ and 
some salt; fry the onions in ghee 
and give a boghar to the meat ; roast 
and grind the coriander seeds and add 
them with some water ; shake it well 
over the fire and when the meat is half done^ put in the 
curry stuff, and keep it on the fire a little longer; then 
remove the meat^ put it on a spit and finish by roasting, 
basting it all the time with tyre and some of the gravy 
in which it was boiled ; when done, pour over it a little 
good ghee, and take it from the spit. 



A shoulder of mutton. 

Chuons, ... i w 
Cloves, ■) 

Cardamoni, Vea. IMasha. 
Black pepper, } 

Cinnamon, - - 2 „ 

Coriander seed, - 1 Tolah. 

Green ginger, - - 2 „ 

Salt. . ^. . - li : 



KUBAB KHUTAEE. 



Mutton, - • 
Cream, "J 
Blanched >ea. 
Almonds, } 
Ghee, - - • 
Bnttermilk, - 
Green 

jpger. 
Onions, 



Tpe, ' 
Cloves, 



•}■ 






1 Seer. 
4Chittaeks. 

2Chittacks. 

2 » 



Clear the meat well of bones and 
vein; mince it very finely, and mix 
it with the ginger and onions (duly 
bruised) and the other ingredients, 
together with the saffron made into 
powder ; then take the duhee, put it 
in a towel and squeeze out the water ; 
after which, mix in it the cream and 
the almonds, and put the whole into 
the minced meat, with two chittacks 
of ghee ; mix these well together and 
make into small balls; this being 
done, take the remainder of the ghee and set it on the 
fire; when it is quite hot, put in ^ the balls and keep them 
frying until they become properly brown; then take the 
vessel down and add the lemon juicet 



Cardamons Vea. 1 Masha. 

small, i 
Saffron and> ^ ^ 



Pepper, 
Coriander seed, 
Juioe of limes. 
Salt, . . . 



1 Chittack. 

2 ToUhs. 



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AND COOKSRT. 



399 



KUBAB PUESUND. 



Place the tyre in a towel that the 
water may ooze out; cut the mutton 
into small pieces and apply to it the 
jnice of fthe green ginger, pounded 
salt, onions, and the coriander after 
being roasted and well ground to- 
gether with ' the lime juice and saf- 
fron; then mix the cream with the 
almonds (peeled and bruised) into 
the tyre, which, together with the 
ghee, apply well to the pieces of the mutton, lastly cover 
them with the cheese and tie together with a string; 
place these on a small spit or skewer and roast over a slow 
charcoal fire uptil they assume a perfect brown colour, 
when they are ready for the table. 



Mutton, . . 1 Seer. 
Green ginger, ^ „ 
Tyre, - - - i » 

Coriimaer') 

•eeda, Vet. 1 » 
Salt, } 
Pepper, - - * » 
Ghee, ^ 
Cream, Vea. 4 „ 
Almonds, J 
Juice of limef, 4 „ 



Uatton, - - 1 Seer. 
Gmg««id|^lChittaek. 

Ghee, - - - 2 „ 
Tyw.- - - -* » 
Coriander, • • 1 „ 
Pepper, - - -SMaahas. 
si, '. - . 1 Mah. 



PLAIN KUBAB. 

Apply these ingredients to the mut- 
ton cut in pieces in the same man- 
ner and strung on a skewer as in the 
foregoing, and fry them on a slow 
charcoal fire with ghee. 



MOORUG KUBAB. 



- - - 4 Seer« 

' ' '\ Seer. 

I " t » 



Meat, . 
Powl,- 
Ghee, - 
Oniona, 

CWea, ') 

Black pepper, >ea.l Uaaha. 

Cardamons, J 

Cinnamon, - d Mashaa. 
Salt, - ... 1| Tolahi. 

add some curry stuff 



Mince the meat weU and fry some 
onions in ghee and mix with the meat ; 
give a boghar to it in ghee, and put 
in it a little salt, water and some 
ground coriander seeds; mix these to- 
gether and simmer till the water is 
dried up; dean the fowl and wash 
it well; rub it all over with a little 
juice of onions and green ginger; 
to the minced meat and stuff the 



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400 INDIAN BOHBSTIC ECONOUT. 

fowl with it and close it up ; spit the fowl and rub over 
it a part of the ground curry stuflf mixed with tyre ; mix 
the remaining curry stuff with some tyre, ghee, and a little 
water, with which continue to baste the fowl till well roast- 
ed; then pour over it a little ghee and remove it from the 
fire. 

KHEEMAH KUBAB. 

Mince the meat and cut the green 
Ghi^-' -' -" -' I ^' gii^ger and onions in small pieces ; 
^M, - - - I „ grind the curry stuff with a little ghee ; 

Cardamont, lea. I Masha. mix all together and form into mo- 
Green Smgwp, j 1 T lah ^^^^^ size balls ; stick them on a 
CmanSer. '}*^^^°^ • ^^ ^^^ f^^^^ ^jjj^ thrfcad ; roast 

them a little over a charcoal fire and 
take them off the wire ; put them in a mahee tavah or fry- 
ing pan, with some ghee and water, and let them fry till 
the water is dried up, and tlxey are ready. 



KOREKAH K:UBAB. 

Take a fowl or a fish; clean and 
A Fowl, or a Fish. ^^]^ j^ nicelv : mnd some salt with 

Ghee, - . - - 1 Seer. • r • i • 

Oiuona, . - - 1 „ some pieces of green ginger and oni- 
cio^^ - - - 1 » Q^g j^^j J J.^^3 Qygj it ^eU . teep it on 

sSvon'^'^'* lea,i Hasha. one sidc ; miucc the mutton and give 



Black ieMerJ ^ boghar to it in the ghee with some 

•^*' leach 1 Tolah. ^^^^ onious, and add some ground 

^^gerj coriander seeds with water and salt; 

Salt, • . . • 2 „ aVfoVo fViom «a11 fnorpfliPT nTid frv 

Cinnamoii, - • 5 Mashas. 



them in the ghee; afterwards mix in 
it some curry powder and stuff the force-meat into the 
fowl or fish; sew it up with thread and rub over it some 
saffron and curry stuff with a little cinnamon; put the 
fowl or fish in an earthen dish and pour over it some ghee 
and close the top with a plate, or cover and join it well 
with some common (flour) pastCi and bake it in an oven* 



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A14D COOKEET. 401 

KUBAB HOOSSAINEU. 

Cut the meat a little larger than 
Heat, .... 1 Seer. almonds^ rub the pieces over with some 
!>«////• .| r. salt and the juice of green ginger 
Ciawum,*.'/ .iMalhaa, and tyre; cut some onions in slices 

Black pep-c*** " p^t them on one side; give a bo- 
G^figBger,>jj^ IT^^,^ ghar to the meat in the same ghee; 
Salt, . ! . . . li when the meat is getting dry, add a 

little coriander and water and let it 
simmer gently on a slow fire for an hour ; after the meat 
is boiled^ file it on a small skewer of bamboo or silver 
wire, one slice of meat first and a slice of onions, one by 
one, and so continue to file them on as many wires as 
you wish; sprinkle over them some ground curry stuflf 
and fry them in a pan with ghee, adding a little water 
for the purpose of softening the meat; when done, remove 
them off the fire and serve. 



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402 



INDIAN DOMESnC ICONOUT 



INGREDIENTS FOB CURRY STUFF. 



Native Name. 


English. 


BotanieaL 


Souf. 


Anise seed. 


Pimpinella Anisum. 


Seetul checnee gach. 


Allspice. 


Myrttts Fimenta* 


Edachie. 


Cardamon. 


Elelharia Cardamomam 


Laoong. 


Cloves. 


Eugenia Caryophyllata. 


Jawatrie, 


Mace. • 


Myristica Moschata. 


JauphulL 


Nutmeg. 


Do do. 


Kulmie darchinie. 


Cinnamon. 


Laurus Cinnamomum. 


Dhunnia or Kotimear 


. Coriander. 


Coriandrum Sativum. 


Zeera. 


Cummin seed. 


Cuminum Cyminum. 


Kali mirchie. 


Black pepper. 


Piper Nigrum, 


Eai. 


Mustard seed. 


Sinopis Chinensis. 


Lai mirchie. 


ChilKes. 


Capsicum Frut^cens. 


Huldie. 


Turmeric. 


Curcuma longa. 


Maytie. 


Fenugreek. 


Trigonella Fcenum. 
Graecum. 


Lassun. 


Garlic. 


Alium Sativum. 


Sont. 
Udruck. 


Ginger, dry. 
Ginger, green. 


Ij Amomum Zingiber. 


Khush-khush. 


Poppy seed. 


Papaver Somniferum. 


Pipel- 


Long pepper. 


Piper longum. 


Hing, 


Assafoetida. 


Ferula Assafoetida. 


Chironjie. 


Chironjie nut. 


Buchanonia Latifolia. 


Badam. 


Almond. 


Amygdalis Communis. 


Nareul. 


Cocoanut. 


Cocos Nucifera. 


Tfemuck. 


Salt. 





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AND COOKERY. 



4oa 



INGREDIENTS TOR MAKING A CURRY 



WITH M£AT, Fowl, or Fish. 



Mirchie. 


Chillies^ dry or 
or more. 


green, from six tt> twelve 


Huldie. 


Turmeric, 


one Tolah. 


Dhunnia. 


Coriander seed, 


one „ 


Zeera. 


Cummin seed, 


three Maslias, 


Eelachie. 


Cardamom seed, 


two „ 


Myatie. 


Fenugreek, 


three „ 


Sont. 


Dry ginger, 


three „ 


Kali Mirchie. 


Black pepper. 


one Tolah. 


Nemuck. 


Salt, 


two „ 


Laoong. 


Cloves, 


twelve „ 


Jawatrie. 


Mace, 


one Masha. 


Kolmie Darchinie. 


Cinnamon, 


one Tolah. 


NariH. 


Cocoanut, 


eight „ 


Chironjie. 


Chironjie nuts, 


six 


Badani. 


Almonds, 


five „ 


Khush-khush. 


Poppy seed, 


five „ 


Peaz. 


Onions, a table-spoonful, sliced. 


Lussnn. 


Garlic, from one 


! to three cloves. 


Am. 


Mangoe, dried or green, a few slices. 


Emlee. 


Tamarind^, fresh or salted, a small quan- 




tity. 




Leemboo. 


Lime juice, one 


dessert-spoonful. 


Tyre. 


Curds, three table-spoonfuls. 


Ghee or Butter, 


three table-spoonfuls. 



Ob9. — ^These are the quantities of the various articles to 
be used in the preparation of a curry, bearing in mind it 
is unnecessary to use the whole of the spices together, or 
the mangoes, tamarinds, or lime juice, neither the cocoa- 
nut with the almonds, and the ginger may be omitted 
when dry ripe chillies are used, as likewise the cummin 
seeds with the coriander, both of which are better for 
being roasted. Cocoanut milk is much used on the coast 
in forming the gravy to many curries, especially fish and 



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404 



INDIAN DOMEBTIC ECONOMY 



prawns, as well as the oil fresh expressed from the nut 
when grated. 

If the carry is to be irj, the onions must be fried 
brown in ghee or butter, and the ingredients ground to 
a paste with water mixed in the same, the meat, and 
fowl added, stirring the whole until the gravj and butter 
are absorbed. • 

For a gravy curry, cut the meat or fowl into slices, 
put the ghee into a stewpan over the fire with the sliced oni- 
ons and dress them, then add the meat with the ground 
ingredients, and some water or broth, mix well together, 
and let the whole simmer gently until the meat is pro- 
perly done. 

Chundoo is made with meat or fowl that has been pre- 
viously dressed, it is to be minced up and added to chop- 
ped onions fried in ghee with whole red chillies, and the 
other curry ingredients well mixed together; the frying is 
continued until the meat is perfectly brown, and the gravy 
quite absorbed. 



INGREDIENTS FOE CURRY POWDER. 
Four Receipts. 



TJoTT 



w:' 



Coriander seeds, 

Turmeric, 

Cammin 8eeds,/^<^^.v.' 
Fenngrcek,. M a/.^h-, : 
Mustard seed,.... 
Ginger, dried,... 
Black pepper,... 
Dried Chillies,... 

Poppy seed, 

Garlic, 

Cardamons, 

Cinnamon, 



fts. 20|fts. 13 



No. 3. 



9)8. 8 



No. 4. 



S>8. 1 



1 2oz 
f> 

4oz. 
»» 

1 '„ 

12 oz. 



8oz. 
8oz 



(TobeweD 
I roMted. 

..Pooaded. 

[Dried and 
t ground. 

(Dried and 
< eleaaedof 
ChiukB. 



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AND COOKERY. 405 

Salt in proportion to be added when using the cur- 
ry stuff. 

The whole to be cleaned, dried, pounded, and sifted; 
then properly mixed together and put into bottles, well 
corked. A table-spoonful is sufficient for a chicken or 
fowl curry. 



INGREDIENTS FOE A CUEEY. 

To be added to Fowl, Meat, or Fish. 

Two table-spoonfuls of ghee, one small onion, two 
shreds of garlic, huldie eight mashas, green ginger one 
tolah, a slice of cocoanut, one dessert-spoonful of salt, 
one table-spoonful of coriander seed roasted, twelve dried 
chillies, a table-spoonful of chironjie or kush-kush seeds. 

AnotAer. 

Take three table-spoonfuls of ghee; the same of duhee, 
dried chillies, turmeric ; coriander seed roasted, dried 
ginger, each one drachm and a half; fenugreek roasted, 
poppy seeds, black pepper, chironjie nuts, of each one 
drachm; twelve sweet almonds, blanched; cocoanut half 
an ounce, twelve cloves, and half a lime; the whole of 
these ingredients, with the exception of the almonds 
and nuts, are to be ground up separately, either on a 
stone or in a mortar, with a sufficient quantity of water 
to form a paste — the almonds, chironjie and cocoanut 
must be pounded together ; and where these are not 
procurable, a tea-spoonful of sweet oil may be substituted. 
Curries may be acidulated with dried or green mangoes, 
green, ripe or salted tamarinds, lime-juice, or vinegar. 

Cut up the fowl, meat or fish into its proper pieces, 
put them into a pan over the fire with some sliced onions 
and fry until brown in ghee or butter, when the onions 
and meat are nearly done, add the curry ingredients and 
simmer the whole gently with a little water, cocoanut 
milk, or broth if more gravy is required. 



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406 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



CURRIES. 

QUOORMAH. 

The spices and other ingredients 
Sdcr«cd,;i^kh, . ^^^ be ground into a paste; aftc'r 
S^^H .:,. • • • 3 Mashas. which take a seer (or two pounds) 

Red chillies, . . 4 ,, * , *• 

Salt, .... 3 » of mutton cut into small pieces and 
c^riLSr^cavM, 1 Toiah. wash it wcU, rubbing it over with 
Butter*/ ",'.'.* 7, *'^® above paste, with which must also 

be mixed immediately after, seven to- 
lahs of butter, tyre (or milk curds) half a pound, salt 
nine mashas, cloves one masha, cinnamon one masha, 
cardamons in pods two mashas, onions cut into thin slices, 
three tolahs. When the whole has been mixed together, 
it should be put into a well tinned pot with a cover^ and 
placed over a gentle fire, stirring it occasionally with a 
spoon, until the tyre and gravy with the butter is ab- 
sorbed, leaving the meat rather brown. If it be required 
to make the meat very soft, it will be necessary to add a 
couple of pints of cold water, and to replace the pot on 
the fire, keeping it covered and shaking it about till all 
the water is absorbed, when it is to be removed from the 
fire and eaten while warm. Or it may be as well to 
simmer the meat first in water until sufficiently tender. 



Another. 



■x 



Hntton, . . I Seer. 
Ghee, . 

lyre, • , ^ 

Onions sliced, . 4 Chittacks. 
Salt, ... I „ 

EISon.,1-^ Masha. 

Pepper, ... 4 „ 
Garlic, , 



Almonds 
poundc 
Cream, J 



pounded, > ea, 4 Chittacks. 



Slice and wash the mutton several 
times; pound the green ginger fine 
with a little ghee and salt, and rub 
over the meat; then warm the ghee 
and put in the sliced onions; when 
they become brown, put in the mut- 
ton and fry it well, adding the garlic 
ground up in a little water, also the 



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AND COOKERY. 407 

&ffroii or 1 1 J :i 

Turmeric, - • 4 Mashas. cloves^ cardamon seeds and pepper ; 
^^S^b^a. ^ ' ^^®^ ^^® ^^^^ becomes tender, put 

in the cream and almonds^ and lastly 
the lemon juice and saffron; after a short time bring the 
stewpan down, and let it rest on an easy charcoal fire^ 
when^ in the course of twenty minutes^ it will be fit for 
serving. 

PISH CURRY, 

Take your iish^ and cut it up into small pieces ; wash it 
all o?er with oil and basun (e . e. pounded raw gram) ; wash 
it in water to remove the bason ; fry it in ghee with a 
sufficiency of salt; then for each seer of fish take six chit-^ 
tacks of ghee ; put the ghee with eight or ten dried chiU 
lies^ a pinch of fenugreek seed and kalah gerah ; then 
mix with the fish a few dry chillies pounded, some turme- 
lie also, with roasted coriander seeds, fenugreek^ and kalah 
igera^, also some sliced onions, and a clove of garlic, pound-^ 
ed ; rub this well over the fish, and put it into the ghee 
vith the fried chillies^ and put the whole into sufficient 
water to boil. An acidity may be given with tamarind 
juice, green mangoes^ vinegar or lemon ; — vegetables may 
be added in the same way as directed for vegetable curries, 
putting in a layer of vegetables and then a layer of fish 
shaking the saucepan to prevent the fish from breaking and 
burning. 

Obs. — ^The vegetables usually added to fish -curries are 
cabbage, cauliflower, fennel, mathee, mooringa pods and 
leaves. 



AnotAer. 

The dried chillies to be well pound- 
G2»n»d ? ' /. '* ed in a mortar; then the ginger, gar- 
OmoM, - - - i Seer. ^^^> zecra, mathee bajee seeds, dhun- 
BjwdchiiKe8,| nja^ turmeric and half of the onions 

Gretti ginger, p*^ ^ • to be mixed with the dried chillies 



Garlic, ^ 

Salt, • - - - 2 „ and all well pounded or ground up 



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408 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOUY. 



Hathee Buee*) 

seeds and >ea. 1 Tolah. 
Zee^^ } 

Tunaiind, . . 2 „ 
Turmeric and ) „ i 
Dhunnia, J *** * » 
A few loEtves of Kotemear 
(Green Coriander.) 

green chillies^ and 
simmer until done* 



together ; the remaining half of the 
onions to be browned in ghee. The 
juice to be extracted from the tama- 
rinds and mixed with the dhye, gheCf 
browned onions, kotemear leaves and 
added to the fish. Let the whole 



FOWL CURRY. 



Take and cut the fowl by joints^ 
and add to it some sliced onionst, 
green ginger, black pepper, salt, and 
coriander seeds, all ground well ; wash 
the kabool chennah and bojl it in a 
little water till it becomes tender, and 
put it tg the fowl ; drain the gravy 
into a saucepan, and mix the curry- 
stuff well with it ; give a boghar to it in ghee with cloves ; 
put the fowl into a stewpan with some ghee and bj it 
well ; then pour the gravy over it and let it simmer for 
a short time, and serve it up. 

MATHEE BAJEE AND FENNEL CURRY WITH MEAT. 



Ghee, - - - - i Seer. 

Kabool ohennah^ } „ 

Onioni, -**«>« 

Coriander seeds, 1 Tolah. 

Salt, - - - 2 , . 

Cinnamon, *) 

Cloves, lea. 2 Mashas, 

Cardamons, ) 

Black peppeer, • I ^ 

Green ginger, - X Tokh. 



•-•-•I 



} 



f Brown half of the onions in ghee ; 

Toiahs. having pounded the turmeric, mix it 

** with the onions ; grind the green 

ginger, garlic, dhunnia, and dried 

* chillies; mix them with the turmeric 

and onions, and then put in the meat 

«* and dhye with a little water \ let it 

^°^ J**!?' *^ kotemear simmer for a quarter of an hour, and 

and the jnice of one hme. ^ 

Hathee bigee and fennel, a keep stirring the mixture with the 

bundle or each, picked •*! • i i y 

and cleaned. meat t^l it becomes brown ; then cut 

the remaining onions into thin slices, 

and mix it with the greens, and put them in the saucepan 

with the curry and simmer till done ; then take it off the 

fire, and squeeze in the juice of a lime. 



Meat, 
Ghee,- 

OniODS, 
Green ginger, 
Garlic, I „ K 

Salt, ^^^ 

Turmeric, 
Bhnnnia, f 
Dried chi]lies,>ea^ 
Green do. ) 



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AND COOKERY. 

DOEPEAZA THOORAHEE, OaTHURRI. 



409 



Meat, - - - 
Thoorahee, - 

Onions, ) "**^ 



Coarse tyre, - 
Garlic, "J 
Ginger, Veach 
Salt. ) 
Turmeric, 
CionamoD, - - 
Cloves, "^ 
Cardamona, \ , 
Black pep- r*- ^ 



1 Seer. 

i » 
i » 

2 Tolahs. 
2 Mashas. 



Clean the thoorahee and cut them 
in small pieces ; sprinkle with salt 
and keep for an hour ; then wash them 
in water and fry in ghee, and put 
them on one side; cut the meat in 
small pieces and wash it in water; 
rub it with some pounded ginger^ 
onions, salt, and garlic, with the 
tyre; give a boghar to it in ghee 
with cloves, and boil it till the tyre 
is dried up ; then fry it well in ghee, add a little water, 
and boil it for a short time; then put the thoorahee to 
the curry, stir them together with a spoon, and simmer 
it for a quarter of an hour. 



DOEPEAZA HURWEE, OR ERVEE. 



1 Seer. 



Mutton, - - 

Hurwee, - 

Ghee, - - - 

Tyre.. - - 

Onions, - - 

Turmeric, - 

Green ginger, 

Garlic, - • 

Salt, - . . 

Cinnamon,'^ 

Cantamon, I 

Clores, Vea. 1 Hasha. 

Black pep. | 



Mashas. 
2 ToUks. 
1 „ 



Clean the hurwees and divide them 
into halves; put them into a vessel 
and boil them in several waters to 
sweeten them; remove and dry them 
in the sun, or near the fire; after 
which, fry them in a little ghee till 
they are sufficiently brown, and put 
them aside; cut the meat in small 
slices and wash it in cold water, 
pound some ginger, onions, and gar- 
lic; squeeze the juice and put it into a basin with some 
salt and tyre; mix all together and rub it on the mutton; 
give a boghar to it in ghee with cloves and boU it with 
the rest of the tyre until it is dried up ; then fry it well ; 
add a little wat.er, the curry stuff, and the hurwee; mix 
them together and simmer till the whole is done; when 
ready, grind some saffron, strew it over the meat, and 
Ber\'e. 



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410 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



DOEPEAZA RUTHALOO. 



Maahas* 



Take the rathaloo; clean and cat 
it into round slices ; take some 
salt, the juice of green ginger, and 
ujoovan; mix them with the tyre and 
rub over the ruthaloo, and put the pieces 
in the sun for two hours; take half 
a tolah of turmeric, grind it, mix it 
with the ruthaloo, and give a boghar 
in ghee with cloves ; then add some 
water, and boil it gently on the fire; when done, put in 
the curry stuff, stir it a little, and let it stand on the fire 
for ten minutes, when it will be fit for use. 



Rathaloo, - • I Seer. 
Ghee, . . - i „ 
'IVre. • - - I „ 
Green gin-") 

ger, >e&. I Tolak. 
UjooTan, J 
Salt, - . . U 
Cinnamon, - - 2 
Cloves, ") 
Cardamons, i . i 
Black pep- f^ ^ 

Turmenc, - - 3 



KULLEAH CHOWLAHEE. 



- 1 Secr. 
No. 6 



1 



Take the chowlahee greens, pick 
out the dirt, grass, &c. ; cut them in 
small pieces; put them into a sauce- 
pan with some water, and boil for a 
quarter of an hour; then separate 
the greens from the wat«r; cut the 
onions in small slices, fry them in 
ghee, and put it over the greens with 
some salt; fry some sliced garlic in 
ghee till it becomes brown ; then put 
in the greens and give them a boghar; grind a little green 
coriander, and add to the greens; when tender, add the 
curry stuff and shake the saucepan well; boil the eggs 
hard, cut them in two, place them over the greens, and 
let the whole simmer for a short time. 



Chowlahee 

greens. 
Eggs, - - 
Ghee, - 
Onions, - 
Coriander 

green, 
Green ginger, Vea. 1 Tolah, 
Garlic, { 

Salt. J 

Cardamons, - 1 Masha. 
CloTes,- - - 1 , 
Cinnamon, . . 3 „ 
Turmeric, - - 8 „ 



KULLEAH MAE. 



Tish, 
Ghee, 



Tyre, 
Chen 



- - 1 Seer. 



lennfth floor , | 



Clean andv cut the fish into 
pieces; prick them over with the 
point of a fork, and wash the 



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AND COOKERY. 



411 



■.■■■•I 



Seer. 



ThUlee oil, « 

Onions, . 

Tamarind, 

Green ffinger,*^ 

Coriander, i 

Garlic, VealTolah, 

Aniseed, I 

Zeerah, J 

Salt, .... 2 



pieces with chennah flour; next rub 
them over with cil^ salt, and saf- 
fron^ and allow this to remain for 
an hour; then wash it off; rub 
them again with chennah flour and 
Cinnamon, . . 2 Muhas. tyre; wash it off with lemon juice; 
.^^»» 1 . lastly, rub the fish with aniseed and 

• 1 Tolah. zeerah ground in water ; when the 
fish is thus prepared, grind the 
whole of the musalah and mix it with the fish ; place a 
vessel on the fire with ghee, and, when hot, throw in 
the pieces and shake them gently ; grind the tamarind 
and pour it upon Uie fish ; cover the saucepan close and 
cook it with a gentle heat, taking care whilst stirring 
the fish, that it is not broken in the gravy. 



Cardamona, ^ea. 1 
Capsicum, J 
Turmeric, • 



AnotAer. 

The fish is to to be cleaned, cut, 
and prepared in the same manner 
as the last; grind the musalah into 
a paste ; rub the fish over with it, 
and fry in ghee, stirring all the 
while ; then grind the rice in watet 
and pour it upon the fish ; close the 
mouth of the vessel and allow it to 
boil; when sufficiently cooked, pour in syrup with lime 
juice ; carefully stir the whole, and serve it. 



Pish, . , • 
Ghee, , . . 
Eice, . • . 
Onions, . . 
Green ginger,* 

**^*' lea. 
Garlic. J **• 

Cinnamon, , 

Clovea, ], 

Cardamona, > 

Turmeric, . 



1 Seer. 



ToUh. 



2 

1 n 

. 1 Tolah. 



BIZAH SADAH. 

Boil the eggs until quite hard; 
then take off the shells and separate 
the whites from the yolk; cut the 
white part into slices, and put with 



. No. 10 
Ghee, .... 4 Seer. 

Salt I Tolah. 

Sai&on, ... 1 Masha. 
Turmeric, ... 1 Tolah. 
Cinnamon, "^ ai ii • 

Cloves, s.ea. 2 Mashas. the yolks into a saucepau with half 

Cardamona, ) 

Black pepper, , . 1 „ 

1 Lime. 



of the curry stuff that has been well 
ground up with some salt, black pep* 



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412 



INDIAN DOMCsnC BOONOKT 



per, a little turmeric, and part of the ghee ; mix aU together ; 
fry some of th^ ouions sliced in a little ghee to a fine 
brown, add to the eggs and spices, and fry them toge- 
ther ; then mix the remainder of the onions, saffron, and 
curry stuff, with a small quantity of water, and boil the 
whole for a few minutes ; squeeze a lime over and serve. 



KULLEAH BIZAH. 



Manila. 



Take and mince the meat small, 
give it a boghar in ghee with some 
onions sliced and fried ; slice the 
green ginger and the rest of the 
onions, grind and mix the black pep- 
per and other spices with some salt, 
and add this to the curry ; pour over 
it a little water, and boil it together 
Cloves, lea.2Ma»hM. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ is tender ; boil the eggs 
sfock pepperj till hard ; then take off the shells 

Turmeric. . . 1 ToUh. • ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^.^^ ^ fo^j^ ^ ^^^^^ 

and put with the meat; when the gravy is nearly dry, 
grind the almonds with some rice water, and mix in the 
jnydah with, a little saffron, and add some water; then 
boil it for a short time, and serve it up. 



Meat, .... 1 Seer. 

Em,.. No. 10 

Ghee i ^ 

Onions,. . . i 

Saffron, . . , I 

Blanched 'f 

almonds, [ ea. 2 Tolahs. 

Bice, 3 

Midah, or flour, 2 „ 

Roasted Cori- 
ander seeds, . 2 „ 

Green ginger. . 1 „ 

Cinnamon, ^ 



DOEPEAZA DILAEE KUANEE. 



Meat, ... 1 8eer. 

Ghee, . , . i ,, 

Cream, . . . } „ 

Large onions, . l\ „ 

Salt 2 Tolahs. 

Turmeric, , , 1 „ 

Saffron, . . . ^ Masha. 
Tyro and *) 

Blanclied >ea. ^ Seer. 

almonds, J 
Cinnamon, "^ 

toon, U2M»h«. 
Black pepper,J 



Cut a quarter of the onions in thin 
round slices and put them in a sauce- 
pan with a little ghee and fry till 
they are brown; keep on one side; 
take the remainder and prick them 
well with a fork all over ; pound some 
salt, and season them with the same ; 
cut the meat into thin slices and wash 
it well ; then take and grind half of 
the curry stuff and turmeric, and mix 



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AND COOKERY. 413 

with tyre and a little poanded salt ; rub the meat with 
this, and fry it in the ghee till it is perfectly brown ; then 
poor over the meat aboat half a seer of hot water ; put 
the onions with the meat, and boil together tiU it ia done ; 
when the gravy is nearly dried up, grind the almonds in 
water and mix them well together with the cream, and 
pour over the meat, and boil it on a slow fire till the gravy 
is nearly reduced ; mix some bruised saffron and fried oni- 
ons with the meatj and let it stand on the fire for a few 
minutes, when it will be fit for use. 

DOEPEAZA GHEELANEE. 

Take and cut the meat in slices 

Qh!!^* . ' -* / \ ^'' *^^ ^^^ ^* ^^^1 * P^^ i^ ^^^^ * sauce. 
Cream, - - - i » pan with a small quantity of water ; 

Blanched ai- simmcr gcutly for about twenty min- 

Onions, . . } " utes ; then take it from the fire and 

SSdc'r ieeds, 1 **„ let it cool. Put it into a separate 

ol^n'gi'ng^/ 1 : saucepan with a smaU quantity of 

Cinnamon, - 2 Mashas. water, and add somc sliced onions, 
Cardamons, iea, 1 . gfcen giDger, garlic, poundcd salt, 

Tiu^rwf^ - 9 „ and coriander seeds, with a little ghee ; 

mix these with the meat and boil till 
it is done ; then give a boghar to the meat with the ghee 
and cloves ; grind the almonds with a little rice milk, and 
mix well together with the cream and milk and strain 
into a vessel ; give this a boghar with ghee and cloves ; 
boil the whole up three or four times, and continue stir- 
ring it with a spoon ; then add the curry stuff, meat, and 
gravy ; boil them together till the gravy is reduced to more 
than one-half, when it is finished. 

DOEPEAZA HADUS. 

Cut the meat in large slices and 
^iiM -" - -" \ ^**^* ^^^ ^ ^^^ * pound together some 
Coanetyre, - | » ginger, ouious, garlic, and coriander 



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414 



IIIDIAN DOlUSSTiC ECOXOMT 



Hanoorica dhaU 

or reddhall. 
Garlic, - - - 
Salt, - - . 
Oniont, - - - 
Oreen ginger, 
Cinnamon, - - 

CIOYW, *) 

Cardamons, y 
Black pepper,j 
Turmeric, • - 



} Seer. 
1 Tolah. 
a » 

1 Seer. 

1 ToUha. 

2 Maahas. 

1.1 „ 
1 ToUh, 



seeds^ and squeeze the juice into a 
basin and pour over it the tyre with 
some salt ; mix these together and 
rub into the meat ; give a boghar to 
it in half of the ghee with some sliced 
onions, and boil it till the tyre is dried 
up ; then fry it well ; when done put 
with it the mussoorka dball and a sufi&cient quantity of 
water ; boil it till the whole is tender ; when sufficiently 
done, boghar it in the remainder of the ghee with some 
sliced garlic, and add the saffron and curry ptuff, well 
ground ; let it simmer for a quarter of an hour on the fire* 
Dress the hurray chennahka doepeaza, or horse gram^ 
as above. 



KULLEAH JOGOORANTH. 



Meat, - - 
Ghee, - - - 
Coarse tyre, 
Cream,- - - 
Blanched al- 
mondi, • 
Onions, - • 
Green ginger. 
Coriander, 
Salt,. - 
Cinnamon, 
Cardamons, "1 
Cloves, i-ea. 1 

Black pepper,J 



1 Seer. 

! " 
i : 

t : 

ea.l Tulah. 



... 2 



5 Mashas. 



Cut the meat into slices as for a 
stew ; wash it clean, and give a bo- 
ghar to it in plain ghee ; heat a sauce- 
pan, and put into it a little ghee ; 
when it is melted, put in the meat 
and fry it well ; then add a small 
quantity of water with some sliced 
onions and fine salt ; pound some 
green ginger and coriander seeds ; rub 
the juice over the meat, and boil till 
the gravy is dried up ; then fry it well ; when the meat is 
sufficiently done, grind the almonds with a little rice water, 
and add to it the tyre and cream ; stir and strain it into 
a basin and pour it over the meaty adding the other spices ; 
then boil till the gravy is reduced to a sauce, and serve. 

Ohs. — If you mix milk with a curry instead of tyre, it 
is called KuUeah seer ; but if you add to it about half 
a seer of lyre instead of milk, it is called Kulleah loowab- 
dar. A dry curry without any sauce, when it is finished, 
is called a Doepaza. 



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AND COOKERY. 



415 



Meat, - . 
PalwuU, . - 
Ghee, - - 

5^> • " ■ 

Onions, - ' 

INinneric, - • 
Oreen ginger. 
Garlic, - - 
Salt, - - . 
Black pepper, 



- I Seer. 
1 .. 



§ Mashas. 
2Tolahs. 

1 n 

2 « 

2 Mashas. 



DOEPEAZA PULWULL. 

Take the puIwuU, clean and cut in- 
to small round slices, put them in a 
saucepan with a little ghee, and fry 
them thoroughly ; cut the meat into 
small slices, and wash it well ; then 
take and beat the onions, ginger, 
and garlic; squeeze the juice into a 
vessel ; pour into it the tyre and a 
little fine salt; mix these together, and rub into the meat; 
give a boghar to it in ghee with some thin sliced onions, 
and boil till the tyre is dried up; then fry it well; add 
a little water, and boil till the m^at is done ; when it is 
nicely cooked, add the pulwuU witb the ghee it was fried 
in, and stir together with a spoon; boil it for a quarter 
of an hour ; put into it the ground saffron, and let it 
simmer on a slow fire for a few minutes; when it will be 
ready for use. The kundooree, kukodah, and chichondrah 
are to be dressed in the same manner. 

Obs. — In most of the Persian receipts the word saffron 
is used, but most generally turmeric is the proper article 
meant, especially in curries. 



KULLEAH NARGISSB, 



Cut the meat in pieces, and fry it 
with the ground musalah in the ghee ; 
then add a sufficient quantity of wa- 
ter, and set it to boil ; clean the ve- 
getable and the moong and throw 
them in; when sufficiently cooked, 
remove and strain off the gravy ; 
mash the moong in it, and give the 
whole a boghar ; now put in the meat 
and vegetables, and boil for a few 
minutes ; boil the eggs hard, cut them in halves, and when 



M'tatton, . . 1 Seer. 

Eeg^ . No. 5 

Ghee, • • . J Seer. 

Onions, ... 4 „ 

Green ginger, *2 Tolahs. 

Capsicnm, 

Tnrmenc, . 

Chnknnder, . 

Carrots, 

Palttk, . . 

Moong, . . 

Coriander, . 

Salt, . . .2 „ 

S;SrS:i -2 Mashas. 



Seer. 



Tolahs. 



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416 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



the curry is all but ready, grind and add the turmeric and 
the eggs, and allow it to simmer for a few minutes. 



DOEPEAZA NARGISSE. 

Cut the meat in pieces and boil 
in a little water ; add the ground 
musalah and fry them in ghee till 
nearly dry; add more ghee, onions 
sliced, and a little water, and cook 
on a gentle fire ; clean the paluk, 
and lay it upon the curry ; next bake 
or boil the eggs hard, take off the 
shells, and lay them carefully upon 
the vegetables, (which are not to be mixed with the cur- 
ry) ; sprinkle over them some pounded salt, pepper and 
spice; cover the vessel close, and after few minutes re- 
move it, and serve without disturbing the eggs. 



Mutton, - - . 


. I Seer. 


l^, . '!"': - 


5 


Onions, - - - 


1 .. 


Salt. 




Green ginger. 
Coriander, - - 


2 ToUhs. 

1 n 


Cinnamon, - - • 


. 2Masha8. 


aoves 




Cardamons, <9A, 


1 » 


Capsicums. . 
Palak, - - - 




i Seer. 



Matton, 

Ghee, 

Onious, 



- No. 5 

} 



1 Seer. 



ea. 2 Tolahs. 
- 1 „ 



KULLEAH KOONDUN. 

Mince a quarter of the meat, mix 
in a portion of the musalah, fry it 
dry in ghee with a few onions, and 
grind the whole into a paste; boil 
the eggs hard, remove the shells, and 
prick them with a fork ; apply the 
mutton paste thickly over, and fry 
them in ghee; next take the remain- 
ing portion of meat and musalah ; 
make it into a curry with or without gravy ; put the eggs up- 
on it, and serve with syrup or lime-juice according to taste. 



KULLEAH SHEERAZA. 

Cut the meat in pieces ; take the 
onions sliced, the salt, green ginger, 
and coriander ground, and fry all to- 



Green gin- 

ger, 
Salt, 

Coriander, 
Blanched al-, 

monds, • 
Cinnamon, 
Cloves, - - 



Mutton, - - 1 


Seer. 


Onions, • - - J 




i> 



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AND COOKERY. 417 

_ ^ gether in ghee ; when sufficiently fried. 

Coriander, >ea.i Tolah. take out a quarter of the meat, and 
Pisuduo "I lay it aside, and to the remaining por- 

Bkndled .ea. 2 » ^io^, add, while On the fire, some 

j^^^^ water; boil till the meat becomes 

Cinnamon, - - 2 Mashas. soft ; strain oflf the gravy, and bo- 
Cardamons, Vea. 1 , ghar the meat; then mix into it some 

^^°* flour and water and the remainder of 

the musalah pounded into a paste; allow it to boil. Then 
take the quarter of the meat that was laid aside ; mix it 
with some water and the white of the eggs ; set it on the 
fire; when done, throw in the meat which was left, stir 
the whole ; add syrup and lime-juice, if approved, and serve 
it up with the saffron spread over it« 



DOEPEAZA SHEERAZA. 

Take the same quantity of meat and musalah as the 
last ; prepare in a similar manner, 'only taking care to add 
the whole of the eggs all beat up. This curry is to be 
prepared dry, and less water used. The syrup and lime- 
juice may be added or not. 

KULLEAH ZUFFRAN KUSSAH. 
Take any quantity .of chopped meat and all the ingre- 
dients for a good curry ; grind the whole with the meat, 
occasionally adding beaten eggs and hard tyre while grind- 
ing ; form this into balls, and fry in ghee till brown, or 
they split open ; then put in a little saffron and almonds^ 
ground in water, stir the whole and continue the boiling. 
Add syrup and lime-jaice to taste. 

KEEMA KULLEAH KUSHMERE. 

Fry the meat with the prepared 
Ghi^'':" / .' \ ^' musalah in ghee ; add water, and al- 
Cinnamon, - - 2 Mashas. Jq^ jt to boil for somc time ; rcmove 



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418 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Turmeric, - - 1 Masha. - .1 i. # xi_ j 1 •! 

jud the uflnai quantity of tiie meat irom toe gravy, and boil 

musBkh for a good curry, j^^ ^^^ j^^^^ ^^ j^^j ^j^^ quantity ; 

boghar the meat three saccessive times with ghee and cloves 
till dry ; then throw in the gravy and boil for a few minutes. 
Syrup and lime-juice may or may not be ^added. 



KULLEAH PALSAH. 

Cut the meat in pieces and fry 
with the musalah ground in ghee; 
add water, and continue to boil till 
the meat becomes soft; remove the 
meat; strain off the gravy; boghar 
the meat with ghee and cloves ; add 
the gravy, and boil till it is dry ; then 
sqaeeze the falsahs and sugar with 
some water ; strain off the juice and 
ponr it upon the meat; after a few 
minutes boiling, grind the almonds and rice in a little 
water and stir it into the whole; simmer for a quarter of 
an hour, and remove the vessel. 



Mutton, - - 


1 Seer. 




4 1* 


Salt,.'. - . 


dTolalit. 


Coriander, • 


1 " 


Green ginger, - 


^ » 


Cinnamon, • 


SMaahas. 


ClOTCi, - - - 


* » 


Cardamom, - 


^ H 


Blanched 




almondf , • - 


iSeer. 

w 


Fa^Jisripe, - 


Bice. .r. 


1 Chittack. 



Kntton. 
Ghee. 

Sweet Tyi«. 
Blanched ahnondi. 
« Onions. 
Coriander. 
Salt. 

Green ginger. 
Cinnamon, 
CloTes. 
Cardamona. 
Black pepper. 



vy on the meat; 
rice water and the 
dimmer till done. 



KULLEAH BAUTHAMEE. 



Take a seer of meat and cut it 
into the shape of almonds ; fry it in 
ghee and sliced onions till it becomes 
brown; mix with it the salt, corian- 
der seeds, green ginger, and some 
water, and let it boil till the meat 
is done; then strain the gravy into 
another saucepan ; give it a boghar 
with ghee and cloves; pour the gra- 
mix together the almonds ground in 
curry stuff; add this to the meat, and 



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AND OOOKIRY. 



419 



KULLEAH UMBAIL 



Mutton, - - - 1 Seer. 

Ghee, ... ^ , 

Mangoes, unripe, i „ 

Onions, - . . i „ 
Green gingor,^ 
Sdt, 



Coriander 



Black pepper, 

ClOTCS,' 

Cardamons, 
Cinnamon, - 



Tnrmeric,* 



. 1 Tolah. 



ea. 1 Maaha. 



i Tolahs. 
2 Mashas. 



Cut the meat in small pieces; heat 
a saacepan on the fire, and put into 
it some ghee and sliced onions; fry 
tbem well until of a brown colour; 
then give a boghar to the meat in 
the same ghee and onionsi and fry 
until the gravy is mixed with the ghee ; 
add some pounded salt and coriander 
seeds with a little water^ and boil it 
till the meat 'is nearly done; then 
strain the gravy into a separate saucepan, and give a boghar 
again to the meat and gravy in ghee, with some cloves; 
clean and stone the raisins; put these also to the meat, 
take half of the mangoes, clean and cut them into small 
slices, and boil in water till tender; then make a syrup 
with sugar, some water, and the juice of two limes, and 
pat to the mangoes ; let them stand for an hour, then separ- 
ate them from the syrup and keep them on one side ; boil the 
remaining mangoes in water, mash them well, and add the 
syrup; then mix this with the meat, and boil for a few 
minutes; add the preserved mangoes, curry stuff, and a 
little saffron ground in rice milk ; mix all together, and 
let it simmer for a short time. 



KULLEAH BOORANEE. 



Hntton. - - 
Carrots, • 
Ghee, - - 

}^ ' ' 
Onions, - - 

Sal^ - - 

Coriander^ 

seeds. 

Garlic, 

Green gin- 

_8af» . ' 
Turmeric, - 

CiniuunoD, 



- 1 Seer. 



Tolahs. 



ea. 1 



3 Maahas. 



Take tliree-fourths of the meat and 
cut it in slices; heat a little ghee 
with some sliced onions in a sauce- 
pan, and fry them till they are of a 
brown colour ; then give a boghar to 
the meat in the same, and fry well 
until the gravy is mixed with the 
ghee ; add pounded salt and corian- 



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420 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

cioyei, "J Jer seeds with some water, and finish 

Cardamons, Vea.lMasha. , ^ . . 

Black pcpperj the cooKmg. Take the remaining 

quarter seer of meat, put it into a 
saucepan with a little water and let it boil till half done ; 
mince it and then mix with it a little suet and one tolah 
weight of mydah; put these into a mortar and pound to a 
paste; clean the carrots well, cut them into slices length- 
ways, rub the pounded meat over them, and fry in ghee; 
when all the carrots are fried, put in the boiled meat and 
the curry stuff, ground ; cover the saucepan, and let it cook 
gently ; grind the garlic with a little rice milk ; mix the 
same with tyre, and give a boghar to it in ghee with cloves ; 
add a little saffron, and boil it for a short time. When 
you serve the curry, pour over it the tyre, Be^t-root and 
brinjals are prepared in the same way. 

DOEPEAZA KUEKALAH. 

Cut the meat in slices ; put it in- 

Mutton, ... 1 Seer. to a saucepau, and give it a boghar 

Ghee, -^ lu ghee. With some sliced onions ; 

Omons, J***^ ** ^hen add some pounded salt and co- 

CoriliiidJr " < ^ ^°^^ riander seeds, with a little water, and 

seeds, 9^ ^ j^q^ ^i ^he meat is tender; clean 

Green ginger,) and take out the sccds of the kur- 

Gmnamon, - . 2 Mashas, 

Cardamons, | ralahs ; rub them over with some 

Black^peppcr,/**' " ground turmeric and salt, and put in 

the sun for ten minutes ; then wash 
them well in water three or four times; soak them in tyre 
for four hours, and wash them again; heat in a frying 
pan some ghee and fry the kurralahs; then put them with 
the meat, and boil till it is tender; add the curry stuff, 
and stir it well together ; let it be on the fire for about 
twenty minutes, when it will be fit for use. 

KULLEAH YEKHUNEE- 

Mutton,. . . 1 Seer. Take and cut the meat into slices 

Onions, . . . | '^ as for hash ; put it into a saucepan 



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AND COOKERY. 



421 



Gil 



each 



1 Tolah. 



Garlic, ^ 
Tnnnerfe, 

^^ fea.3M«h.., 

ClOTCS, ^ 

Sugar, - - - | Seer, 
lime*, - - - i „, 



with a safficieat quantity of water; 
add to it some salt^ onions^ ginger^ 
and garlic, all well bruised, and boil 
till the meat is done ; strain the gravy 
into another saucepan, and give a bo- 
ghar to the meat and gravy in ghee 
with cloves; make the sugar and lime-juice into a syrup, 
with some water; pour this with the meat; grind about 
one-eighth seer of blanched almonds with rice water; add 
the curry stuff ground, and saffron together; mix them 
aud put over the meat ; stir it well, and boil for a quar- 
ter of an hour. 



KULLEAH DOOLMAH KUREALAH. 



Mutton, . . 1} Seer. 
KomlalUylarge,! „ 
Ghee, - - - I „ 
Tyre, - - . I „ 
Onions, - - - ^ ,, 
Salt, . . . STolahs. 
Tnrmeric, - - 1 „ 
Green ginger,- 1 „ 
Cinnamon, - - 2 Masliai. 
CloTea, - - 2 „ 
Black pepper, 1 „ 



Take one seer of meat; cut it in 
small slices ; put a saucepan on the 
fire, with some ghee and onions sliced, 
and fry them to a brown colour ; 
then put in the meat and fry till the 
gravy is mixed with the ghee ; add 
some pounded salt and black pepper 
with a little water, and boil till the 
meat is tender; clean the kurralahs and cut them length- 
ways; rub the slices with some salt and turmeric, ground, 
and keep them in the sun for an hour; then wash them 
in water three or four times, and soak them in tyre about 
four hours; mince the remaining half seer of meat, and 
give a boghar to it in ghee with some sliced onions ; put 
in the curry stuff and a little water, and boil it ; when the 
water is nearly dried up, fry the same ; clean the kurra- 
lahs well in water, stuff them with the minced meat, and 
tie them round with bt thread ; put them with the meat, 
and boil ; when the kurralahs are nearly cooked, fry them 
together till the w^ter is dried up ; add a little saffron 
ground in water; and let it stand for a few minutes; then 
take it from the fire. 



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42» 



1ND1A>' DOMESTIC SCONOMT 

DOEPEAZA KUS8AH. 



Tolah. 



Grind the masalah into a p»li|| 
mix it with the mince, and 
the whole well ; form it into balls i 
one large cake; lay it on a cloth 
a wide-mouthed vessel containing 
ter on the fire; the meat must 
carefully placed upon the cloth^ 
allowed to steam till it is dressed; then remove it, 
fry it with ghee and onions ; next add some water 
the coriander seed ground, and cook it a little longer. 



Mutton minced, 1 Seer. 
Ohee, ... 1 ^ 
Hard tyre, • - J „ 
Oniona, - - 
Oreen ginger, 
Coriander, • 
CinQftmon, • 
Cloves, - - 
Cardamons, - 



2 Mashaa. 
1 Tolah. 



DOEPEAZA KOOFTHA LOWABDAR. 



Take a seer of the meat, and cat 
it into small slices ; put it into a | 
saucepan and give a boghar to it in 
ghee with some sliced onions, and fry 
it well until the gravy is mixed with 
the ghee ; add some pounded salt, cor- 
iander seedsy and water, boil till the 
meat is tender ; mince the remainder 
of the meat with a little suet and flour, and pound the 
whole in a mortar to a paste ; make it into small balls, 
and fry them in ghee ; and when they are sufficiently done, 
put them with the curry stuff, and add a little saffron with 
the meat, and let it stand on a slow fire for a few minutes. 



Mntton, - - - 


IjSeer. 


Ghee, . - . 


*> 


Onions, - - - 
Salt, - - - - 


iTokha. 


Corianderseed. > 
Green ginger, } *" 


.1 n 


Httldic. - . - 


V n 


Cinnamon, 


8 n 


Cardamons, - • 


M n 


Cloves. ) ^ 
Black pepper. J «*• 




1 » 



KULLEAH DOEPEAZA- 



Sheep*s Head and Fore feet. 



Mntton, 
Ghee, - • . 
Onions, . <• • 
Salt. - - - . 
Green ginger. 
Garlic, - - - 
Chillies, - . 
Coriander, \ .. 
Huldie, }*■• 



Seer. 



3 Tolahs. 

1 : 

1 Masha. 
1 Tolah. 



Fry the onions and garlic in some 
ghee, and remove them into a saucer; 
next fry the saffron in the same ghee ; 
clean the head, fe«t, and meat well, 
and put them in with them ; when fried, 
add some water and allow the whole to 



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AND COOKEKY. 483 

boil till the meat becomes soft and 

CiBBttDOD, - a Mashas. .#^1.1 xi. 

ciores, i^j separates from the bones; throw m- 

^^''^*°^"''' ". to the vessel the fried onions, and 

garUc, with a little rice ground in water, together with 
the remainder of the musalah properly ground; simmer 
for a quarter of an hour and remove from the fire. 



KULLEAH BUNDGOODAY. 

KifsMeat, - 1 Seer. r. ^ • *!.• r 

Qkbt, .... 4 „ Gut in thin shces some omons, 

SSi^l." i I garlic, and green ginger; put them in 

G«agmger,^ | ToUh.. ^ frying-pan with a little ghee, and 



I * i Seer. f^ till browu ; keep them on one side ; 
CnuL,T*~ . 1 „ then strain the ghee and put it in 

Tnniieric,T^- 1 ^ ' another saucepan and keep it hot; 
§jjj^ ■ ^* * " cut the meat in small slices and sea- 

gmunon, lea. 2lUBha8. son it with a part of the curry stuff, 
onions, green ginger, and garlic ; mix 
these together with a bttle tyre, and rub over the meat, 
and give it a boghar in ghee; then put in the chennah 
dhall and boil it with the rest of the tyre» until it is dried 
ap; fry it well; add a little water and simmer it till the 
meat is tender ; grind the almonds with rice water and 
mix it with the cream, and, stirring it together, pour over 
the meat ; then put the onions fried with the rest of the 
carry stuff to if, adding a little ground saffron, and squeeze 
over it the juice of a lime, and boil for a short time. 



DOEPEAZA MUSHHAWDY. 

Take and cut the meat in small 
Oh«,°^.*- 4 „' slices and wash it four or five times 
SS"-*^ . ' - I " ^^ c^^^ water, and- soak it for an hour ; 



^luchedal.^ 

Cream and ( "'i ^^' and put iuto it the whole quantity 



Blanched al.^ then heat a saucepan over the fire 

monds, ' 






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424 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Cinnamon, - - 2 Mashas. till brown : then lay the meat over 

Cloves, - - • . 1 „ 

Black ptepper, I „ them aiid add some salt, the curry staff 

"™*"*'' " " ' well ground, with a small quantity of 

water; simmer slowly till the meat is thoroughly done; 
when the water is dried up, fry it well ; grind the almonds 
with a little milk and mix with the cream, tyre, and milk; 
stir the whole well and strain into another vessel, and boil 
it gently till it is reduced to' one half; then pour it 
over the meat, and put it on a charcoal fire, for about a 
quarter of an hour, stirring it the whole time, when it will 
be ready for use. 

DOEPEAZA QUOORMAH. 

Cut the meat in small slices, and 
Kid's meat,- * 1 Seer. prick it with a f ork ; rub it with a 

Ghee, ----1„* ' 

Coarse tyre, - f „ mixture of beaten ginger, onions, gar- 

Coriander' seeds," 1 ToTah. lic. Coriander secds, and salt, with a 

Turmeric, . - 1 „ y^^ig ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ jj f^^ Yislf BXL 

Green | ea. 2 „ jjQur ; heat a saucepan on the fire. 

Cinnamon, - 2 Mashas. and put in it somc sliccd onions with 

Cloves, -) ^ 

Cardamons, >ea.i „ a little ghee, and fry them till they 

^^^^^ are brown ; then keep it on one side ; 

give a boghar to the meat in some ghee witli cloves ; add 
a small quantity of water and boil till the water is reduced ; 
then fry the meat well ; when it is properly fried, mix in 
the curry stuff, the tyre, and fried onions altogether, and 
simmer for a short time ; add some saffron, and serve it. 



Anoiier, 

Cut the meat in small slices, and prick it with a fork ; beat 
some ginger, onions, garlic, and coriander seeds ; squeeze 
the juice in* a vessel; add to it a little tyre and some 
salt ; mix these together and rub over the meat ; give a 
boghar to it in ghee with some fried onions, adding a lit- 
tle water, and boil till the liquid is dried up ; grind the 



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AND COOSLlCKT. 425 

aaffiron and curry stuff, mix them together, and fry the 
whole till it is done; then serve. 



DOEPEAZA KITCHEEIE, 

Wash the meat well and cut it 

§^"!**! *No*7^^* ^^^ ^® »^"^P® ^ <iice; pound the 
^^^ . . . I Sear. green ginger, onions, and gatlic; 
^^ ' - * - f^^V*- squeeze the juice into a basin and 

Tnrneiie, ... 3 If Mhas. ' 

tinn ginger, . 1 Tdah. add some salt ; rub the meat with 
dorea, "* 1 j j|^^ *Ws and give a boghar to it in ghee 

§*S[top«J ^^^ ^^^ ^"^^ onions; pour in it 

a little water and boil till the gravy 
is dried up ; then fry it well ; take the whites of seven 
eggs i put them in a basin with a little water and warm them 
on the fire, stirring them with a spoon till done ; then mix them 
with the meat and simmer with a little water for a quar- 
ter of an hour; then add the ground curry stuff and a 
little saffron; simmer it for a few minutes longer, when it 
will be fit for use. 

KULLEAH SADAH. 

Take and cut the meat mto small 
squares; heat a frying pan on the 
fire, and put into it about five tolahs' 
Weight of ghee with some sliced oni- 
ons, and fry them; when the onions 
are perfectly brown, put in the meat 
with a little pounded salt and some 
water, and, while boiling, cut up the 
beet-root, turnips, carrots, and green 
ginger into slices, and put these with 
the meat ; when they are perfectly done, strain the gravy, 
and give a boghar to the meat, gravy, &c. kc* in ghee 
with cloves ; add the ground curry stuff with a little milk 
and saffron; simmer it on the fire for a quarter of an 

hour; when done, serve it. 

f2 



Mttt, . . . 


. 1 8cer. 


Qh«, . . 


. 4 « 


Onions, . . 


.' llUshn. 


Pepptt, . . 


Tnraierie, . . 


. 1 Tolnh. 


Qingnr, . . 


. 1 n 


Mt, . . . 


. ^ „ 


Cinnnmon, *) 
Cloves, [ 
CttnUmons, 3 




ea.2Mash«i. 




Beet-Eoot, . 


. ^Sesr. 


Tnniips, . . 


• n 


Oviots, 


• » 


DluJl, . . . 


.dTolnhs. 



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426 INDIAN ooMnnc Mcoxomr 



KULLEAH CHASHNEEDAB 

It prepared the same way as above^ with the add itio B 
of one-third seer of sugar and one-third seer of lime-juice. 



KULLEAH DOOEBAJ AND LOWAH. 

Cat the meat in slices and pat in 
UuS^. .^'asewi. a saucepan with some wat«r, aiieed 
0^^; \'.'\ '^ onions, green ginger, coriander seeds, 

g^!»^- \^' J Chituek. and 83it pounded; and simmer the 
Cream, . . • | Sm. meat till it is quite tender and sepe- 



bUociMd, . ^ „ rates from the bones ; then strain the 

^*ieric,\'. SSiSS?' ff^^ ^^ » saucepan and boghar it 
^*™^L»hs twice in ghee with cloves. Cat the 

c«rdMiioiii,j^ *" partridges down the middle length- 

^**' ' ' ' ' ' ways, and wash them well; then 

prick them all over with a fork, and rub them with cben- 
nah flour and afterwards wash it off; cut some onions, rub 
them well over the partridges and wash them again ; give 
a boghar to them in ghee with some sliced onions and 
the juice of the bruised ginger ; grind the curry stuff and 
coriander seeds, with a little salt; mix all together and 
boil with some gravy till tender and nearly dried up ; tlien 
fry it and sprinkle over with a little juice of lemon and 
garlic; then mir the rest of the gravy and boil it for a 
quarter of an hour; grind the almonds with a little rioe 
water and mix them with the cream and stir it well and 
pour it over the partridges, adding a little saffron; then 
simmer for about twenty minutes. 



RICE, TO BOIL. 

First spread it on a table or cloth, and pick out all the 
stones or gravel ; then wash in two or three different waters, 
rubbiug the rice well between the hands ; add a little lime- 
juice or alum powder to whiten it; drain and thzow it in- 



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AND COOKSSY. 4S7 

to a large quantity of water ; let it boil gently, and con- 
tinne nntil it is tender, or onlj a small core in the centre 
remains ; throw it into a cullender, and let it drain for a 
few minutes ; then return it into the saucepan, and place 
it near the fire, so that it may steam quite dry, with a 
cloth only over the rice. 

KITCHEKIE. 

Steep half of a pint of split dhall or dry peas in water ; 
and half a pound of picked and washed rice with a little 
ginger, mace, and salt ; boil till the peas or dhall and rice 
are swollen and tender ; stir the whole till the water has 
evaporated ; have ready some hard boiled eggs cut in halves, 
and an onion or two sliced and fried in ghee to garnish 
with; or add small boiled onions. 

Obs. — To be well dressed, the dhall and rice should not 
be clammy. 

PEPPER WATER SOUR. 

Pry an ounce of black pepper, the same quantity of red 
pulse or dhall, and two or three carapala leaves (or cur- 
rypak) with ghee in an iron ladle ; then grind these into 
a fine paste, mix in an ounce of tamarind pulp, with a 
pint of fresh water, and let it boil up two or three times ; 
when mustard, cummin, and fenugreek seeds, fried in ghee, 
are to be added. 

Fry half an ounce of pepper with the same 
Antdher. quantity of red pulse or dhall in ghee ; grind it 
uid mix it in water ; then put into it a little salt 
and the juice of a lime ; boil it in the same manner as 
directed in the preceding, and add fried cummin, mustard, 
and fenugreek seeds ; while the mixture is boiling, also throw 
in two or three carapala leaves ; if fragrance is required put 
in some nloringa fruit cut into pieces, or shells of the wood 



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428 INDIAN DOMBSnC ECONOMY 

apple. Coriander in a small quantity is necessary to be. 
put in every pepper water, which is the Canarese way of 
preparing it. 

Put a pollam of pepper powder in a sufficient 

AnotAer, quantity of fresh water ; add one*eighth of a 

measure of red pulse, and boil it for three 

hours ; afterwards strain, in some tamarind juice, also fried 

mustard, cummin seeds, and red chillies. 

Take one pollam of pepper and some red 
Another, pulse fried in ghee ; grind it and put it into 
a sufficient quantity of fresh water, and boil it 
over a good fire for two hours ; while this is boiling, boil 
separately one-tenth of a measure of brown pulse in some 
water, and having drawn off the latter, add it to the pep- 
per water, which is to be allowed to boil for five minutes 
more ; then put in cummin seeds, mustard, and coriander 
seeds fried in ghee, together with carapala leaves, and five 
grains of assafoetida. 

TAMAKIND FISH. 

Take any quantity of fish and split it down the back ; 
take out the bone and score it in the way fish is crimped ; 
sprinkle fine powdered salt over it, and leave it for a day 
or two ; wash and hang it out in the sun ; dissolve some 
acid tamarinds in vinegar and strain off the liquor ; cut 
the fish into small pieces, and wrap them, covered round 
with the tamarinds, which must not be too liquid; put 
into a jar or other vessel and cover close. 

Clean your fish well ; cut it into slices 
AnotAer way. crossways, about half, or three quarters of 
an inch thick ; sprinkle it over with clean 
salt, turning it occasionally, and let the juice drain oflf; 
in twenty-four hours take the fish and dry it in the sun ; 
then put to it the following materials, first sprinkling it 
well with vinegar ; boil some ripe tamarinds in vinegar and 



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AND COOKERY. 



48» 



express all the palp; you should have sufficient to coYtsr 
your fishy and to every pint of juice add pounded turmeric 
one tolah, two tolahs of dried pounded chillies^ and four 
tolahs of sliced green ginger, with four table-spoonfuls of 
vinegar; pour the whole, when well mixed, over the fish 
and cover it up. It will be fit for use in two or three 
days; it does not keep long. Salted salmon in slices, wash- 
ed and dried in the sun and then covered with the pre- 
paration of tamarinds, &c. will keep a long time, and is 
superior to other fish. The seer fish is generally used on 
the coast : but it may be made of any other. 

Ois. — If required for keeping, put two parts vinegar 
with one of tamarind pulp and the other ingredients, with 
a few cloves of garlic. It must be kept in a well closed 
jar or vessel. * 



TSah, . . 14 Seer. 
Tunkrind pulp, * « 
Green ginger, 8 Tolahs. 



GvUc, 
Jhy ehillies, 
Zemh, 
Turmeric, 
Vinegw, - 
SalC - - • 



1 
4 
4 
3 Tolahs. 

iSeer. 
Tolahs. 



a little water, mix 
vinegar, and pour 



Anotier. 

Cut the fish into thick slices and 
sprinkle it well with jsalt; let it re- 
main for twenty-four hours, then wipe 
and place it in the sun to dry, after 
which place it in a dish and pour 
the vinegar over it; grind up sepa- 
lately all the other ingredients with 

them with the tamarind pulp and the 

over the fish. 



P U L L JT S. 

The common kind are prepared with meat, rice, dhall, 
wheat, ghee, and spices-— such as cardamons, cloves, cin- 
namon, coriander seeds, black pepper, onions, garlic, salt, 
and eurrypak leaves; others again, have milk, cream, tyre, 
almonds, raisins, and vegetables added; and where fish 
forms the puUow, the gravy is usually made with meat 
for the after dressing of the rice. It is therefore necessary 



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430 



INDIAN D0VB8TIC ECONOMY 



that the cook should be able to judge bow much water 
will be required for gravy, using, of course, less whoe 
milk and tyre are to be added. In some of the reoeiptSy 
the word *' measure^' of water will be found, which seems 
to be no definite quantity, as far as I can learn it means 
one seer. A measure on the coast is eight oUucks^ and 
twenty oUucks are equal to an English gallon; bul where 
the word is used in the Persian receipts, it can have no 
such meaning as to quantity. The various spices when to 
be added to the meat or gravy, are sometimes termed 
'^ musalah" which literally means the materials forming 
any mixture. A ''boghar'' is also constantly directed to 
be given to meat, gravy, &c., in all the receipts, whether 
for pullows, curries, or what not ; the meaning is explained 
elsewhere. The term is derived, I suspect, from the word 
Bogharafy to fry. Some puUows are made without either 
fowl, meat, or fish, and are either plain or sweet. Amongst 
the selections taken from upwards of one hundred receipts, 
no doubt any artist of common ability wUl be enabled, by 
increasing or diminishing the materials, to produce as many 
varieties as pleases his fancy. Most excellent pullows may 
be made from all kinds of game ; but then the spices must 
be frugally used, so as not to overpower the fumes of the 
game. 



MOORGHABEE; OS, FOWL PULLOW. 



Mutton, - - 


I Pound, 


Fowl, . - 


1 


Eice, - - - 


8 ounces. 


Onions, - - 


6 or 6 


Bgg-, - - - 


3 or 4 


Bitter, - - 


\ Pound. 
10 or U 


Black pepper, 




Corns, 


Maee, - - - 


4 Blades. 


Cloves, - - 


10 or 1» 


Cardamons, • 


10 or 12 


Oreen ginger, 


1 Tolah. 


Salt,- - . - 


1 Dessert 




spoonful. 


Currypak leates, 


2 or 8. 



Put the mutton, cut in slices, with 
four onions whole, into water six quarts ; 
boil all this together until reduced to 
one-third ; take it off the fire ; mash 
the meat in the liquor and strain 
through a towel and set it aside. 
Take eight ounces of rice; wash it 
well, and dry by squeeaing it firmly 
in ^ towel ; put half a pound of but- 
ter into a saucepan, and melt it; fry 



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AND OOOKBRT. 481 

in it a handful of onions sliced lengthways ; when they 
hare become of a brown colour^ then take them ont and lay 
aade ; in the batter that remains, fry slightly a fowl that 
has been previously boiled; then take out the fowl, and in 
the same butter add the dry rice and fry it a little; as 
the batter evaporates, add the above broth to it, and boil 
tiie rice in it; then put the cloves, cardamons, pepper- 
corns and mace (be cautious not to put too much of the 
latter); then add the currypak leaves and salt, with the 
green ginger eat into thin slices ; when the rice is suffi- 
ciently boiled, remove all but a little fire from underneath, 
and place some on the pan cover ; if the rice be at all 
hard, add a little water to it and put into it the fowl to 
imbibe a flavor ; then cover it over with the rice, and 
serve up, garnished with hard boiled eggs cut either in 
halves or quarters. 



KOOKRA PULLOW. 

Mince one-third of the meat very 
eFowi.^ 6 fine wilh some salt and coriander 

S^"*."-'-"| ^^^'^ seeds fried in ghee, and set it on 

®»«» - - 'f,,», one side; take the remainder of the 

CftHamoiu, • - 2 „ mutton and chop it up fine ; add 

JBkApeppir,'-8 " half a tolah of the green ginger with 

grittderseeds, 2To^s, ^^^^ ^j ^j^^ ^pj^^ ^^ ^^ ground 

o!L.'/."J2if'' together, and the whites of the egg 
^ginger, -2 Tbiahs. beaten UP : put the whole into a 

IjKy - - - I Seer. •$ > 

mortar, and pound it to a paste ; 
then form into small balls, and fry them in ghee ; now 
best np the yolks of the eggs with some onions sliced, 
gionnd green gii^er, and some of the spices, adding a lit- 
tie ghee; heat a frying pan on the fire with some ghee, 
and put the mixtore into it ; dress it as you would an 
omelette; then sprinkle a little saffron over it, and set on 
one side; dean your fowl well, and rul) it over with some 
lalt and the juice of onions and green ginger, and stuff 



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432 



INDIAN 1H>UE8TIC ECONOHT 



the inside with the minced meat and tie it up close ; then 
put it on the spit ; have ready some saffron^ cloves, and car- 
damons well ground, and mix with the tyre; rub some over 
the fowl, and continue basting it with the remainder till 
properly roasted ; parboil the rice .in water with some dn- 
namon, cloves, cardamons, and black pepper; then take 
another sailcopan; put in the rice, balls, and fried eggs, 
with some gravy from the fowl and ghee ; cover close the 
saucepan, and set it to simmer until the rice is cooked ; 
when dish it, and place the roast fowl in the centre. 

CHEWLAWOO PULLOW- 



Bice, - - 
Ghee, - - 
Ciiuuuiioiii - 
CloveB, - 
CanUmont, 
Saflhtn, 



1 Seer. 

1 H 



Mince or cut the meat into small 
pieces, and give it a boghar with 
some ghee and sliced onions; then 
add the I green ginger and the rest 
of the onions sliced; pound the salt, 
saffron, and coriander seeds with a 
small quantity of water; mix the 
whole together and fry them; par- 
boil the rice in water, and then take 
it out and put it to the meat with a little ghee and the 
rest of the spices and some of the rice water; then cover 
the saucepan, and gently boil till done. Serve the pullow 
with the meat over the rice. 



Coriander seeds, 1 Tolah. 
Black pepper, 4 Mashas. 
Cammin seeds, 3 „ 
Salt, . . . S Tolaht. 
Onions, - - - i Seer. 



UKRUDGE PULLOW. 



Capons, - • S 
Meat, ... 1 Seer. 

&"»• 
Rioe, . 

Ohee, - 

Onions, 

Black pepper, 

Oreen ginger, 1 Tolah. 

Saffron, • - 1 Hasha. 

Sslt . . - - 3 •l\)lahB. 

Garlic, - - - 1 i „ 

Cheonah ilonr, } Sf er. 






Take the capons and clean them 
well; divide them down the middle 
of the back, and lay them flat ; prick 
them over with a fork, and cover the 
whole with ground green ginger, gar- 
lic,' onions, and salt mixed with the 
tyre ; soak them in this for four hours ; 
take the meat, cut it into slices, and 



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▲XD COOXBKT. 433 

CiMMioD, - . 3 Madiis. p^t with it the capoiw and the chcn- 
CardAmoiia, - - 1 I nah dhall with as much water as is 

Goriukder leeda, 1 Tolsh. 

neoessary for dressing them, and to 
prepare the rice in after; when the capons are done, take 
them out and boil the meat, so as to make a good gravy : 
mash it up, and strain through a cloth into a saacepan, 
and give it a boghar with ghee and cloves, seven times; 
then put the rice to it, and boil till it is dressed ; spread 
in a separate saucepan a little of the boiled rice with the 
spices, and place the capons on thid, and pour over them 
a little ghee and some sliced onions; over this again, place 
half of the remaining rice with thex saffron ground up, and 
more ghee; lastly, put the remainder of the rice, with a 
little ghee on the top; cover the saucepan well, surround 
it with charcoal, and place a little fire on the lid, and let 
it remain for one hour. 



DUMNOWURDEE PULLOW. 

Clean and wash the capon or fowl 

jSSSJ'' ."."." 1 Sew. nicely; then prick it with a fork, 

^^•^ "-\ i " *^^ ^'^ ^^^ ^^^^^ following ingredi- 

J^ ... -I M ents well over it, washing each off 

OnioikB, - - - 1 ^ successively with water : first the ba^ 

Bmh, '.'.'. 1 t> Bu^t ^^ ^^^ ground anise, and last- 

c^in'sccds,'.! " ly <^te cummin seeds; then take two 

Oreen ginger, - 1 „ figg ^nd peel them, and pound them 

Figs, - . No. 2 ** up with the ginger, garlic, and salt, 

BwriM^ . " . ' 4 1* of each one tolah weight, adding a 

cJI^^T'*. 2 ," li'^^e ^a^^i ^^ ^^^ ^^®' ^^^ ^owl, 

Jmcerf2iinM8. i^nd Set it asidc for about half an 

Coria&der seeds, 12 Mashu, 

CardAmons, • - 1 „ hour or 80 ; then place a saucepan 

CinnsSion. -' - 1 "„ on the fire, with a little ghee ; slice 

one-fourth .seer of onions, and fry 
them in it to a nice brown ; take them out and mix them 
up with four tolahs weight of chopped almonds (blanched), 
and the same of raisins and pounded sugar; stuff this into 



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434 INDIAN Donamc koonokt 

tlie fowl ; sew it up and put it on the spit ; whilst roast- 
ing, ^ baste it with the following sauce: two tolahs* wei^^ 
of blanched almonds ground into a paste, with a little 
water, a table-spoonful of cream, one-fourth of a seer of 
coarse tjrci one*eighth seer of milk, and the juice of two 
limes, pounded cardamons, doves, and cinnamon, aboot 
one masha, and a little ghee; mix the whole well to- 
gether; cut the meat into thin slices and put it into a 
saucepan, with a sufficient quantity of water to boil it 
well; add your ginger, garlic, coriander seeds^ onions, 
and salt, all ground, about one tolah weight of each, 
and put it with the meat; when it is thoroughly done, 
strain off the gravy through ^a coarse cloth and press it 
well; then return it into the saucepan, and boghar it 
with a little ghee and doves twice; boil the milk, and 
mix it well with the gravy ; parboil the rice in plain water ; 
then put it with the milk and gravy and boil till it is 
done; when it is quite dressed, take another saucepans 
and put in the roasted capon; sprinkle it with some sliced 
fried onions, a few cloves, cardamons, and cinnamon ; take 
about one-fourth of the boiled rice and colour it with 
saffron and put it with the fowl and place the remaining 
rice over it; warm the rest of the ghee, and pour it* over 
the whole; close the saucepan; warm the pullow tho- 
roughly and serve it up. A thin cake made of flour, is 
sometimes put in the centre of the rice, and when it is 
sufficiently done the pullow is served. 



UKHNEE, OB KID PULLOW. 

Wash the rice well and keep it 

Bwf; ".*•"- 4 Seen. soaked in water; slaughter the kid 

GhS. ".*."." 1 I ^^^ ^vide it into pieces of a quarter 

^^JJlSSliiid} i , ^f * seer each;— the beef likewise to 

MSkT^. . * ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ®^*^ pieces; wash them 

S***"^ •,». ) ••. 4 Chit- together several times, and put both 

lime juice, ) ^*^"' on the fire with six seers of water, 



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AND COOORT. 



435 



Omriic. . . 4Mash«, clearing it at intervals of the scum; 
Salt, ... 2 Chit- . When the meat becomes tender, heat 
another vessel on the fire, and put 
in it four mashas of ghee ; when it is qnite hot, add the 
'whole of the garlic and a part of the cardamons and mix 
it with the couteuts of the first vessel (e, u the meat and 
the gravy,} and allow the whole to be well cooked, until 
the gravy is reduced to one-half the quantity ; then heat 
in another vessel some ghee and a few cardamons, and 
strain the gravy in it through a towel and keep it for a 
short time on the fire; select the pieces of the kid and 
wash them in some water with the butter-milk and one- 
third of the salt; take then the whole of the ghee, and 
heat it, and put in it the remaining cardamons and cloves 
— also half of the gravy and the pieces of the kid, and 
let it boil up two or three times ; put in half the remain* 
ing salt and the lime-juice, and continue it on the fire until 
the gravy is properly mixed with the ghee ; then remove 
it ; mix the bruised almonds with the cream and milk, and 
put the^ whole with the meat of the kid and let it stand by 
the side of the fire. Now take the remaining half of the gravy 
and boil the rice in it, adding to it the rest of the salt ; 
after it is half cooked, strain off the gravy, and put the 
rice into the vessel containing the meat and place it on 
a charcoal fire, taking care to close the mouth of the ves-» 
sel with some dough, and in. about twenty- five minutes it 
will be ready. 

PLAIN KID PULLOW. 



Rice. . . - 


1 Seer. 


OhM, . . . 


1 




Kid, . . No. I 




Cmm, . . 


. 4. Chit- 






ta€ks. 


Hilk, . . . 




^ 


Onions, . . 




n 


G«en ginger, 






QOTM, . . 


4 Mashas. 


OtrdnmOBs, . 




n 


Zeerah, . . 




>i 



Divide the kid into pieces of a quar- 
ter of a seer each, and wash them 
several times ; wash also the rice ' well, 
and let it soak in water ; bruise the 
garlic and ginger with a part of the 
salt in some butter-milk, and lay it 
over the meat ; heat the ghee in a 



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436 



INDUN BOllISnC ECONOMY 



bSIw milk t Stn^' •^^^P'^^ *^^ P'^^ ^ *^® onions sliced ; 
SaJt^ . . . 2 Chitl when they are brown^ add the meat 

tacki. 

and fry it well; then add the cream 
and milk.; after which, the rice, salt, cloves, cardamous, 
and zeerah ground, with as much water as will dress the 
rice ; when the rice is nearly done, remove the pan from 
the fire, and set it by the side, only for about twenty or 
thirty minutes. 

KITCHEBIB PULLOW. 



Meat, . . . 




Sper. 


Moongkadhall, 




n 


Bice, . . . 




i» 


Ghee, . . . 




tt 


Salt/ . . , 




I^dahf. 


Green riuger, 
Coriuider seeda, 




V 




V 


Cinnamon, . 




■MMhas. 


Cloves, . . . 


1 i 


n 


Cardamons, , 




* 


Cnmmih seeds, 






Black pepper. 




H 


Onions, . . 




» 



Cut the meat in large slices, and 
give a boghar in ghee, with some 
sliced onions, and add to it some 
pounded green ginger, onions, salt, 
and coriander seeds; mix these to- 
gether, and boil in water till the meat 
is tender; then strain the gravy, and ' 
give a boghar to the meat and gravy 
with cloves in ghee; put the meat 
into another saucepan with some cummin seeds and spices ; 
soak the moongka dhall and rice in water for an hour 
and wash it well ; give a boghar to it in ghee with aome 
sliced onions; then fry it for a few minutes and put it 
with the gravy and boil till the rice and dhall are dressed ; 
when done, put it over the meat with the rest of the spices, 
and then pour over it some ghee; cover close the sauce* 
pan, and boil them together till the whole is ready, which 
will be in a few minutes. 



Meat . . . 
Rice, . . . 
Ghee, . . . 
Kuddoo weigh- 
ing about, 
Onioni, 
Tomerir 



. U Seer. 
^ . . IMMha. 



KUDDOO PULLOW. 

Take three*fourths seer of the meat 
and cut it into slices, and put it in- 
to a saucepan with water, some sliced 
onions, and green ginger ; pound some 
salt and coriander seeds, with a little 



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AND COOKSBT* 437 

BMpepper, 1 Hatha. gj^^g . ^ij ^hcse together, and boU 
Gbrea, . , . il " till the meat is tender ; then strain 

CiidaiDOiis^ • ^Y » 

3iiek Cnxmnin the gravj into another vessel, and 

Green ginger, 1 Toiah. give a boghar to the meat and gravy 
lSe,*/NQ/i " ^^ S^^^f ^'^^'^ soD^® cloves; separate 

the meat from the gravy, and pnt it 
into another saucepan with some cummin seeds and spices ; 
parboil the rice in plain water ; then mix it with the gravy, 
and boil till done ; when done, put it over the meat with 
a little ghee, and simmer it for a few minutes ; cover the 
saucepan close and set it near the fire ; mince the remain- 
ing meat, give a boghar to it in ghee with some fried onions 
and salt, ground coriapder seeds, and a little water, and 
boil it till the gravy and ghee are well mixed ; peel and 
clean the kuddoo ; take out the inside, prick it with a 
fork, and rub it over with a mixture of salt and saffron ; 
add the juice of a lime with the rest of the spices and the 
minced meat and stuff ; then fry it in ghee till it is of a 
bright brown colour« When you serve the pullow, put 
the kuddoo over it, and the gravy round it. 

A large cucumber may be substituted for the pumpkin. 

MTHE PULLOW LOWABDAE. 

Clean the fish well, and cut it into 
thick slices and dip it into the gingly 
oil (or sweet oil), and let it remain 
for half an hour ; then wash it off and 
rub it over with the ground basun 
flour, and wash it again in water; 
after which prick the fi«h with a fork ; 
bruise some onions, green ginger, 
salt, and spices, with a little tyre, 
and cover the fish with it ; then fry 
it in ghee of a nice brown colour; 

after which, give it a boghar with ghee and sliced onions ; 

then fry some sliced onions separately with a few cloves 



Booe or other 




Firfi. . . 


2 Seers. 


ll«t, . . . 


H n 


Rice,. . . 


1 „ 


Ghee. . . . 


} » 


OaioBt, . , 


.1 » 


ixmuner seeiii 


. 1 Tolaht. 


Blanched a]monda,40nooes. 


(Saaamoii, • 


6 Madias. 


CardunoQB,. 


s ,. 


CUn^. . . 


8 n 


Sick pepper, 


3 „ 


Bamn, . . 


.STolaha. 


Gingly oil. . 


8 „ 


Wt,. . . . 


♦ M 


Q^OiCr . . 


1 n 



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438 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



and a little garlic^ ivhich put with the fish — ^also the almonds 
and coriander seeds ground, with a little rice water^ and 
simmer till it forms a sauce ; then remove it from the fire ; 
cut the meat into slices ; wash it well^ and put it into a 
saucepan with the usual quantity of water, some sliced 
onions, green ginger, pounded salt, and coriander seeds, 
and boil till thoroughly done ; put the meat with the gravy 
into a coarse cloth ; press and strain the gravy into a ba- 
sin and gave a boghar to it in ghee with cloves ; parboil 
the rice as usual ; then mix it with the gravy, and boil till 
the rice is dressed ; put the rice into another saucepan, 
and add to it the spices ; cover the saucepan close, and let 
it stand on the fire for a few minutes, when it will be fit 
for use. When you serve the puUow put the fish over it 
with the gravy, A chasneedar may be made in the usual 
manner by dressing the fish and rice separately with lime 
syrup. 

MULGOBAH PULLOW. 



Cut the meat in large sUces, and 
put it into a saucepan with some 
onions and green ginger sliced; pound 
some salt and coriander seeds with a 
little ghee; add a sufficient quantity 
of water and boil the whole till the 
meat is tender; separate the gravy 
from the meat, and mix in it the 
tyre ; stir it well, and strain it into 
another vessel; take three tolahs* weight of almonds, and 
grind them with a little rice-water and add them to the • 
gravy ; give a boghar to the meat and gravy with some 
ghee and cloves ; let it boil up once ; remove the meat 
from the saucepan and put it into another vessel, with the 
ground cummin seeds and spices; fry the rest of the al- 
monds in ghee ; grind and put them to ^ the meat ; mix 
all together and fry for a few minutes; parboil the rice 



MnttOD, . , 
Tyre,. . . 
Onions, . , 
Bice, . . . 
Green ginger, 
Salt, . . . 
Almondi, . 
Cinnamon, . 
CloTes, . . . 
Cardamons. . 
Black pepper, 
Commm seeds, 
Qhm, . . . 



1 Seer. 

i " 
1 - 

1 Tolah. 
3 „ 

6 „ 

2 Maahia. 

\ : 
I - 

k Seer. 



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AND COOKERY. 439 

in plain water; then put it to the meat and the gravy^ 

with a little ghee; cover the pan close, and simmer it 
gently until it is done. 



SHERAZEE PULLOW- 



ifMt • - - 1 Seer. ^ake three-fourths seier of the meat 



OEee. - - ?^4 *"^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^8® slices; put it 

^^^. ' ' \ -J,, into a saucepan with a proper quan- 
i^nicots ibied, 2 « ' tity of water with the onions and 
Afanond^**. *. \ )'> g^^g^^ sliccd, slso some salt and cor* 

o^lLn,' ". 2 hI^. ^^^ 8«eds» ground in a little ghee; ' 
SSmiom ' - ' 1 " ^^^^ *^^ *^® ^^ ^^ tender ; then 

^Mk pepper, 1 , strain off the gravy into another sauce- 

Rice, ... 1 Seer. pan, and give a boghar to the meat 

with the cloves in ghee; pound the 
cummin seeds and a part of the spices, and put it with 
the meat into another saucepan ; parboil the rice., in plain 
water; remove it and put it with the gravy, and boil till 
the rice is done; then place it over the meat with some 
ghee; cover the saucepan close, and let it simmer gently 
for an hour; mince the remainder of the meat and give 
a boghar to it in ghee; add some pounded salt and. cori- 
ander seeds with a little water, and boil it gently; when 
done and the ghee and gravy well mised, put in the raisins, 
pistachios, apricots, blanched almonds, and spices, with the 
white of the eggs beaten up, and let it stand 'on the side 
of the fire till cooked; then fry the yolks of the eggs in 
a little ghee, and all is ready. When you serve the pul- 
low, spread the minced meat, &c. over it^ and fried eggs 
on the top of that. 

To make a chasneedar of it, prepare a syrup as before 
directed; mix two-thirds of it with the rice while it is 
boiling with the meat, and the other one-third to be add- 
ed with the minced meat previous to dressing. 



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440 



INDIAN SOHEsnC ECONOlfT 



LOOKMAH PULLOW. 



JAfiftty - - 2 SefiTS* 

D«^ - -No, 2 
Aimonda, - - ^ Seen. 
Aaasini, - - 
OnioM, - - . 
PiBtachios, • - 
Oreen ginger* 
Bice, - - - - 
Coriander aeedi. 
Boasted Cfaeniuai, 

Bhall, - . 
Hytha flou^ 
Ghee, - - - 
CinnamoDi - • 
Black pepper, 
Cloves, - - 
Cardamom, 
Black commin 



Salt . . 



2T0lAh8. 

1 Seer. 
4MBehaa. 

I : 

3 Tofahs. 



Cut half the meat in large pieces, 
and put it into a sancepan with a 
proper quantity of water, a portion 
of sliced onions^ green ginger, salt, 
and pounded coriander seeds; mix 
these together, and hoil till the meat 
is tender; strain the gravy into ano* 
ther saucepan, and give a boghar to 
the meat in ghee with some cloves, 
pounded cummin seeds, and spices; 
parboil the rice in plain water ; then 
put it with the gravy and let it be 
thoroughly cooked; when done, put 
it over the meat with some ghee ; cover close the sauce- 
pan and boil it till the whole is dressed on a gentle fire. 
Mince the other seer of meat, place i^ in a saucepan on 
the fire^ with about five tolahs' weight of ghee, some sliced 
onions^ and fry them ; when ^the onions are sufficiently 
brown, give a boghar to the meat with ghee ; then add to 
it a little salt^ pounded coriander seeds and water, and boil 
till the meat is nearly done; take it out and put with it 
some bruised green ginger^ raisins, almonds, and the chen- 
nah dhall roasted ; mix these together in a mortar, and m^Jce 
it into a paste with the white of the eggs and mytha ; cut 
the almonds and pistachio nuts into pieces, and fry then& 
in ghee. Take as much of the pounded meat as will form 
a ball the size of a small lime, and put into it some of 
the almonds and pistachio nuts; continue this till the 
whole is finished; then cover each with the yolk of the 
eggs^ and fry them in ghee of a nice brown colour ; take 
a little gravy with the remaining ground spices, and give 
a boghar to it in ghee, and put this with the balls and 
simmer till the gravy is nearly reduced. When you serve 
the puUoW; place the balls on the top and the gravy round it. 



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AND COOKBRY. 441 



KOONDUN PULLOW. 
^ ^ , _ Cut the meat into slices : put it 

Meat, - - - 1 Seer. ' '^ 

Eggs, - - - - 6 into a saucepan with water, some oni- 

Sait, -"-"-"- 3 Toiahs. ons, and green ginger sliced ; pound 
Onioni*'?"- '- 1 ^^ ^ome salt and coriander seeds ; add 

ciores, - - - 1 » then strain the gravy into another 

Coriuider, . . 1 Toiah. sauccpan ; give a boghar to the meat 
^oimnift Meds, -^ 1 ^J^ ^th some ghee and cloves ; mince 
half the meat, and mix with it some 
of the spices, salt, and suet, and pound these together in 
a mortar to a paste ; boil the five eggs hard, take off the 
shells, and cover them with the pounded meat ; baste, fry 
them to a nice brown in ghee, and keep them on one side ; 
pat the rest of the meat into another Saucepan with the 
cummin seeds and spices, and warm it ; then parboil the 
rice in plain water ; take it out and add to it the gravy, 
Ixnling it till the rice is dressed ; when done, put it over 
the meat and let it boil for one quarter of an hour ; then 
put in the fried eggs, and pour over all a little ghee ; cover 
dose the saucepan, and let it simmer gently for a few mi- 
nuteSi when it will be ready to serve. 

K you wish to make a chasneedar, take sugar, lime- 
juice, and water as before directed, and make a syrup ; 
fake half of the syrup and put it with the meat and the 
fried eggs over it, and boil for a few minutes ; mix the 
remaining syrup with the gravy and boil the rice in it and 
put over the meat ; then cover close the saucepan and • 
boil till done ; otherwise, put the fried eggs into the syrup, 
and let them remain in it for about twenty minutes; 
then take them out ; mix the syrup with the gravy, and 
boil the rice in it. When you serve the puUow, place 

the eggs over the rice. 

. H 8 

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442 



INDIAN DOVESnO KCONOUY 



GHEELANEE PULLOW. 



• 1 Sen. 



Meat, . 

Milk,. . 

'l>re, . 

Kice, - • 

Ghee, - 

CiniMinoii, 

Cloves, ... 8 „ 

Cudunom, • - 1 » 

Coriander, - 2 Tolahs. 

Cnminm aaedi, 1 Maiha. 

Almomda, • h Seer. 

Salt, ... 8 Tblahi. 

Black pepper, 4 Mathaa, 

Onions, - - i Seer. 

Green ginger, - 1 Tblah, 



Cat the meat as usual^ and pat it 
into a saacepan with a sufficient qaaa- 
tity of water; add the onions and 
green ginger sliced , with some salt 
and coriander seeds ponnded, and a 
little ghee ; boil these together till 
the meat is tender ; then separate the 
gray; from the meat and take half 
of it and mix with it the tyre and a 
quarter seer of milk ; strain this into 
a basin, then add a little ground rice with water and mix 
in it ; give a boghar to the same with cloves and ghee ; 
then put in the meat with half of the spices ; grind the 
almonds and put them also with the meat ; boil it till the 
gravy is nearly reduced ; then take it from the fire. Par- 
boil the rice in plain wato ; take it out and put to it the 
other remaining gravy with the cummin seeds and curry 
stuff pounded^ and boil till the rice is cooked ; then pour 
over it the other quarter seer of milk ; cover the sauce- 
pan; and let it stand on the fire for a few minutes. When 
you serve the pullow, put the meat and gravy over it. 

If you wish to make a thydar when dressing the meat 
with the tyre and milk, put the rice in it (after it has 
been well boiled in the gravy,) with a little ghee and milk ; 
cover the saucepan and gently simmer for an hour, then 
serve it up. 



HUR HUR PULLOW. 



Eice, - - 
Dhall,. . 
Ghee, - - 
Onions, - 
Cinnamon, - 
Clovw, - • 
Cardamons, 
Salt, . . 



1 Seer. 



3 Mashas. 
1 » 

1 .. 

2 Tolaha. 



Wash the dhall well and put it 
into a saucepan of water, and boil it 
till it is thoroughly done ; take another 
saucepan and put into it half of the 
ghee, some sliced onions, and irj 
them well ; when the onions are per* 



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AND COOKE&T. 443 

fectly brown^ put in the spices and dhall and fry them 
together ; soak the rice in water for an hour and wash it 
weU; then put > it over the dhall with a sufficient quantity 
of warm water, and boil them together; when done* pour 
in a little ghee, and let it simmer on a slow fire for a few 
minutes. 

The chennah and moongka dhall puUows are made in 
the same way, and are eaten with Quoormah, which is 
prepared as follows : — 

Take one seer of meat, one-fourth seer of ghee^ one- 
fourth seer of tyre^ two mashas of cinnamon, one masha 
of cloves^ one masha of cardamons, one-eighth seer of 
onions, one and a half tolahs of green ginger, one and 
a half tolahs of garlic, and four limes. Gut the meat in 
slices and rub it over with the sliced green ginger, 
garlic, tyrCj and salt ground together^ and let it remain 
for two hours; set a saucepan on the fire, and put in 
the whole quantity of ghee with some sliced oniony, and 
fry them ; when the onions are brown, add the spices and 
the meat with a little water and lime-juice ; mix these 
together, and dress till the meat is tender and the gravy 
dried up. 

KOOLAH SANTHOON NEGAMUTH PULLOW. 

Boil the milk till it is reduced to 
one half; strain the mangoe pulp in- 
to a basin and add the milk and 
cream, stirring them well together ; sift 
the sugar-candy; grind the musk and 
saffron in a little rose water and mix 
the whole together ; soak the rice 
in water, wash it well, and boil it properly; when done, 
place a layer in a deep dish, pour some of the mangoe cus- 
tard over it, then more rice and mangoe, and so continue 
till the whole is finished. 



Bice, - - - 


1 


Seer. 


llangt)e pnlp, 






•weet, - - 


. 1 


« 


Cnam, - - - 


\ 


»* 


MUk. . - 


-t 


» 


Sagar candy 






pounded, • 


A 


» 


Saffron,- . 


Masli 


Mask, . . 


i 


„ 



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444 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



The receipt says a little ghee is to be poured over the 
custard, but I hardly think such would be relished by any 
but natives; even the musk might be omitted. 



I Seer. 

1 „ 



% ' ' ' I » 

ir, - - - I „ 
, - - - I Toiah. 



Meat, 

Rice, 

OnioiM, 

Ghee, 

Sagar, 

Salt, • 

Ornea ginger, 1 

Cinnamoii, - - 2 Mashas. - 

Cloves, - - 1 „ 

CTardamons, - 1 „ 

Curiander seeds, 1 Tolah. 

Black cummin 

seeds, . . 3 Mashas. 
Limes, ... 1 Seer, 
rine^ple, - 1| ^ 



UNUNASS PULLOW. 

Pare off the riud of the pine-apple 
and cut into slices; put one-half in 
water and boil the other half until 
soft; make a syrup with the limes, 
sugar, and a sufficiency ^f water, and 
put tlie pine-apple slices into it, and 
boil them for a quarter of an hour; 
then remove the fruit with a little of 
the syrup and set on one side. Cut 
the meat into slices and put it into 
a saucepan with a proper quantity of water, some sliced 
onions, green ginger, pounded salt, and coriander seeds, 
with a Itttle ghee ; boil them well together and strain off 
the gravy ; boghar the meat in ghee with cloves ; take the 
other half of the pine-apple with the cummin seeds and 
the ground spices and the syrup; boil the whole until the 
syrup is dried up ; boil the rice as usual with the gravy 
from the meat; then put it over the meat in another sauce- 
pan, and let it stand near the fire for a short time, when 
pour over some ghee, and cover it close. When you serve 
the pullow, dress it with ihh pine-apples on the top and 
around the dish. 



Meat, - 
Bice, - - 
Ohec, - < 
Plantains, 
Onions, • 
Limes, 



^jUt, 
Cinnamon, 
Cloves, 
Cardamons, 




KALA PULLOW. 

Cut the meat as usual and put it 
into a saucepan with a proper quan* 
tity of water and some sliced oni- 
ons and green ginger pounded, some 
salt and coriander seeds with a little 
ghee ; boil this together till the meat 
is done; then strain the gravy into 



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AND COO&E&Y. 



445 



Gnn ^ger, 2 ToUhi. ^ separate saucepan, and give a bo- 
2 



Cunmin seeds, 1 Masha, 



ghar to the meat with cloves in ghee ; 

take half a seer of sugar with a small 
qaaniity of water and the juice of two limes, which make 
into a clear syrup ; add this also to the gravy ; put the 
meat into another saucepan with some cummin seeds, 
spices, and a little gravy ; mix these together and boil it 
till the gravy is reduced ; parboil the rice in plain water 
and mix it into the gravy, and boil it till it is done, and 
put it over the meat and boil them together for a quarter 
of an hour ; then pour over all some ghee ; cover close the 
saucepan and boil it on a gentle fire; take the remaining 
one-fourth seer of sugar with a small quantity of water 
and the juice of a lime and make it into a clear syrup ; 
cat each plantain lengthways in four pieces and put them 
in the symp, and boil till done. When you serve the 
puUow, put the plantains and the gravy over it. 



SHOLAH PULLOW, 



Divide the meat into equal slices ; 
place a saucepan on the fire, with a 
little ghee, some sliced onions, and 
fry them brown; put in the meat 
and fry it till the gravy is well mixed 
with the ghee, then put with it the 
three sorts of dhall and coriander 
seeds; cut the turnips and beet-root 
into slices ; shred fine the palluk 
greens, and put the whole with the 
meat and a sufficient quantity of wa- 
ter, and boil it gently until the meat 
is done ; then take it out and strain 
the gravy into another saucepan ; bo- 
the meat in -ghee with cloves, and add to it the 
cummin seeds and spices ; dress the rice as usual with the 
gravy and cinna\non; then place it over the meat; and the 



Kid or mutton, 1 Seer. 
Rice, - . . 1 „ 
Ghee, - - - i „ 
Onions, - - f » 
Jfnvpa, -'in 
Best-root, - - ♦ .. 
Palluk greens, 
KooDffka 

Jutoorka 

dha]], 
Cfaennah. 

> dhall, 
CiBnftmon, • 
Clores, •) -, 
Caidsmons,)^* » 
Blsck pepper, 1 „ 
Coriander seeds, 1 Tolah. 
Green ginger, 2 „ 
Cummin seeds, 4 Maahas. 
Salt, . . . 3 Tolahs. 
Gtriie, . - 1 „ 



'ca.J 



4 Mashas. 



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446 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



vegetables on the top; poor a little ghee over the whole; 
cover close the saucepan, and simmer it gently for a short 
time. 



KHAI8HGHEB PULLOW. 



1 Seer. 



! 



Found the sugar-candy and make 
it into a clear syrup ; soak the rice 
in water for an hour and dean it 
well; then put it into a saacepaa 
with the spices and ghee, and try it 
a little; grind the musk with the 
rose water, and pou^ it with the syrup 
on the rice and boil it till the rioe 
is done ; colour the almonds and pis- 
tachio nuts with saffron, and fry 

them with the raisins in ghee ; when you serve the pul- 

low, put them over it. 



Bice, - - 
Ghee, - - 
Sugar candy, 
EoM water, • | 
CiBnainODy - » 
Cloves, ] I 

Blanched ^ 
almonda, | 

^^^ [-eUChitUck. 
Baisini J 
•toned, J 
Mask, . . - i Masha. 
Saffron, - - I « 



SAUE PULLOW. 

Slaughter and skin the kid; take 
out the inside and cut off the head 
and feet ; wash the carcass dean, and 
divide it into joints ; bruise some of 
the green ginger, onions and garlicj 
squeeze the juice into a basin, and 
add a little salt with some tyre; mix 
all together and rub over the meat 
and let it remain for an hour ; then 
give a boghar to the meat in ghee with some thin sliced 
onions ; add a portion of the spices to it and a sufficient 
quantity of water, and boil the meat till done; keep it 
warm; clean and divide the head and legs of the kid; cut 
the meat in slices ; put both together into a saucepan with 
a proper quantity of water, about six quarts, the sliced oni- 
ons and spices, and boil gently till the meat separates from 



Kid, . - • 1 

Meat, - - - 1 Seer, 

iiioe, . - - 2 „ 

Ohee, - - -1 „ 

■&"»■--* « 

Onions,- • - 1 r> 

Green ginger, 4 Tolaha. 

Garlic, . . -3 „ 

Coriander 8eedB,2 „ 

Salt, ... 4 „ 

Cinnamon, *) 

Cloves, ^ea.4 Maahas. 

Cardamom,) 



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AND COOKERY. 447 

the bone^ removing the scum from time to time; strain off 
Ihe gravy; wash the rice well, and parboil it in water; then 
place it in another saucepan with the gravy and boil till 
the rice is properly cooked ; then put it over the meat of 
the kid ; cover dose the saucepan, and boil the whole gent- 
ly for a short time, and serve. 

BABBAWN PULLOW. 

Mest» .... 1 Seer. ^^^ ^' ^^ *^® wheat in water 

eh"*^-'-'.' 1 " ^^^^ ^^^ tender; then dry it in 

Chuoiu, ' ' ' tJ* ^^^ ^^^' ^^^' which coarsely grind 

ctoJSr*^ -'• 1 !^ ^^ ^ remove the husk. Slice the 
gj[2r^255;w,\ 4 " meat; put it in a saucepan with a 

Sri* d^^Sd..* 1 ^^^'^*^* sufficient quantity of water, some 
Ciumiin seeds, 1 » sliced onious, green ginger, pounded 

salt, and coriander seeds; boil the 
whole well together; strain the gravy into another vessel, 
and boghar the meat with cloves; put the wheat with 
some ghee into a pan and fry it; then add the gravy with 
a little ghee, and boil till done. Have ready the meat 
with the spices in another saucepan ; put over it the wheat 
with a little more ghee; cover the pan close,[^and set it 
near the fire for tw^ty minutes. 

IMLEE PULLOW. 

Cut the meat into slices ; put it 
bS; .'-'/ 1 ^' into a saucepan with the usual quan- 
2!JJ!^™*^.'. '. 1 2 *^^y ®^ water, sliced onions, green 

gw- • - I ^ ginger, salt, and coriander seeds with 



Cloves, - . 1 „ ' some ghee; boil the whole well to* 

Black p^S^r, ' 1 " gethcr ; strain the gravy into another 

Cjojmtr seeds, 1 ToU. g^ucepan and give a boghar to it, 

Qyo°*>.- • • J 22\ with the meat also, in ghee and 

Cneeii Ei]iffer« * 1 JjojaIi* ^ > 

fiusns, . . \ Seer. cloves ; Separate the meat from the 

gravy, and mix with the latter the 

sugar and tamarinds ; give it a boil and strain the gravy. 

Put the meat into a pan on the fire, with the cummin 



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448 INDIAN DOMESTIC XCONOMY 

seeds and spices and a little gravy, and boil the whole 
. until the gravy is dried up ; boil the rice in the gravy as 
usual ; when done, put it over the meat with a little ghee ; 
cover the saucepan close, and let it stand near the fire a 
short time. When you serve the pullow, put the raisins 
fried over it. 

NUCKODEE KOOFTHA PULLOW. 
«. ,^ ,,^ Slice the meat and put it into a 

Mutton, . . \\ Seer. . , «, . 

Rice, .... 1 „ saucepan with a su£Scient quantity of 

Suet, , . . STolalw. . ^ v j • • 

Eggs, ... 2 water, some suced onions, green gin- 

sl^hg;e«^8,' \^^^ ger, pounded salt, and coriander seeds, 

S?!**^*'- • • Sm_»»v ^^ gl^^ ai^cl tJie soyah greens nice- 

Green ginger, 2 TbUhs. , ^, _ , . , , , ., „ 

AimondB, . . \ Seer. Ij Washed and picked ; boil all io- 

SAffh>n| \\'iMMha.' gethcr Until the meat is done; then 

cio^°"*. \ * a ' " strain the gravy into a basin ; take 

cSlSSr°Seds * 6 " ^^* ^^ °*^^ *^* ^^^ ^^ * boghar 

Black pepper, ' 8 ,* in ghee with half the cloves ; after 

Coriander, . 3 Tolahs. , . . jj ,1 • j j 

which, add the cummin seeds and 
part of the spices. Parboil the rice in plain water; after 
which, dress it in the gravy with the cinnamon, take the 
saffron, grind it with a little water, and colour a part of the 
rice, which place over the meat, or on one side of the 
saucepan, and the plain rice on the other ; pour some ghee 
over the whole and cover the saucepan dose, and set it 
near the fire. Mince very fine the other half seer of meat 
and give it a boghar in ghee with some sliced onions, green 
ginger, salt, and coriander seeds; add a little water, and 
boil gently till the meat is done; then put the meat into 
a mortar with the suet, some chopped onions, pepper, salt, 
and the white of the eggs ; put the whole together into a 
paste, form it into small balls, roll them in the flour, and 
then give a boghar to them in ghee with cloves ; pound the 
almonds with a little water and the rest of the spices, and 
put it with the balls, which are now to be fried until pro- 
perly done, and when ready, placed over the puUow and 
served. 



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AND COOKE&T. 449 

NATIVE CAKES FOR EATING WITH CURRT, 8fC. 

NUAN A BAH KUMMACH. 

Take one seer of soojee^ one-fonith of a seer of ghee^ half 
a seer of milk^ four tolahs' weight of yeast, and one tolah 
of salt ; mix the milk with the soojee ; then add the ghee, 
yeast, and salt ; work it well, and set it aside to rise for 
a couple o^ hours ; then form it into two cakes ; sprinkle 
them over with khushkhush and aniseed, and bake them. 

KUMMACH A KASSAH. 

first prepare the fermenting liquid with . aniseed, one 
tolah ; boil it in a pint of water till reduced to one-half ; 
then strain it into a basin, and when cooled a little, add 
half a pound of peeled chennah (gram), and let it remain . 
in a warm place for nine or ten hours, to ferment. 
Should fermentation not take place, the liquid must be 
boiled again ; when ready knead it with eight ounces of 
wheat flour, and allow it to reinain a couple of hours to 
rise. Now take three pints of cow's milk and boil it 
down to one-half, or rather more ; then mix it with one 
pound of soojee and the same of wheat flour, and work it 
well ; then add to it the dough that has risen, and knead 
it well a second time with the salt ; keep it covered in a 
warm place for an hour ; then divide it into cakes ; smear 
the pan with ghee and bake them. ^ 

NAUNA SHEER MHAL. 



Mix the mydah well with the 
Mydah, - - 1 Seer. Milk and salt, and knead it for some 
!?J^ ■ ■ " * J', , t™« ; after which mix in the ghee, 
%^ , , , ] A^u lastly the kummjer ; work it 

Kummier, . . s „ ^^^ sigun^ and set it in a warm 

I 2 



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4S6 INDIAK DOMXSnp ECONOMY 

place, covered over with a doth, to rise.^ This will take 
from two to three hours. Form it into a flat cake, and 
sprinkle a little milk with a brush or feather over it be- 
fore being baked. 

Take four pice weight of dhall gram, soak it 
Leaven, in water, imd pound it with oae pee weight of 
aniseed, add this to a quarter of a seer of Puhee 
(curdled milk whey) with half a seer ^f whe*t flour ; work 
it well together ; wrap it in a wann cloth, and 9et it 
aside to rise for three or four hours. 

Ohs.^Yovn pice weight with two of salt is sn^oient 
to mix in the usual manner with one seer of flour, after 
being made into dough. 



. SHEER MHALL. (Another.) 

Mil the flour and coojee with the 
- \ Seer. milk ; work it well with the leaven 
T*\\ " and salt, and keep it to rise in a 
^^ "'^Ijp**^*^'**- warm place for three or four hours; 
Leaien, - 4< « form the bread, and rub a Ktfle ho- 
ney over it, and sprinkle with khushkhusk or sliced 
almonds, and bake it. 

5UMMIE11. 

This is a sort of leaven used by Mussulmans for raising 
their bread or cakes. Take aniseed thre^ mashas, dhye, 
a sufficient quantity to make flfteen tolahs' weight of my- 
dah into a soft dough ; soak the aniseed in the dhye for 
ten or twelve hours and strain it; then mix it with the 
flour and set it aside to rise for a couple of hours more, 
when it is fit for use. 

BAKA KHANA. 

Mix the flour with two-thirds of 
Myd»ii. - - 1 Sitt^. the milk weH together; blanch and 

Milk, - - - 4 » . , 

Ghee,. - - 15 Toiahs. pound to a pastc lu a mortar twelve 
aat, - - - - 5 KMhw. 



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AKD COOKERY. 451 

Uttmmier, - s "^oifthf. tolahs' Weight of the almonds with 
ASondf, '. 16 „ A Uttle milk to keep them from 
oiling; then by degrees add the re- 
mainder of fhe jtailk and strain it ihto the dongh; take 
the yolk of the egg and ghee, and mix all well together ; 
lastly, add the kummier and set it aside in a warm place 
to rise for a couple of hoars; then form it into a flat 
cake, the shape of a horde-^hoe; brush it over with milk, 
and sprinkle the remaining almonds, chopped fine, over it, 
or some khushkhush seed; place t&e cake on a tin and 
bake it. 



BAKA KHANA. (Another.) 

Mix the soojee, cream, and leaven 
3o^ - 4 Seer. well together ; add the gait and ghee, 

Ohee, - i^^' ^®^k ^^ ^^^ whole into a mass for 

ittwen* - 4 ^^ ,7*** ^ Jtonie tiiBe, set it aside to rise. When 
the leaven has taken its proper ^ect, 
make it into a flat cake; rub some honey or duhee over it, 
and dprinkle with sliced almonds. 

fAU^UDS. 

Take a seer of the flour of moong ka dhcdl or oodug 
and sift it well^ and add to it the following ingredients: — 

These are to be pounded fine and 

BU& Mpp«r/ 9 1' Wen ktieaded into dough ; set it asidd 

tat tax hourfr and kn6atf it agam ; 
afberwflCrds beat it with a round stone or in a mortar until 
it becomes of a proper consistency to be malleable and 
made into very thin cakes ; then take a small ball of it 
and slightly smear it over with ghee ; spread it with a 
roller upon a smooth board, the thinner the better. 

These cakes, if kept in a dry place, will be good for a 
long time, and when to be used, should only be grilled or 



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452 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. 

toasted without ghee or butter^ and served quite warm 
and crisp. 

MADRAS HOPPEBS, OR OPAS. 

Wash and clean a seer of rice very nicely and laj it 
upon a cloth in the sun ; when perfectly dry, pound it in 
a mortar to a fine flour ; then put it into a pan and mix 
it up with sweet toddy into a' paste, and let it remain for 
at least twelve hours, or all the night. Next day take 
two cocoanuts and scrape the inside and squeeze the 
juice into the rice paste, mixing both together; then place 
an iron or earthen pan ^ on a rather slow fire; rub the 
inside of the pan with ghee, and put as much as you please 
of the cake in it; cover it over with a similar pan and 
place some embers on the top; in a short time it will be 
baked, which can only be known by lifting the top; if 
not done enough, let it remain a little longer, but do 
not turn it. 

The yolk of eggs with a little suga^ is sometimes added 
to the rice, with the toddy well beaten together. This 
makes the cakes yellow and sweet, whereas the others 
are quite white and plain inside, and the under part 
only browned. 

CHUPATEES 

Are made by mixing flour and water together, with 
a little salt, into a paste or dough, kneading it well; 
sometimes ghee is added. They may also be made with 
nulk instead' of water. They are flattened into thin 
cakes with the hand, smeared with a small quantity of 
gheci and baked on an iron pan over the fire. 



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CHAPTEE XXIX- 



WEIGHTS AND ME ABUSES. 

The following table shows the Weights and Measures 
referred to in •this work : — 



19 Grains eqnal to 1 Masha. 



5 Maslias 
12 M^shas* 
3 Tolahs 
li PoUamor^ 
Tolahs ' 



Drachm. 

Tolah. 

Pollam. 



5 

2 

16 
2 



1 Chittack. 



Drachms „ 

Ounces „ 

do. 

Pounds „ 



Ounce. 

Chittack. 

Ponnd. 



5 Seers equal to 1 Pussaree. 



8 Pussarees 
1 Maund 
4 Soup ladles is 
8 Table-spoonfuls 
A Table-spbonfnl 
A Dessert do. 
A Tea do« 



1 Maund. 
, 40 Seers. 
, 1 Pint. 
, 1 Ladle. 
, i an Ounce. 
» * jj » 



A Table-spoonfiil of flour is, as 
near as possible, half an ounce. 

Obs. — The variations in the weights at different places 
are so great that the above are given as a standard, which 
will be found sufficiently correct to agree with the quan- 
tities laid down in the receipts. 



BOMBAY PRICE CUERENT. 

AVllUGE OV PRICES POB THRBE MONTHS OF THE YEAE 1848. 



ARTICLES. 


PRICES. 


- 


Jan. 


May. 


Nov.' 


Prime pieces 1st sort 10 lbs 

do 2d do. 12 do. 

do 3d do. U do. 

Brisket and round Ist do. 12 do. 


». A. P. 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 


B. A. P. 
10 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 


B. A. P. 
10 

10 
10 

loo 


do 2d do. 14 do. 


10 


do 3d do. 16 do. 

McatforSoup 16 do. 


10 
10 



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454 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



ARTICLES. 



Shin 1st Bort each. 

do 2d do. do. 

Ox Tails do. 

Tongue lam.... do. 

do smiQl.... do. 

Heart large.... do. 

do small.... do. 

Marrow-£one do. 

Gx Palates do. 

Peetyfonr do. 

Suet per pound. 

VEAL, SMALL. 

Hind Quarter 1st sort 3 lbs, 

do. 2d do. 3| do. 

do 3d do. 4 do. 

fore Quarter 1st do. 3i do. 

do 2d do. 4 do. 

do 8d do. 4J do. 

VEAli, LARGE. 

Hind Quarter Ist sort 4 fte. 

do 2d do. 5 do. 

do. 8d do. 6i do. 

ForeQuarter 1st do. & do. 

do 2d do. 6i do. 

do 3d do. 6 do. 

Head Ist do. ...each. 

do 2d do. do. 

do 8d do. do. 

Feet, four Ist do 

do 2d do 

do 8d do 

Liver a&d Heart.... Ist do. eacli. 

do. 2d- do. da 

do. 3d do. do 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



B. A. P. 



MUTTON FOR EUROPEANS. 
Saddle 1st sort per ft. 

^J^^ ^^^'"^''"'1 l^do. do. 
uidNecE ) 

Breast Ist do. 

Saddle •...2d do. 

Leg. Lorn, Shoulder,] ^^ ^^ 

and Neck 3 

Breast -....2d do. 

3d do. do.| 



Mat. 



B. A. P. 



1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 



1 
1 
Of 1 







12 
10 
8 



3 

2 

1 6 

2 

' 'l 

1 3 

1 61 



1 
1 
1 

12 
10 
8 



Nov. 



B. A. P. 







4| 



3 

3 



6| 3 

2 

3 

2 

1 





6 


4 
6 
6 
















0J> 



1 

1 
1 

1 

o| 1 

1 



3 

2 

1 
2 






Old 



a 6 

4 
4 

















12 
10 



3 

2 

1 
2 



1 



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AND COOKERY. 



456 



ARTICLES. 



PfllCBS. 



Jan. 



May. 



Nov. 



^iS!^..^?!^^!':'!^ sort per fii. 

BreMt... ........... ... ... ... ...8rd io. do, 

ToDfOB each. 

JkmB 

Head 



B. 4. P. 



13 



B. A. p. 



yeet|F(mr 

liTer and Heart 

Kidneys 

Sucfc per pound. 



MUTTON FOR NATIVES. 

fint 8oxt 13 ponnda. 

Seocmd^o 14 do. 

ThirJ do ]6 do. 

Heai feet, livp^r, and heart - 

Srains each. 



KID, SMALL. 
Hiii4Q9ai^P 1st aort 4 fta. 



do. 3nd do. 

do. Srd do. 



^ do. 
5 do 



lorcQnarter Ist do. 4J do. 

do. 9nd do. 5 do. 

do. Srd do. 6^ do. 



KID, liARGB. 
Hind Qaarter lat sort ^ Iba. 



do 2nd do. 5' 

do ?rd do. 6 

Fore Qnarter 1st do. 6 

do 2nd do. 6 

do. 8rd do. 7 

Head, feet« Uver, and heart , 



do. 



LAMB, SMALL. 

HiniOoarier Ist sort H fte. 

do 2nd do. 6 do. 

do. 8rd do. 7 do. 

fore Quarter Ist do. 6 do. 

do. 2nd do. 6^ do. 

do Srd do. 7i do, 



1 

/ 
1 


1 


1 


4 



10 

10 

10 

8 

4 



B. A. P. 



*0 1 8 



4 



10 

10 

10 

8 

4 












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456 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



ARTICLES. 



LAMB, LARG£. 

Hind Quarter Ist sort 6^ lbs. 

do *. 2nd do. 7 da 

do 3rd do. 7i do. 

Fore Qujffter Ist do. 7 do. 

do.. 2nd do. 74 do. 

do 3rd do. 8 do. 

Head, feet, liver and heart 



PORK, FRESH AND SALT. 

Pork 10 lbs. 

Pig, roasting, large size each. 

do. do. small do do. 

Pig's head 10 lbs. 

Sansages 4 do. 

Trotters, large per four. 

do. .smau do- 
Pig's Liver and Heart .,. 

Salt Pork, country 10 lbs. 

POULTRY. 

Geese each. 

Turkey cock, Bombay do. 

do. hen, do do. 

do. cock, Goa do. 

do. hen, do do. 

Fowls, large, Surat, dp. 

do. small, do do. 

do. large, Sindey ....each. 

do. small do do 

do. large, Bombay do. 

do. small, do do. 

Chickens, large < per dozen. 

do. small do. 

Ducks, large each. 

do. small da 

Hens' eggs do 

Ducks' do.... do 



FRUITS OF SORTS, 
lies, Bombay Ist sort each. 



do, do 2nd do. do- 
do. G(» 1st do. do- 
do, do. do 2nd do. do* 

Pomelos 1st do. do. 

do 2nd do. do. 




PRICES. 



Jan. 



B. A. P. 



3 

3 
2 
2 

1 
2 
1 




2 

1 12 
8 
6 





12 



May. 



B. A. P. 



1 12 

10 



1 
12 
4 

4 

1 
12 



Nov. 



S. A. p. 








8 

8 


8 
6 




3 
2 

2 

1 

2 

1 









2 

1 12 

8 

6 







1 
12 
4 

2 

1 
12 



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AND COOKEET. 



467 



ARTICLES. 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



May. 



Nov. 



DRY FRUITS, OF SORTS. 

Guavas 1st sort each. 

do 2nd do. do. 

OiaiDges 1st do. do. 

do 2nd do. do. 

Black G»pc8 per seer. 

Green do •• 

Water Melons, large each 

do. do. small do. 

Musk do. large do. 

do. do. small do. 

PlamtainSy red, large do. 

do. do. small ^... do. 

do. yellow, large do. 

do. do. small do. 

Sweet Limes, large do. 

do. do. small do. 

LJBies do. 

Potatoes, Neilgherries, large per seer. 

do. do* small do. 

do. Mahableswar, large do. 

do. do. small do. 

do. PooBa, large do. 

do. do. small do. 

Yams do, 

Onions do. 

Enms, fine per seer weight. 

do. coarse do. do. 

Cmiants, fine do. do. 

do. coarse do. do. 

Primes, new do. do. 

* do. old do. do. 

Afanonds, 1st sort do. do. 

do. 2d do do. do. 



BREAD, FLOUR, ROLONG, &c. 

ALoaf of 1st poiz 12 o«. each 

do. of 2d do 13 oz. do. 

do. brown do 32 c 

do. do. do 16 do. 

Iknir Wheat per seer measBre. 

Bolong. do. do. 

Sajro^fine do. weight. 

Qo. coarse do. do. 

Arrowroot do. do. 

do. coarse do. do. 



B. A. p. 



B. A. p. 



B. A. p. 





10 
8 



1 
0- 1 




1 
3 
3 
1 
1 

2 

1 6 

k8 



2 6 

2 

2 6 

2 



1 6 



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458 



INDIAN BOnsnC ECONOtfT 



ARTICLES. 



MILK AND BUTTER. 

CoVs Milk per seer measure, 

do. Butter per cop of 2 oz, 

Bnffaloe's Milk per seer measure. 

do. Butter per cup of 2 oz. 



FIREWOOD. 

Babool per candy of 28 mds. 784 fts. 

£hair do do. do. 

Aine do. do. 

KurmeU do. do. 



OIL, CANDLES, AND SOAP. 

Cocoanut Oil, 1st sort, per mauud of 28 lbs. 

do. do. 2d do do do. 

Jeenglee,^ do do. 

Erandia. do do. 

Candles, Europe do do. 

do. Goa do do, 

do. Cochin, do do. 

Soap, Country ....do do. 

do. do coarse do do. 



SUGAB, OF SORTS. 

Pinfa Sugar per md. of 28 !bs. 

Sufar Candy, 1st sort do do. 

do. do. 2d do. do do, 

do. do. 3d do do do. 

Soft Suffar, 1st do do do. 

do. do. 2d do do do. 

Brown do do. 

Jagree do do. 



GHEE, OF SORTS. 

Ghee, Kurrachee per md. of 28 lbs. 

do. Surat do do 

do. Bhownuggur do do. 

do. Balghauty do do. 

do. Rajapoory do do, 

do. Ghauty do do. 

do. Jaffrarad do do. 



PRICES. 



r 






N 


Jan. 




Mat 




B. 


lev. 


B. A. 


P. 


K. A. 


P. 


A. P. 


1 


4 


1 


4 





1 6 


1 


2 


1 


3 





1 4 


1 


3 


I 


3 





1 4 


I 


2 


1 


2 





1 2 


2 8 





3 





2 


4 


2 6 





2 8 





2 


8 


2 8 





2 4 





2 


4 








2 8 





2 


8 


2 13 





2 11 





2 


6 


2 12 





2 10 





2 


4 


2 8 





2 5 





2 


4 


2 6 





2 3 





2 


3 


22 





24 





20 





19 





20 





19 





20 





19 





20 





1 4 





1 4 





1 











1 





14 


7 





9 





14 











7 





5 


8 


5 8 





4 12 





5 





5 





4 8 





4 


8 


4 8 





4 4 





4 


6 


3 4 





3 





3 





3 





2 12 





2 12 


1 12 





1 12 





1 


8 


6 





5 ]2 





5 


8 


6 8 





6 8 





5 12 


6 





6 8 





5 


8 


6 4 





6 4 





5 





6 





4 4 





4 


8 


6 





4 8 





4 


8 


6 8 





6 8 





6 12 



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AND COOKERY. 



459 



AETICLES. 



GBAIN, OP SOETS. 

Wheat, Hansia per. Cdy. of 8 paras. 

do. Jambooseer Ist sort do. do. 

do. do 2d do do. do. 

do. Bhowiuiggar...l8t do do. do. 

do. do. ...2d do do. do. 

do. Ghanty do. do. 

do. Sindey do. do. 

Gram, Jambooseer do. do. 

do. Bengal do. do. 

do. Gho^aree, Ist sort do. do. 

do. 00. 2d do. do. do. 

do. Ghanty 1st do do. do. 

do. do. 2d do do. do. 

Wooreed, Ghanty do. do. 

do. Cutchey do. do. 

do. Malabar... do. do. 

do. Ghogaree do. do. 

Mug, do do. do. 

Matt, do do. do. 

do. Ghanty do. do. 

da Cutchey do. do. 

Mug, do do. do. 

Bazaree, Ghanty do. do. 

do. Bhownuggur, 1st sort do. do. 

do. do 2d do do. do. 

do. Bajapoor per candy. 

Barley Ist sort do. do. 

do 2d do do. do. 

Toor Ist da do. do. 

do 2d do do. do. 

Joaree do. do. 

Naeheny do. do. 

Vattuia do. do. 

Chowley per para 

Dall, Broach do 

do. Sorat do 



UNBOILED BICE. OP SOETS. 

Bice, Patna per para.. 

do. Sindey, red do. 

do. Rows do. .. 

do. Red do. .. 

BEATEN BICE, OP SOETS. 

Bioe, Jerasaol, Ist sort per para.. 

do. do. 2d do do. ., 



PIECES. 



Jan. Mat. 



B. A. p. 



21 

18 

17 

14 

12 

15 

13 

17 



16 

15 

16 

15 

13 

15 

14 

16 



13 

12 

13 



9 

16 

14 

11 

14 

13 

18 

16 

7 

7 

15 

2 

3 

4 



020 



B. A. p. 



18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
16 
13 
15 
14 
14 
13 
13 
16 
14 
15 

13 
12 
13 
22 
11 
16 
15 
12 
14 
13 
15 
11 
9 
8 
15 



2 8 
2 4 
2 12 



2 



1 12 
18 



3 8 
8 



2 2 


2 

1 12 



Nov. 



B. A. P. 



22 

18 

17 

15 

13 

12 

11 



16 
11 
14 
13 



013 

0\12 

14 

13 

12 
14 
13 
14 
10 
14 
20 
11 
15 
13 
10 
10 
9 
15 
13 
9 
8 
15 



2 12 

2 4 

3 



2 4 


2 

1 10 



3 8 3 8 
3 4 3 4 



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460 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



ARTICLES. 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



Bice, Yemle 1st sort per para . 

do. do. Sd do do. .. 

do. SindejRatra do. .. 

do. do. Spondee do. .. 

do. Patna do. . 

do. Row do. . 



MANQALORB RICE, OP SORTS. 

Rice Unboiled Ist sort per robin... . 

do. do. 2d do do 

do. Boiled 1st do do 

do. do. 2d do do 



BENGAL RICE, OF SORTS. 

Bice Unboiled Ist sort {^leslbS! 

do. do. 2d do do. do. 

do. Boiled 1st do. do. do. 

do. do. 2d do do. do. 

BATTY. 



Batty Patna per moora of 25 paras., 
do. Raw do. do. 

do. Red do. do. 



SUNDRIES. 

Saltpetre, Europe per md. of 28 lbs .. 

do. Bengal do. do. 

do. Rajapoor do. do. 

Pepper, black 1st sort per seer... 

do. do. 2d do do. 

Garlic 1st sort do. 

do. 2d do do. '.[ 

Camphor per pound 

Table Salt do. seer..;;! 

Common White Salt do. pjlee... 

do. Black do. do. ... 

Ginger do. seer 



K. A. P. 



2 12 
2 8 



24 
21 
18 



2 12 
2 4 
2 
1 12 



5 8 

6 
4 4 
4 



8 

8 
2 

1 
10 

8 
7 

1 
1 
10 



Mat. 



B. A. p. 

3 

2 12 


3 12 
2 8 
2 4 



2 8 
2 4 

2 

1 12 



5 12 

4 8 

4 

3 12 



026 
022 
021 









4 



8 

8 
2 
1 


6 
1 
1 
1 




Nov. 



B. A. 

3 
% 18 
O 
8 12 
2 8 
2 4 



2 12 

2 8 

2 4 

2 



5 8 

4 8 

4 4 

4 



25 
23 O 
21 



2 8 

3 

1 12 



VEGETABLES. 

GeneraDj sold according to the quantity in the Market, and the 
choice of the Vegetables. 



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AND COOKERY. 46 L 

BOMBAY MONEY; WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Accounts are kept in Rapees^ Quarter, Beas; or in Rupees, 
Annas and Pies. 

Meal and Imaginary Coins. 



100 Beas or 4 annas are equal to 


1 Quarter of a Bupee 


4 Quarters or 16 annas are equal 


to 1 Bupee, 2«. at par. 


2 Beas are equal to . 


1 Urdee or pie. 


4 do. » >, • 


. 1 Doogany or 2 Pies. 


6 do- or 3 Urdees (pies) . 


1 Pice. 


8 do. or 4 do. (pies) 


• 1 Fuddea. 


4 Pice or 12 Urdees (pies) . 


1 Anna. 


16 do. or 4 annas 


.J 1 Quarter. 


32 do. or Saunas . 


1 Half Bupee. 


64 do. or 16 annas 


. 1 Rupee. 


15 Rupees 


1 Gold Mohur. 



Gold Coins... Mohur of 18S0, weighs 180 grains, value 15 Rs. 
Silver do. ...Rupee, half Rupee, and quarter Rupee. 
Copper do. ...Double pice, pice, and one-third Pice. 

4 Pice... 1 Anna. 

16 Annas 1 Bupee. 

and 15 Rupees 1 Gold Mohur. 



Accounts are kept in Bombay in Co's. Rs. quarters and reas« viz- 
100 Reas (rs)...l Quarter, (Q) or (4 annas.) 
4 Quarters or 16 annas... 1 Rupee (Rs.) 

The intrinsic value of a Rupee, coined into^English money, 
(less the Mint duty of 4s. per lb.) leaves Is.f lOd. 2f. after 
deducting the Freight and Insurance to England, Charges, 
Commissions, &c. 



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462 INDIAN DOMESTIC BCONOMT 

On the same calculation, it is equal to 2 francs^ 34 cents 
i^jigL of French money. 



NEW WEIGHTS AND LIQUID MEASUBES. 

1 Tolah = 180 Grains Troy. 

80 Tolahs= 1 Seer. = 14,400 
30 Seers = I IndianMd.= 576,000 

lbs. Avoirdupois. 
Then as:= 7,000 Grains Troy are exactly equal to 1 
1 Seer of= 14,400 Grains Troy is exactly equal to S 2.S5 
1 Md. of=576,00O Grains Troy is exactly equal to 8 8S.0 



And it follows therefore, lbs. Avoirdupois. 

That 85 seers are exactly equal to 72 „ „ 

,, 7 Indian Maunds=wt. 57 or 676 „ „ 

„ 49 do. = „ 399 or 4,082 „ „ 

„ 245=9 tons = „ 1995 or 20,160 „ „ 



The following simile and accurate Rules for the conversion 
of new Indian weight into avoirdupois weight, and vice vers&, 
deducted from the foregoing data, are given in the volume of 
useful Tables published by Mr. James Prinsep, in Calcutta in 
1834, page 66. 

Eule I. To convert Indian weight into Avoirdupois loeigkl. 

1. Multiply the weight in seers by 72 and divide by 35, 
the result will be the weight in lbs. avoirdupois. 

Bule n. To convert Avoirdupois toeigit into Indian weiffAt. 

1. Multiply the weight in lbs. avoirdupois by 85 and 
divide by 72, the result will be the weight in seers. 

2. Or, multiply the weight in cwts. by 49 and divide 
by S6, the result will be the weight in maunds. 



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AND COOKEKT. 



468 



The Ihla or Sicca weight to be equal to 1809 grains 
Ttoj, and the other denominations of weight to be de- 
rived from this unit, according to the following scale. 

8 Buttees=l Masha= IS Troy grains* 
12 Ma8ha8=l Tolah = 186 do. 
80 Tolahs (or sicca weight)=l Seer=2i lbs. Troy. 
40 Seers =1 Mun (or Bazar Maund) 100 lbs. Troy. 

These last mentioned weights having been disposed of^ 
it will be sufficient to give the following Table of the 
large or Bazar weights. 

5 Tolahs or Sicca weight, = 1 Chittack^ or Grs. Troy 900 

16 Chittacks =1 Seer or fts. Troy 2i 

40 Seer = 1 Mamid...or lbs. Troy 100 

The weights of the several Presidencies of India, Tra- 
vancore, China, and England, compared with the new 
Indian Maund introduced into Bengal by Regulation YII. 
of 1833, and adopted in the New Tariff valuation under 
the Bombay Presidency, (10th December, 1840). 



lb. deels. 

The Bombay Maund of 40 Seers = 28 ") Sa ija 

42 „ = 29 400 S ^^ 
Surat Maund of 40 „ = 81 833 

41 „ = 38 266 

42 „ = 39 200 
43i „ =40 366 
44 „ =x 41 666 

The Bengal Factoir Maund ... = 74 666 

„ Bazar Maund = 82 133 

The Madras Maund = 






fc<»QO 



■I 



Mdt. decls, 
r 2. 938775 
2. 798883 
2. 204081 
2. 156323 
2. 099125 
2. 038456 

2. 003710 
1. 102040 
1. 001855 

3. 291428 



lb, 



The Bombay Candy of 20 Mds. 

22 „ 

The Sural Candy of 20 „ 

21 „ 

The Madras Candy of 20 ][ 
The Travancore Candy of 20 „ 

The China Pecul 

The English Cwt 

The English Ton of 20 Cwt 



dedfl, 

= 560 ^^ 

= 688 
= 616 
= 740 666 
= 784 
= 221 333 
= 500 
^ 640 
= 133 333 
== 112 
=2240 




Mds. dedi. 
f 6. 805555 
7. 145833 
7. 486111 
9. 074074 
9. 527777 
9. 281481 

6. 076388 

7. 777777 
1. 620370 

361111 



H4 0^30 



27. 222220 



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464 INDIAX DOMESTIC ECOKOHT 

GOLDSMITHS' WEIGHT IN GUZEBAT. 

dwts. gn. decls. 

5 ChawuU (grains of rice)...l Euttee 1 9166 Troy* 

3 Euttees 1 Waal 5 7600 

16 Waals 1 Guddeana.3 «0 

2 Guddeana, or 32 Waals....! Tolah 7 16 

PEABL WEIGHT IN BOMBAY. 

* dwts. gn^ dedi. 

«0 Vasa , 1 Euttee 1 951 Troy. 

8 Euttees 1 Waal 5 858 

24 Euttees, or 8 Waals 1 Tank 1 «« 824 

32 Waals : 1 Tolah 7 19 296 

DEY MEASUKE. 

The large dry. measure in Bombay for Salt is the Phara 
containing, 

10^ Adholee = 1 Phara. 

100 Pharas = 1 Anna. 

16 Annas = 1 Eash or 40 Tons. 

The Phara measure, when used, is struck off even with 
a run by a rod made for the purpose. 

The small dry measure for grains is the seer, whereof 

4 Seers = 1 Puheelee. 

17 Puheelees = 1 Phara. 

8 Pharas = 1 Candy. 

Batty or Eice in the husk is reckoned by Moora of 25 
Pharas. 

LIQUID MEASUEE. 
The liquid seer measure used in Bombay for Spirits, 
Arrack, and Milk, is equal in weight to 60 Eupees or 1 lb. 
10 oz. 7 dwts. 12 grains Troy. The maund consists of 40 
of these seers, and the seer is subdivided into half seers, quar- 
ter seers, and latter into two measures, called now-tanks, or 
nine-tanks tuchka. The measure of Oil corresponds with the 
Maund of 28 lbs. : that is, the contents weigh that, and the 
contents of the seer consequently weigh 11 oz. 4 dwts. 



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ANP COOKERY. 



465 



THE COMMERCIAL WEIGHTS OF INDIA, 



COMPARED WITH THE BRITISH InDIAN UnIT OF WeIGHT 
AND WITH THE AVOIRDUPOIS SysTEM OF ENGLAND, 

Selected from Prinsep^s Tables. 



Place. 



Denomination of Weights. 



I, 



.a:§-s 



-2 

o 



•I da a 



AEKIDABilD 

{QMgerat.) 

AHHID^rUOOUK 



BlEODA 



(Browr*,) 



BiLfiAini {Mah- 
Ttdta Comiry.) 



BOICBIT 

Money wei 
Commercial wt. 



6run Measure. 



BlOiCH 

{Omserat) 

CSINDOU 

CocHiH {lHala 
Colombo 

iCeyUm) 



Tolah=82 Vals or 96 Ruttees, 
Seer (diTided into ^ and i seer.) 

Maundof 40 Seers 

Tolah=12 Massas or 96 gonge.. 
Seer, corn wt. (of 80 Ankoay 

Ba.) 

Maond of 40 Seers 

Seer of capacity (110 Ankosy 

Bs,) 

Mannd do. = 12 Pylces = 48 

Seei« ., 

Seer (pergunna) 42 ,£abashye 

R« 

Mannd of 42 Seers. 

Candy of 20 Maunds 

The town Seer has 41 Baba- 

shye Rs 

The Sesamum Md. is of 40 

Seers 

Seer of 24 Shappoory Rs. (174 

grains.) 

Manndof 44 Seers 

Tolah of 30 Canteray Fanams.... 
Tank of 24 Enttees for Pearls.... 

sight, Tolah (formerly 179 gnuns.) 

r Seer of SO pice or 72 Tanks... 

^Maundof 40 Seers 

(.Candy of 20 Maunds 

rSeerof2Tiprees 

J Parah of 16 Peilies or Ad- 

j holies 

LCandy of 80 Parahs 

Parah Salt measare, 6 gallons. 
Seer for liquids, 60 Bombay 

Rupees 

Maund = 40 Seers, of 40 Rs.. 

Maund for Grain, 41 do. 

Maund for Cotton, 4d Seere....... 

Seer of 74 Ankosy. Rs. 10 Mas.... 

Seer of Capacity, 72 Tanks , 

Bi[aund,64 Seers 

:ala- Maund of 25 lbs. of 42^ Seers.... 

Candy or Bahar 

Garce (B2 cwt 2 qrs. 16^ lb.).. 
Mercalydiy measure= 10 Seers.. 
Farah, do 



lb. oz. dr. 
grs. 1U3.440 
1 14i 

42 4 13 
grs. 188.4 

1 15 8 
78 15 12 

2 11 6 

130 2 

1 015.8 

44 9 10 

S92 1 4 

1 9.5 

42 710.8 

9 8 
26 3 15 

176.25 grs. 
72 grs. 

180 grs. 




28 
•560 



1 8 15 





113.2 



44 12 12.8 
358 6 4 
1607 6 c,i 

1 8 S\ 

40 8 12 

41 9 5 
43 9 9i 

1 13 8 

2 5 7 
149 12 — 

27 2 11 
500 — 
9256 8 
2.88 Gallons, 
5.76 do. 

l2 



Tolahs. 

1,075 

41.091 

1.047 

76.562 

105.425 
41.186 
40.286 

23.091 

0*.976 

0.400 

1.000 

27.222 

24!636 



60 
39.408 



71.702 
90.990 



Muns. 
0.5140 

0.9599 

1.5814 

0.5420 
10.8411 

(0.5036) 

0.5162 

0.3189 



0.3402 
6.8056 
0,3104 

0.5444 
4.3553 



0.7448 
0.4928 
0.5052 
0.6397 
(0.8963) 

1.8200 

0.3301 

6.0764 

112.4921 



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466 



INDIAN DOHttnC KCONOMT AND COOKIKT. 



TlflBt. 



BttOSBiiiation of Wdghti. 






•E 



|i1 



lb. OS. dr. 

DuiXWAM Kneba Sem of 2 Tanki 8 8| 

(JoMftay.) Pacha Seer » 116 Madras Bs. 9 IB 11^ 
Dhoia, liqikid Measnrs, 12 

Seers 

Qok Quintal, of 4 ArobM 120 6 6 

(JKaiakir.)Caiid7»ofS0Haimds 495 

Polamof 9 Pondicberry Bnpees 

1 casb. 1624 Grains 

Mam 28 8 1 

ICaxoalou Seer of 24 Bj. Bs. 42.79 Grains 9 18 

(ifo2ater.)Mamid market of 46 Seers 28 2 4 

Do. Company's (16 Rs. hea- 
vier) 28 8 18 

Do. for sugar » 40 Seers...... 24 7 8 

Seer of oapadty » 84 Bombay 

Bs — 

HfkumL Seer of 79 Ank. Bs. 4 Mathas. I 15 4| 

( J km t diimgt n ir ,) Seer of capacity 99 Ank. Bs. 

2MaBhas 2 7 2t 

Seer 72 Tanks or Tolas (80 Ank. 

Bs.) 1 15 8i 

Mannd of 124 Seers, for Ghee, 

he 24 10 

Mannd of 14 do. for Metals 27 9 

Pollah of 120 Seers for Iron, &e. 286 9 

Mannd of 84 do. for Grain 94 9 

Olnnda or old Dnteh Ponnd. 1 1, 

) Mannd of 25 old do 27 5 ^ 

Tolam of 100 Pol. for Cotton..... 16 11 5.6 

Do. forSpioes 15 97-8 

Tolah of 12 Mashas.. 187.8 grains 

(aiicmie.)Seerof25Tblahs 15 

Mannd of 40 Seen 87 8 

TkLUCHiuiT Seer of 80 Snrmt Bnpees 8 9| 

(JCaM«*.) Mannd of 64 Seen 82 11 



Pooka. 



Qmuon 

r 



SUBAY 



8 
8 
8 



Tolabs. 
20.0 
116.0 



9.022 
23ii50 



84.000 
37.080 

05.018 

76.460 



42.635 



1.040 
87.456 

19.848 



(0.2488) 
(1.4488) 



1.6717 
6.0156 



0.2817 

0.841t 

0.3480 
O.3073 

(0.9504) 

(1.1877) 

0.9481 

0.2994 
0.3358 
2.8749 
1.1494 

0.^825 
0.2089 
0.1884 



(0 



. «57) 
[0.4558) 
[0J8481) 
(0^72) 



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CHAPTER XXX. 



BENGAL PRICE CURRENT, 



ATBK&eX OP PSICK8 POK THBBB MOKTHS OP TH» TBA» 1848. 



ARTICLES. 


PRICES. 


Jan, 


Mat. 


Nov. 


Bread, Bitteri 
lilk, te. 

Bread. 1st sort, 9 

double loaves for 

2d do. 10 do. do 

Sddo. 19 do. do. 

Biscuit, 1st sort, 2 

seers for 

2d do. 8 seers 
for 


B. A. p. B. A. p. 

1 0@0 
1 . 0^0 
10 

10 00 

10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
100000 
10 

10 

12 1 10 

6 

10 

1 
10 
10 

10 

4 5 


B. A. p. B. A. P. 

1 0@0 
10 
10 

10 

10 
10 

10 

10 

10 
10 
10 00 

10 

12 I 10 

6 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 5 


B. A. ?. B. A. ?. 

1 0@0 
10 
10 00 

100 00 

10 


3d do. 4 seers for 
Muffins, 16 for... 
Crumpets, 16 for... 
Butter, Ist sort, 13 

curchas for. 

2d. do. 18 do. 

8d. do. 30 do. 

curcha 1st sort 4 

curchas for.... 

preserved, per 

5eer 

Butter milk, good, 
per seer. 


10 
10 
100000 

10 
10 
10 

10 

12 

06000 


MiUk, cow, 1st sort 

8 seers for 

5d do. 10 do. do.] 
^3d do. 12 do. do. 
dHuted, 16do.do. 
goat, 4 do. do. 
ass, 1 do. do. 


10 
10 
10 00 
10 
10 00 
4 5 00 



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468 



INDUN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



ARTICLES. 



Bnkher's leat. 



Tenison. 

Procurable, if 
whole Deer be 
subscribed for 

Hind quarters ea... 

Fore quarters, do. 

Head and Neck .. 



Beef. 

Sirloins, 1st sort, 

each 

2d 4o. do. 
Ribs, 1st sort, each. 
Ribs, 2d do. do... 
Rumps, 1st sort, 

each 

2d do. do 
Half Rump, 1st 

sort, each 

2d do. do 
Rump Steaks, 1st 

sort, each , 

2d do. do. 
Rumps, 1st sort, 

each 

2d do. do. 
Briskets, 1st sort, 

each 

2d do. do. 

Rounds, 1st sort, 

each as to size... 

2d do. do. 

£dge-bone, 1st 

sort, each 

2d do. do. 
Shin Beef, 1st 

sort, each 

2d do. do 
Head (no Tongue) 

each 

Paktes, 1st sort, 

- each 

Tails, per dozen... 



PRICES. 



J^n. 



K. A. F. B. A. P. 



K. A. P. K. A. P. 



Mat. 



R. A. P. K. A. P. 



18 0@20 OlS 0@20 

14 16 14 16 

280 300280 300 



3 12 
18 
2 12 

1 10 

4 4 

2 

2 12 

1 4 

12 

7 

3 8 

2 

3 
14 

3 

18 

1 12 
10 

3 6 
19 



4 Oi 3 
1 12 
3 
1 12 



4 8 

2 2 

3 

1 8 

14 

7 6 

4 00 

2 4 

3 4 
18 

3 4 

1 12 

1 13 
12 

3 
2 



3 6 4 



6 
3 




4 



8 
18 
2 40 
1 10 



3 12 

1 12 

2 8 
1 12 



4 4 
2 

2 8 
140 

12 

7 

3 8 
2 

2 8 
14 

2 4 

14 

1 12 
1 

3 6 
19 



8 
2 


8 



14 
7 





40 



2 12 
18 



8 
8 



14 
1 12 

4 C 
2 



3 6 4 



6 
3 




4 



Nov. 



18 
14 



0^20 
16 
8 3 



3 12 4 

1 8 1 12 

2 8 2 12 
1 8 1 10 



4 


4 
00 



8 

2 

8 

2 



12 
7 



8 
8 



2 4 
14 



14 

7 6 

3 

1 12 

2 8 
15 



4 


12 




8 
2 

13 
2 



3 6 3 9 

19 2 

3 6 4 

6 

3 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND COOKEKT. 



469 



ARTICLES. 



Tongue, 1st sort, 

each 

3d do. do. 

Heart, 1st sort, ea. 

2d do. do. 

Kidneys each. 

Feet, good per 

dozen , 

Suet, per seer. 



B. A. p. K. A. p. 



Veil-lilf 
firowi^ or lye. 

Hind-Quarters, 
1st sort, each.... 
2d. do. do 
Fore Quarters, 1st 

sort, each 

2d. do. do 

Leg, 1st sort, each. 

2d. do. do. 

Loin, 1st sort, each 

2d do. do. 

Shoulder, 1st sort, 

each 

2d do. do., 
Breast, 1st sort 

each 

2d do. do. 
Sveet Bread, 1st 

sort, each 

Sweet Bread, 2d 

sort, each 

Head each. 

Feet, 4 for 



Teal-SMall. 

Hind Quarters, 
1st sort, each.. 

2d do. do. 

Fore Quarters, 1st 

sort, each 

2d do. do. 
Leg, 1st sort, each. 

2d do. do. 
Loin, 1st sort, each, 

2d do. do. 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



5 0@0 
3 
10 
10 
3 



6 
3 6 
1 3 





3 3 6 

7 6 8 



1 10 
U 















5 
3 



6 
4 6 



2 6 3 



1 9 
6 6 
6 



10 
10 



12 
11 



70 

4 

8 

5 

9 
4 



7 6 
4 6 
9 
6 
10 6 
4 tf 



May. 



R. A. P. B. A. P. 

5 0@0 6 

3 3 6 

19 13 

10 

3 



3 

7 6 



3 6 
8 



18 
13 



1 10 
14 



10 

6 

12 

7 

12 
6 



4 6 




11 
6 

14 
8 

14 
7 



5 
3 



5 6 
3 6 



6 
4 6 



2 6 3 



1 6 
6 
5 



1 9 
6 6 
5 6 



10 

10 



12 
11 



76 
4 6 
9 
6 
10 6 
4 6 



Nov. 



B. A. P. B. A. P. 

5 0@0 6 
3 3 6 
19 13 
10 
3 



3 

7 6 



3 6 

8 



18 
13 



1 10 
14 



4 6 




5 
3 



5 6 6 
3 6 4 6 

2 6 3 



1 6 
6 
5 



1 9 
6 6 
5 6 




10 



12 
11 



7 6 
4 6 
9 
6 
10 6 
4 6 



Digitized by 



Google 



470 



INDIAN DOMCSnC tCONOMT 



ARTICLES. 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



Shoulder, 1st sort, 
each 

2d do. do. 
Breast, Istsort.ea- 

2d do. do. 

Sweet Breadt Ist 

sort, each 

2d do. do 

Head, each 

ITect, 4 for. 



K. A. P. &. A. P. 



Pitii Sheep 

lltttB. 

Hind Quarters, 1st 
flort, each 

2d do. do. 

Fore-Quarters, 1st 

sort each 

2d do. do 
Saddle«l8tsort, ea. 

2a do. do. 
Leg, 1st sort, each 

2d do. do 
Loin, 1st sort, each 

2d do. do. 

Shoulder, 1st sort, 

each 

2d do. do 
Breast, Ist sort, ea. 

2d do. do. 
Tonffue, per dozen 

Neck, each 

Head and Eeet... 
Heart, per pair... 
Heart and Liver, 

per pair 

Suet, per seer ... 



3 0^0 

3 0^0 

4 
3 



3 6 

3 A 

4 6 
3 6 



UiBtry Sheep 
littoB. 

Hind Quarters, 1st 

sort, each 

2d do. do. 
Vore-Quarten, 1st 

sort, each 

2d do. do. 

Saddle, 1st sort, ea 

2d do. do. 



2 2 6 

2 

6 6 6 

5 5 6 



Mat. 



R. A. p. B. A. P. 



40 
8 



2 
8 
8 
14 
5 6 

9 

1 6 
6 

9 
70 



4 
2 

3 
1 
6 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 

1 
1 
1 












8 



8 
4 

12 
4 

2 
2 

4 
10 
10 
15 

6 

1 







8 



8 0@0 

3 0^0 

4 
3 



3 6 

3 6 

4 6 
3 6 



2 2 6 

2 

6 6 6 

5 6 6 



Nov. 



K. A. P. 11. A. P. 

3 0@0 3 6 

3 3 6 

4 4 6 

3 3 6 

2 2 6 

2 

5 6 6 

5 5 6 



10 
2 



1 10 6 
14 



4 
2 

2 
1 
5 
2 
2 

2 


1 

1 











4 

8 



8 
8 



12 
2 

12 
8 


14 


14 

2 
8 
8 
14 
5 

1 
1 



3 8 

1 4 
6 

2 12 
2 4 

1 

2 2 
1 2 



09 
7 



40 

10 
10*0 
15 

6 

1 







0) 
8 



10 
2 



1 10 6 

14 



140160 

12 13 

1 12 1 14 
10 12 



14 16 

12 13 

1 12 1 14 
10 12 



40 

8 



2 
8 



4 

2 

3 
1 

6 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 

1 

1 









8 

8 
4 

12 
40 


2 
2 

4 

10 

10 

15 

6 

1 





9 
7 8 



10 
2 



1 10 6 
1^ 40 



140160 

12 13 

1 12 1 14 
1 00 1 2 <J 



Digitized by 



Google 



ANJ} COOKBAT. 



471 



ARTICLES. 



Leg, Ist sort, each. 

Sd do. do. 
Loin, Ist sort, each. 

8d do. do. 
Shoulder, lstst«ea. 

Sd do. do, 
Breast, 1st sort, ea. 

2d do. do. 
Tongues, per doz. 

Keck, each 

Head and Feet 

Heart, each 

Heart ft Liver pr pr. 
Suet, per seer 



Coat IntteB. 



1st 



Hind Quarter, 
sort, each 

2d do. do, 

Pore-Qoarters, 1st 

sort, each 

2d do. do. 
Saddle, Istsort, ea. 

2d do. do. 
Leg, 1st sort, each. 

2d do. do. 
Loin, Ist sort, each. 

2d do. do. 
Shbnlder,lst sort ea 

2d do. do. 
Breast, 1st sort ea. 

2d do. do. 

Neck, each 

Head and feet... 
Heart, per pair. 
Heart and Liver, 

per pair .... 
Suet, per seer, 



loLmk — Tknt 
Parte firtwa. 

Hind Quarters, 1st 

aort, each 

2d do. do 
Fore-Quarters, Ist 

soH, each 

2d do. do. 



PBICES. 



Jan. 



B. A. p. B. A. p. 



18 0@0 
8 







9 
6 
6 



6 



3 

8 



QUO 
9 

14 
9 



10 
6 



14 
9 

14 
6 
9 
5 

14 
8 
6 
1 
1 

1 



Mat. 



R. A. P. B. A. P. 



6 



11 
7 








10 
10 

10 
10 



13 0(E0 
8 







9 
6 
6 
3 
6 



13 
5 
8 
4 

13 
6 
6 

1 

1 
5 



10 
6 



3 
8 



14 
9 

14 
9 



11 
7 








10 
10 

10 
10 



Nov. 



B. A. p. B. A. p. 



13 0@0 11 
8 9 



10 
6 



lo 

6 


8 

10 

6 

10 
4 
5 
3 
8 
4 

1 




3 
8 



14 
9 

14 
9 



11 
7 








10 
10 

10 
10 



Digitized by 



Google 



472 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



ARTICLES, 



Neck, each 6@0 

Head and Feet 13 

Heart and Liver, 

per pair 9 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



May. 



K. A, P. R. A. P. E. A. P. R. A. P. 



Kid— SmII 
SickiBg. 

Hind Quarters, 1st 

sort, each 

2d do. do. 

Eore- Quarters, 
1st sort, each. 
2d do. do. 

Neck, each 

Head and Eeet... 

Heart and Liver, 
per pair......... 



Kid— Three 
Parts firown. 

Hind -Quarters, 
1st sort, each.., 
2d do. do..., 

Fore-Quarters, 
1st sort, each.... 
2d do. do.... 

Neck, each 

Head and Feet 

Heart and Liver, 
per pair 



Pork. 

Hind-Quarters, 
1st sort, each... 
2d do. do... 
Fore-Quarters, 
1st sort, each.. 
2d do. do... 
Leg, 1st sort, each. 
2d do. do........ 

Loin, 1st sort each, 

2d do. do. 

Shoulder, 1st sort, 

each 

2d do do... 












3 9 

3 

4 
3 

3 

1 3 



4 
3 



6@0 
13 

9 



4 

3 3 

4 6 4 
3 








9 



4 6 
3 6 



9 



18 


1 10 


12 


140 


18 


1 10 


12 


14 


14 


10 


10 


12 


12 


1 


8 


10 



10 
10 



3 9 
3 



4 
3 

3 
3 

6 

1 3 



4 
3 3 



9 













4 6 
3 6 



9 



8 
2 



18 
12 
14 
10 
12 
8 

12 
8 



10 
4 

10 
4 


12 


10 



10 
10 



Nov. 



Br. A. P. K. A. P. 



6^0 

1 3 



9 



3 9 

3 

4 
3 

3 

1 3 



4 
3 

3 
3 

6 

1 3 













4 

3 3 

4 6 






9 



4 6 

3 6 

3 6 

3 6 







9 



8 
2 



1 10 
1 4 



18 
12 
14 
10 
12 
8 

12 
8 



10 
4 


12 


10 



1 
10 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND COOKIEY. 



473 



ARTICLES. 



PRICES. 



Jajx. 



Mat. 



Nov. 



do.. 



Breast^ Ist sort, 

each 

2d do. 
Head, each 
Trotters, good, 

per dozen 
Pigs, roasting, each 

3d sort do. 
Hogs' Lard, per 

maund 



B. A. p. s. A. F. 



13 0@1 
8 10 
4 5 



3 
14 
14 



C^iBtry Corned 
ni Salted leat 

Beer.--flroM 
Rathes. 

Rounds, Ist sort, 

each 

2d do. do.. 
Briskets, 1st sort, 

each 

2d do. do... 
Homps, 1st sort^ 

eacn 

2d do. do... 
Tongue, 1st sort, 

each 

2d do. do 

Pork froM 
Biropeans. 

Leg, 1st sort, each 

Shoulder, do 

Ribs, spare, do 

ChedLS, corned, ea. 
Bacon, Istst.prJib. 
Sausages, Bologna. 

per lb 

Fresh, 1st St. pr. sr. 

Poultry. 

Turkeys, cook, De- 
see full roasting, 

each 

2d sort, do.. 



3 4 

1 12 

2 6 
16 



3' 
2 

3 

1 



8 
8 

8 
5 



4 
4 
8 

8 



13 
10 



1 
1 
2 








8 10 
40 5 



B. A. P. B. A. P. 



13 0(^1 

8 10 
4 5 



40 
8 




13 14 



8 



8 






10 
6 



8 
8 









8 
40 



B. A. p. B. A. P. 



3 

4 

14 



40 
8 






4 


6 

8 
8 

8 

5 



4 
4 
8 


8 



12 

10 



10 
5 



8 10 
4 5 

u9 



12 d@i 
8 0^0 
4 

3 

14 1 
14 1 



13 14 



40 
8 

4 
8 







10 

6 



8 
8 









8 
4 





5 

40 
8 




13 14 



8 

4 

6 
6 

8 
8 

8 

5 



4 
4 
8 

8 



11 
7 



13 

10 



12 
8 









10 
6 



8 12 
4 7 



8 
8 


00 








8 



Digitized by 



Google 



474 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



AETICLES. 



Hen turkeys, full 
roasting, each.... 
do. 2d sort« ea... 

Turkeys, cock, 
Chittagong * full 
roasting, each.... 

Hen do. * full 
roasting, each.. 

Geese, full grown, 
each 

Geese, half-grown, 
each 

Fowls, Chittagong, 
extra large size, 

each 

full roasting, do< 
Country, do. do. 
Half-grown, do, 
Kurcha, 1st st. 
Chickens, small 

Ducks, full roast- 
ing, do. 

2d sort do 

Pigeons, 1st sort, 
per pair 

Hare, full grown, 
each 

Rabbits, full grown, 
each 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



E. A. p. E. A. p. 

5 0@5 8 
4 6 4 8 



5 8 6 

3 3 4 

1 9 1 10 

15 160 



11 32 

9 10 

7 6 8 

3 6 4 



2 
1 6 



2 3 
0, 1 9 



6 6 6 

3 6 4 

3 3 3 



19 10 



• This kind of Turkey can never be 
had in good condition; though apparent- 
ly plump, yet when stript oi their fea- 
thers, they scarcely exceed in size a large 
roasting fowl. 

Fhh. 

(Such as are now procurable.) 

Sable Fish, with 

Roes, 1st 8ort,ea. 

2d do. do... Q 

Mangoe-Pish with 

Roes, 1st sort... 

2d sort do. do. 

Roo-ee, krge, per 

seer 4 5 

Cutla, large do 4 5 

Mirgel, do. do 4 

Ko^e, per corge... 3 3 6 



May. 



B. A. P. IL. A. P. 

5 0^5 8 
4 4 6 



5 8 6 

3 3 4 

1 9 J 10 

15 16 



11 
9 
7 6 
3 6 
2 
16 



12 
10 
8 
4 
2 3 
19 



6 6 6 

3 6 4 

3 3 3 



19 10 





















4 6 

4 5 

4 

3 3 6 



Nov. 



T^ 



E. A. P. E. A. P. 

5 0@5 8 
4 6 4 8 



00 



14 16 

12 13 



11 
9 
7 6 
3 6 
2 
1 6 



12 
10 
8 
40 
2 3 
1 9 



6 6 6 

3 6 4 

3 3 3 



19 10 

















O 





4 5 

4 5 

4 

3 3 G 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND COOKERY. 



475 



ARTICLES. 



Prawns, Bagda, 1st 
sort, per corge... 
Mocha, large 4 for, 
Crabs, 1st st. 4 for 
Cookup, (Bekhtee) 

plentiful 

Moonjee (Mullets) 
do 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



K. A. p. B. A. P. 

1 9@0 2 
2 3 
10 16 



Tareabungun, Bonspatch, Bhola, 

Tongra, Pankal Kankcela, Shoil 

Bvne Singee, Chetole, Fungus, 
Cningree, &c. &c. procurable. 

(Such as are now procurable.) 

Oranges, 1st st. per 

corge 2 9 3 

2d do. do 2 2 3 

Almonds, green, 

per 100 13 16 

Cocoanuts, large, 

ripe, each 06 00 

green, per pair... 3 6 
Cucumbers, smsdl 

2 and 3 for....... 3 

Custard Apples, 1st 

sort, 4 lor 3 3 3 

Girkins, per corge. 
Groaves, 1st sort, 

per corge 3 6 3 6 

2d do. do 2 2 3 

Country Olives, 1st 

sort, per corge... 
Leaches, Ist sort, 

per 100 

2d do. do 5 

Lemon patee, 2 and 

3 for 3 3 

2d do. 3 and4for. 3 
Eipe Mangoes, 1st 

sort, per corge... 00 00 

2d sort, do.... 

Bombay Mangoes, 

1st St. and for 00 00 

2d do. 3 and for 6 

Papiahs, Ist st. ea. 9 13 



May. 



E. A. p. E. A. P. 

1 9@0 2 
2 3 
10 1 













13 16 



6 
3 




6 



3 







3 6 

2 






3 
2 3 











3 

3 







6 

9 




5 

6 









1 3 



Nov. 



E. A. P. E. A. P. 



1 9@0 2 

2 3 

10 16 

















6 
3 




6 



3 



3 



3 6 

2 



3 3 


3 6 
2 3 











3 

3 









9 





6 

3 











1 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



476 



INDIAN DOVSaTIO ISCONOHT 



ARTICLES, 



Plautains, 1st sort, 

per bunch 

2d do. do... 
Pomegranates, 

Patna, each... 
Pamplenose, each.. 
Hose Apples, 1st 

sort, per corgc... 

2d do. do 

Sugar Canes, each 
Water-melons, Ist 

sort, each 



Vegetables. 

(Snch as are now 

procurable.) 
Asparagus, 1st sort, 

per 100..... 

Brmjal6> 1st sort, 

3 and 4 for.... 
dd do. 5 and 6 for 
Cauliflower, 1st 

sort, each 

2d do. do... 
French Beans, per 

seer 

Lettuce and for 
Ifove Apples, (Bee- 

laty Bygun) 30 

for 

Ochres Dharose, 

20 for 

Onions, young, 2 

bundles for.... 

• Oorchau, per seer.. 

Peas, Marrowfat, 

per seer.... 

Beelaty, do. do. 
Dutch, do. do. 

Bunglaw 

Plantains, green 3 

and 4 for 

Potatoes,, lat sort, 

per seer 

2d do. do... 

3d do. do... 

Patna, do. do... 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



R. A. P. B. A. P. 



1 6@0 2 
6 9 



4 


3 6 
2 
3 












5 


4 
2 6 




02003 0030030 



OQOOOOQOOaOQ 



3 

3 

3 

10 

2 

3 







a 6 

1 6 

2 6 




3 
(^06000 



3 



1 3 
1 
6 
Q3 



0.0 



1 6 






a 03 



1 
09 

eto 

00 



13 
1 3 

00 



Mat. 



B. A. P. E. A. P. 



1 6@0 
6 



4 



3 6 
2 
3 



03 





1 
09 

00 



2 
9 

5 


4 

3 6 




3 

03 00 



00 

3 9 4 

3 



3 
6 








a o 



O 

00 00 

3 Q 



1 
1 
ooj 





Nov. 



B. A. p. B. A. p. 



1 6@0 
6 



4 


3 6 
2 
3 



03 




2 

9 

5 



4 

2 6 





2 3 



10 14 



3 

3 





7 

03 



1 6 
1 
00 







00 


80 
00 



oa 00 
a 



00 
00 











3 



1 6 
1 6 
00 




Digitized by 



Google 



AND COQKK&Y. 



477 



ARTICLES. 



&. A. p. B. A. P. 



Chirra Poonjee, 
1st sort, per aeen 
2d do. do.... 

3d do. do 

sweet, per seer, 
PhIwuI, or potole, 

per do 

Pmnpkins, e»ch as 

to size 

sweet do. do. 
Badishes, 4 for.... 

fireeis. 

Water Cressesj 
scaree — Ghowlie 
Sauge, Culmce 
do. PuHa do 
&c. &c plenti- 
ful. 

Sweet lerhfl. 

Thyme, Parsley, 
Celerj^, Mint, Sage, 
Dhoma, Snlpa Met- 
tie, &c. &c. pro- 
curable. 

WiMS^Spfarits^fte. 

Alcy Hodgson's, 

perhhd , 

per ' 



Allsopp's per hhd 
per doz 

Brandy, Gognao 
pergpllou 

C^et, English, 
Carbonell's, per 



IVench, per doz.. 
Geneva, per gal... 
Madeira, per pipe, 

per dozen 

Fort, quartsj per 

dozen 

pints do... 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



o@a 











3 

1 




00 

00 
00 



70 



3 7 3 8 



40 
6 

200 

12 

12 
7 



30 



4 
500 
24 



Mat. 



K, A. p. ». A. P. 



0@0 











3 

1 




Q 6 
1 6 
Q 



50 70 

5 9 

50 70 

4 4 4 

3 7 3 8 



040 

6 

2 

200 

12 



24 012 
21 7 










30 

2 4 

500 

25 

24 
12 



Nov. 



R. A. P. B. A. P. 



0@0 







10 13 



3 6 
10 16 




50 

5 

50 

4 



70 
9 

70 
4 00 



3 7 3 8 



40 

6 

2 OO 

200 

12 



12 
7 










30 

2 

500 

24 

24 
12 



Digitized by 



Google 



478 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



ARTICLES. 



Sherry, good, per 

pipe.-; 

per doz... 



B. A. P. B. A. F. 

450 0@600 
12 14 



liseellaneens 
Articles. 



Ajwan, per seer 

Almonds, per md 

per seer. 

Allspice, per seer 
Aniseed, per seer. 
Arrowroot, per ft. 

hot. half lb. do, 
Balichongy per j 
Bamboo, per K 

(according to 

thickness;.. 
Barley-Sugar, per 



ar 



Barley, pearl, per 

seer , 

Bay-leaf, per seer 
Beetlenut, Pendier 

per seer 

Conntry, do 
Beetle-leaf, or 

Pawn 

cha-chee, 100 

leaves for.... 
Bungalow 4o* 

New, do. do. 100 

leaves 

Blankets, Witney, 

each 

for Horses. 

do 

Bottles, ' English, 

per 100 

Bottles, Liverpool, 

per 100. 

Porter, do. per 100 

French, per 100. 
Bran, wheat, per 

maund 

Bricks, 11 inches, 

per 1000 

9 inches per 1000 



PRICES. 



Jak. 



B. A.^P.] B. A. P. 

450 0@6d0 




12 

3 

2 
1 
1 



2 

5 

3 
12 
2 




16 
12 3 

4 2 

3 6 

2 6 

4 







8 
4 

3 

4 6 



1 3 

6 



16 

9 

11 

12 7 
8 6 
3 



6 






10 





8 



15 1 



12 4 
2 2 



13 

4 



Mat. 



Nov. 



B. A. P. B. A. P. 

450 0@0 



12 14 12 5 14 





10 

3 

2 
1 
1 



2 

4 
4 3 



2 12 

1 2 

.2 



10 16 

1 12 3 

2 4 <e 8 
3 6 4 

2 6 3 

4 4 6 



13 
6 



3 16 
9 10 

10 11 

6 12 7 
5 8 6 

4 3 8 

15 1 

4 12 4 13 
12 2 4 





13 

4 




2 12 

1 2 

2 



10 

1 12 

2 12 
3 6 

2 6 
20 



16 

3 

3 

4 

3 

4 6 



13 

6 



3 
9 

10 

6 12 

5 8 

4 



6 





16 GO 

10 

11 

7 

6 

3 8 



15 1 



4 12 
12 



4 13 
2 4 



Digitized by 



Google ^ 



AND COOKERY. 



479 



ARTICLES. 



PRICES. 



Jav. 



B. A. P. B. A. P. 



Brick-Dust, 1st tt 

100 rnairnd 

2d do 

Brimstone, per seer 

Candles^ wax, ]st 

sort, per seer 

2d do 

Candles, tallow, 1st 
sort, per maond! 
2d do.... 
Capers, per bottle 
Cardamons, Mala- 
bar, per seer. 
Cashew Nuts,pr.8r. 

Chalk, per seer 

Charoosd, 1st sort, 
per mannd 
2d do. do, 
Cheese, pine, pr. 9^ 
Dacca, per seer..... 
Bandei, wg. 1 ft ea. 
Cheese Ciuces, Ma 
caroons and Tart- 
lets, 1st sort per 

dozen.. 

2d do. do. 

Inferior, 8 doz. for 

Cheratta, per seer 

Cheroots, Havana 

per 100. 

Manilla, do 

Chlnsurah, per box 

of 250. 

Calcutta, per 100 

Chillies,dried pr. sr, 

fresh, do... 

Chocolate, per ft .. 

Chunam, import 

wt. per. 100 md 

export do.. 

Cinnamon, pr. seer 

Cloves, per seer 

Cocoa, per ft 

Coir, Laccadiva, 

oer seer 

Coir, Maldiva,pr.sr. 

Coffee, Mocha, 

picked, per seer. 



11 

12 



1 
1 

14 

11 

2 

2 




1 








0@14 
13 
4 4 6 



7 
5 



8 
6 



15 
12 

40280 

8 4 
6 10 
3 6 






8 
3 6 



2 


9 

3 9 



10 12 

6 8 



3 3 3 



8 
8 



1 


00 


1 


12 


1 





2 








9 





1 





1 


43 


44 


37 


38 


14 





13 





2 12 


3 



4 
2 12 

8 


2 6 

1 
1 





15 

14 






5 5 6 



10 6 10 6 



May. 



B. A. P. B. A. P 

11 0@14 

12 13 
4 4 6 



70 

6 



8 
6 



14 15 

11 12 

2 4 2 8 



8 
6 
3 





8 
3 6 



4 
10 
6 



1 







2 


9 

3 9 



10 12 

6 8 

10 

3 3 3 



4 
2 12 



10 
12 
2 3 

9 

1 



8 


2 6 

1 
1 



43 44 

37 38 

14 15 

13 14 

2 12 ' 3 


5 5 6 

10 6 10 6 



Nov. 



B. A. P. B. A. P. 

11 0@14 

12 13 
4 4 6 



7 
5 



8 
6 



14 15 

11 12 

2 4 2 8 



2 8 4 
6 
3 






8 
3 6 





1 
6 

2 

Q 
9 

3 9 



10 12 

6 8 

10 

3 3 3 



8 
8 


12 
2 3 
9 




4 
2 12 



8 


2 6 

1 
1 



43 44 Q 

37 38 

14 15 

13 14 

2 12 3 


5 5 6 

10 6 10 6 



Digitized by 



Google 



480 



INDIAN DOMBSnC ECONOMY 



ARTICLES. 



Bourbon coffee, per 



Comfits, country, 

per ft 

Coriander seed, per 

seer 

Cork, wine, per grs. 

beer do. do. 
Cummin sd. pr. sr. 
Currants, per seer. 
Custard, p^r dozen 

cups 

Dates, dried, per sr, 

moist, do 

Dhall, moonge, 

clear'd of husk 



per seer 

Doot do. do 

urruhr do. do. ... 

mussoor, do. do. 
Eau de-Cologne, 

per phial 

Eggs, fowl, fresh 

Ser corge 
ucks, do. do, 
Pigs Turkey, pr. fc 
Pire-wood split 1st 

St. 3^ mds. for.. 

2d sort 4 do.. 

3d sort 4} do.. 

4th sort 5 do.. 

Garlic, per seer 
Ghee, cow, 1st sort, 

1 seer 8 chs. for 
2ddo.lsr«8ehs.for 
Buffalos, 1st sort 

1 seer 8 chs. for 
2ddo.lsr.12ch for 
Ginger, fresh pr. sr. 

dry, Patna do.... 
Grain, Bice, Pat- 
na per maund.... 
Patchery, 1st sort 

do. 2d do, 
Moonghy, 1st sort 

do. ao. 2d do. 
Ballum, 1st st. do, 
Bauree, pr. maund 
Wheat do 



PRICES. 



JAlr. 



a. A. p. B. A. p. 



7 0@0 
1 



12 


2 
2 



00 





1 3 



7 6 

4 

2 

5 

5 6 



2 3 
4 



1 







4 
2 
4 



&. A. P. B. A. P. 

7 0@0 7 6 
10 14 



6 7 



1 
1 

1 













4 

2 
1 
1 
2 





5 
2 
70 


00 


00 

1 6 


00 





1 6 
8 



May. 



&. A. p. B. A. P. 

7 0@0 7 
10 140 



1 9 

8 
5 
8 



2 
3 8 
2 
5 
2 12 



2 3 00 
2 2 3 
2 4 



16 1 

1 

10 

9 



000070060070 



4 
2 
40 


00 


00 

1 3 

00 




5 
2 
70 







1 6 

00 




100000 
10 
13 16 
2 6 3 





3 IS 

1 8 
7 
2 

12 







40 
8 
3 
00 

2 



Nov. 



19 
4 
18 
5 
8 12 




2 
2 



4 
2 
4 





00 



1 3 

00 
00 



2 
8 

5 6 




3 
2 3 

40 



16 19 

10 

10 

9 



5 
2 
7 











1 6 







10 

10 

13 16 

2 6 3 





4 
8 
3 

00 
20 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND COOKERY. 



481 



ARTICLES. 



Gancajallah> pr zod 

Jamalee, do 

Gram, Patna, 1st 

sort, per maund 

do. 2d do. do.... 

do. new, Ist sort 
Peas, Dutch, white 

per maund 

Moong Cully, do. 
.Mash, CuJly, do. 
Tewora» or £aha- 

saree Mutter,. 
Cubree, or Pyra 

Mutter, do. do. 
Dhall, urruhr good 

do. 

Paddy, per maund 
Gunpowder, pr. lb. 
Hair powder, 

8myth*8per lb.. 
Hams, Yorkshire, 

per lb 

Hay per maund 

per 1000 large 

bundles 

Herrings, pickled, 

per nrkiu 

Honey, country, 5 

to 6 seers, for.. 
Hungary Water, 

per bottle 

Isinglass, Europe, 

per lb 

Country, do 

Jams and/ Jellies, 

Europe, p 3 lb. jar 

Jellies, country, 

currunda, guava, 

mangoe, &c. per 



Jagre^ of date, 1st 

sort, per seer 

for Tobaco, per 
maund 

Ktdbh, pabree, 1st 
sort, per seer 

Lavender Water, 
Smyth's per pint 
bottle 



PRICES. 



Jak. 



B. A. p. B. A. P. 

1 14 0@1 15 

1 10 1 n 

12 12 

1 1 1 



1 12 1 13 

2 8 2 9 

1 6 1 12 

16 1 

14 14 6 

15 2 

14 14 6 

18 1 10 

14 1 

10 14 

13 14 

6 12 7 

8 9 

10 

4 8 

5 8 6 

2 8 3 

6 8 7 8 



1 8 1 10 

10 13 

1 10 2 
6 

4 4 4 



May. 



B. A. p. B. A. P. 
1 14 0@1 15 

1 10 1 11 

13 6 14 

116 12 



1 12 1 13 

2 8 2 9 
1 6 1 12 

15 1 

14 14 6 

115 2 

14 14 6 

1 8 1 10 

14 1 

10 14 

13 14 

6 12 7 

8 9 

10 

4 8 

5 8 6 

2 8 3 

6 8 7 8 Q 



1 8 1 10 

10 13 

1 10 2 
6 



4 4 4 
n2 



Nov. 



— ^ 



B. A. p. B. A. P. 

1 14 0@1 15 

1 10 1 11 

1 2 6 12 6 

10 110 



1 12 1 13 

2 8 2 9 
1 6 1 12 

15 1 

14 14 6 

1 15 2 

14 14 6 

1 8 1 10 

14 1 

10 14 

13 14 

7 8 8 

8 00900 
10 
4 8 

6 8 6 

2 8 3 

6 8 7 8 



1 8 1 10 

10 13 

1 10 2 
6 

4 4 4 



Digitized by 



Google 



482 



INDIAN DOMESTIC £CONOMT 



AETICLES. 



per 



Ijime-Juice, 

gallon 

per bottle. 
Mace, good per sr. 
Marmalade, coun- 
try of sorts, p. ft 
Milk of Rose,p. bot 
Milk-curd, per seer 
Morocco skins, ea. 
Mustard, pr lb. bot. 
per naif do.... 
Mustard seed, p. sr 
Mjdah, 1st sort, 

per maund.. 

per seer.. 
Nutmegs, good, 

per seer 

Oats, 1st, per md. 

2d do 

Oatmeal, per seer 
Oil, salad, per bot. 

castor, Bhaulgul- 

j>ore,do 

cold- drawn, p. pint 
sesamun, (teel) 3 

seers chs for. 
mustard, 5 srs chs 
Linseed, pr. gallon. 
Cocoanut, 1st sort, 

per maund 
Onions, Patna, 

white, per seer, 
red, do 

small, per seer. 
Ottah, 1st sort, per 

maund.. 



per seer 

paint, best white 
mixed, per lb 

black, do. do. 

green, do. do. 

yellow, do. do. 

red, do. do. 
Pepper, Malabar, 



per seer... 
White. 



Long, do.... 
Pistachio Nuts 



PRICES. 



Jak. 



B. A. P. R. A, P. 



K. A. P. B. A. P. 



0@2 2 
6 7 
8 6 




4 
4 


4 

13 6 

1 3 



1 6 


10 6 
10 
10 



8 
8 



8 
8 
6 


6 

14 

1 6 



1 9 



4 4 
1 11 
1 11 
1 11 
18 

10 
3 





2 2 





4 



13 2 13 4 



2 
1 3 

6 

4 

1 

2 

2 

3 

1 6 

2 

4 9 
9 6 

7 



2 6 
19 




8 

1 3 

2 3 
2 3 
4 
2 
2 3 



5 
10 
7 6 



Mat. 



Nov. 



2 0@2 
6 
5 8 6 




4 
40 


4 

13 6 

1 3 



3 4 
16 



4 
1 10 6 
1 10 
1 10 
10 



8 
2 8 3 





2 2 



2 

7 



8 

8 o: 

6 0. 

o; 

6 
14 

1 6 



1 9 

4 
11 
11 
11 

8 

10 




4 



B. A. P. B. A. P. 

2 0@2 2 

6 7 

5 8 6 



11 11 4 



2 

1-30 

6 

3 4 3 

10 

2 

2 

3 

16 

2 

4 9 

9 6 

7 



2 6 
1 9 



8 

1 3 

2 3 
2 3 

4 
2 
2 3 

5 
10 

7 6 




4 
4 


4 

13 6 

1 3 



1 6 





1 9 



4 
1 10 6 
1 10 
1 10 
10 



8 
8 



4 4 
1 11 
1 11 a 
1 11 
1 S 

10 
3 



10 

1 

2 2 2 4 

13 2 13 4 



2 
1 3 
6 



2 6 
1 9 




3 4 3 8 
10 18 



2 

2 

3 

1 6 

2 

4 9 
9 6 
7 



2 3 
2 3 
4 
2 
2 3 



6 
10 
7 6 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND COOKEBT. 



483 



ARTICLES. 



picked from nuts 

per seer 

Pickles, Europe, p 

square 

country, do... 
Pitch, per seer.... 
Plums, Erench, 

per fi 

Plum Cake, pr ft. 
Pomatum, Smyth's 

per pint 

Prunes, Persian 1st 

sort, per seer... 

2d do. do.. 

Pftines, French, 

per square, of 3 
Raiains, 1st sort, 

per seer 

2d do: 

muscatel, do 

bloom, do 

Battans, best, per 

100 

Rose-Water, 1st 

sort, per seer 
Sago, pearl, 1st 

sort, per seer... 

2d do. do 

Salmon, pickled, 

per keg 

m cans^ per can. 
Salt, Smelling, 

Smith's, per 

stopped bottle... 
Salt white, pr seer 

brown, do 

Saltpetre, per seer 
Sarcunes, in butter, 

per canister... 
Sauces, of sorts, 

per bottle 

SennarLeaf, per sr, 
Shoe-Blackiug, 

Day and Mar- 
tins, per bottle. 
Snuff, Masulipa- 

tam, per bottle, 
Maccoba, do. 



PRICES. 



Jak. 



B. A. P. B. A. F. 



1 0@1 4 

2 4 2 8 
10 14 
19 2 

10 14 

12 14 

12 14 





3 4 3 8 

6 7 

4 4 3 



1 12 2 

15 16 

12 13 

3 9 4 

2 3 2 6 

2 2 8 




8 
2 6 
2 
2 6 



1 12 
2 9 

3 



4 4 4 

18 2 8 
8 10 



8 9 

2 4 2 8 
6 6 4 



May. 



B. A. P. E. A. P. 



1 0@1 4 

2 4 2 3 
10 14 
19 2 

10 14 

12 14 

12 14 





3 4 3 8 

6 7 

4 4 3 



1 12 2 

15 16 

12 13 

3 6 4 

2 3 2 6 

2 2 8 
0.0 



8 
2 6 
2 
2 6 



1 12 
2 9 

3 



4 4 4 



8 
8 



2 8 
10 



8 9 

2 4 2 8 
6 6 4 



Nov. 



B. A. p. B. A. P. 



1 0@1 4 

2 4 2 8 
10 14 
19 2 

10 14 

12 14 

12 14 





3 4 3 8 

6 7 

4 4 3 



1 12 2 

1 5 1 G 

12 13 

3 6 4 

2 3 2 6 

2 2 8 




8 
2 6 
2 
2 6 



12 

2 9 


3 



4 4 4 



8 
8 



2 8 
01 



8 9 

2 4 2 8 
6 6 4 



Digitized by 



Google 



484 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



ARTICLES. 



Soap, Europe, 

scented, pr doz. 

Dacca, per sr. 

Soda-Water, in 
pints, per dozen 
t pints, do... 

Soojee, 1st sort, pr 
maond 



&. A« p. B. A. P. 



per seer. 
Straw, large bnnd 

per kahim 

small, do. do. 
Sug;ar fine, 3 seers 

8 chs. for. 

2d sort, 4 seers. 

chs. for, 
Sugar-Candy, Chi- 
na, 1st St. per sr 
2d sort, do.. 
Sugar-Candy, Cy, 

ist 8ort,2 seers, 1 

chs. for, 

2d do. 2 seers, 6 

chs. for 

Syrups, lime, ta< 

marinds, &c. per 

bottle... 
Tamarinds, per sr 
Tar, Stockholm, pr 

seer 



American, do. 

Tea, Hyson, per sr 

Souching, do. 

ij^ckoe, do, 

gunpowder, do. 

nounchong, do. 

Tiles, long, thick, 

per 100, 

thin, do. 

Square, thick, do. 

thin, do. 

Tobacco bhilsa, for 

the hookah, 1st 

sort, per maund 

do. do* 2d do. 

bo. do. 3d do. 

inferior, do. do, 

strone, common 



PRICES. 



Jan. 



1 8 0@2 
4 

2 8 2 


4 5 

19 

4 12 5 

3 3 

10 

10 








8 
4 6 

10 



2 

00 
8 










3 2 3 

11 

3 4 3 

10 1 



25 

14 

10 

5 



R. A. P. S. A. P. 

1 8 0@2 8 
4 4 6 

2 8 2 10 


4 5 

19 2 

4 12 5 

3 3 8 

10 

10 







10 
10 



10 1 
10 







8 

1 3 



4 

14 

4 

2 



30 
20 
12 
6 












Mat. 



a. A. p. &. A. p. 



10 
10 





1 



8 
1 3 



3 2 3 4 

11 14 

3 4 3 4 

10 12 



25 30 

14 20 

10 12 

5 6 



640680640680640680 



Nov. 



8 0@3 8 

4 4 6 

8 2 10 



5 

19 2 

12 5 

3 8 


















1 



8 

1 3 

5 6 
00 

8 

4 









2 3 4 

11 14 

4 3 40 

13 



25 

14 

10 

5 



30 
20 

12 
6 










Digitized by 



Google 



AMD COOKSET. 



485 



ARTICLES. 


PRICES. 

A- 


' Jan. 


May. 


Nov. ' 


Tobacco leaf, bbil. 

sa, permaund. .. 
Turmeric, 1st sort, 

per seer 

Turpentine, per. sr 
Verdigris, per seer 
Vinegar, Wyatt's 

per bottle 

Country, pr. gal 
White Lead, pr. sr 
Walnuts, per seer 


». A. P. E. A. P. 

25 0@28 

16 2 

1 9 1 10 
10 12 

12 13 
12 3 
7 7 6 



E. A. P. E. A. P. 

25 0@28 

16 2 
12 13 
10 12 

13 13 
3 3 
7 7 9 



E. A. P. E. A. P. 

25 0@28 

16 2 

1 9 1 10 
10 12 

12 13 
12 3 
7 7 6 




Digitized by 



Google 



486 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOUY 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE MARKET. 



GHOSTH— MEAT. 





Jan. 


May, 


Nov. 


Beef ( 

Patna, Sheep Mut- 
ton 


large supply 
every morning 

scarce 


large supply 
every morning 

scarce 


large supply 
every morning. 

scarce. 


Country, Sheep 
Mutton. ... 


nlentiful. 


plentiful 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 


plentiful, 
do. 


do. Lamb 


do 


Kid 


do 


do. 


Veal 


do...- 


do- 


Pork 


do 


do. 


Pigs, roasting 


do 


do. 



MUTCHLEE— FISH. 



Tubsa Mutchee, 
(Mangoe Fish) 

Hilsa Mutcheef, 
(Sable Fish) 

Beckhtee, (Cock- 
up) 

Mooniee, (Mul- 
let,) 

Banspattah 

Khankeelah. 

Rowe 

Cutla 

Mirgael 

BhoM 

Tangra 



Quoye, (Carp) 

Coochia, (Eels). .. 



Mangoor., 

Sihgee.. 

Beleah.. 



gone out 'a few procurable. 

plentifoi' gone out. 

do scarce.. 



do.. .. 

do.... 

do... 

do.... 

do.... 

do... 
scarce.... 
plentiful.. 

do 

do 

do 

do..... 

do.... 



procurable.. 

do 

scarce 

do 

do 

do. 

scarce 

do 

procurable.. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



gone out. 
plentiful, 
do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
scarce, 
plentiful. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND COOKBRT. 



487 





Jan. 


May. 


Nov. 


Pairsah 


olentiful 


procurable 

do 


plentiful, 
do. 


Cheng oab 


^do :.......... 


Phankal 


do 


do. 


do. 


Prawns, Barah 

Chingree 

Bagda, Chingree... 
Chotah, Chingree.. 
Khanera, (Crab)... 


do 


a few procurable, 
do .... 


do. 


do 




plentiful 

scarce 


do. 


scarce 


scarce. 


And many others 
of inferior note. 







MOORGEE^-FOWLS. 



Chittagong Fowlsjscarce 

Country, do 'plentiful,. 



Half-grown,.... 

Geese, 

Half -grown, .. , 

Ducks,... 

Young Pigeons 



do. 

do. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 



scarce 

plentiful 

do . 


scarce, 
plentiful, 
do. 


do . 


do. 


do 

do 


do. 
do. 


do 


do. 



TURKAREE-VEGETABLES. 



(Green 



Mutter, 
Peas) 

Fullcobee, (Cauli- 
flower) 

Asparagus 

Cooee, (Cabbages) 
White 

Old Cobee, (Nole 
Cole) 

Artichoke 

Prench Beans 

Potatoes 

Dhorose, (Ram- 
shorn) 

Securcurid, AUoo- 
Sweet Pota- 
toes) 

Sal^m, (Tur 
nips) 

Gajur, (Carrots) .., 

Kuddo, (Pump- 
kins) 

Kttddema, (Sweet 
Pumpkins) 

By gun, (Brinjals). 

Belaty-Bygun 



plentiful. 



do... 
scarce. 



gone out 

plentiful 

do 

do 



do.. 



da. 



do., 
do.. 

do- 
do- 
do., 
do.. 



gone out.. 



do 

few at market... 

procurable. 



gone out. 

do 

do. 

plentiful.. 



do.. 



scarce.. 



do., 
do- 



plentiful.. 



do., 
do., 
do.. 



going out. 

do. 
plentiful. 



going out. 

do. 
plentiful. 

do. 

do. 



do. 

do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Iscarce. 



Digitized by 



Google 



4S8 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



Jan. 



May. 



Nov. 



Kheerah, 

cumber). 
Oorcbah.... 
Chumlie... . 

Palome 

Loll 



Cu. 



scarce... . 

do 

do 

plentiful.. 

do 



plentiful.. 

scarce 

plentiful.. 

do 

lin season.. 



scarce. 

do. 

do. 
plentiful. 

do. 



PHUIL-FRUIT. 



Gumla Limboo 

(Oranges) 

Pucka-Aum, (Ripe 

Maugoe) 

Kutcba Aum, 

(Green Man 

goe) 

Peachphol, 

(Peaches) 

Nicboo-phol, 

TLecbees) 

(joiaub Jam, 

(Rose Apple)... 
* Jaumrool, (Star 

Apples) 

Pootee, (Musk 

Melon) 

Atta, (Custard 

Apples) ..... 

Annaross, (Pine- 
Apple) 

Geeaboo, (Gua- 

Tas) 

Loquarts 

Toot, (Mulber 

ries) 

Taparee, (Gfoose- 

berries) 

Turmoge, (Water 

Melonj......... 

Patee Limboo, 

(Lemons) 



Desse Buddum, 
Country Al- 
monds) 

Ook, (Sugar 
Cane) 

Lnlee, Tama- 

rinds^, ripe.... .. 



plentiful., 
gone out.. 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

plentiful., 
scarce.... 

do 



do 

gone out.. 



do., 
do., 
do. 



plentiful., 
do 



do 

do 

in abundance.. 



gone out 

few at market.. 



plentiful 

few procurable.... 

plentifuL 

do 

few procurable. 

do 

gone out. 

few procurable. 



do.... 
gone out.. 



do... 

do... 

plentiful.. 

gone out., 
plentiful.. 



do 

do 

in abundance., 



in season. , 
gone out. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

plentiful. 

scarce. 

do. 

do. 
gone out. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

plentiful, 
do. 

do. 
do. 
in abundance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND COOKEKT, 489 



DIGHi FAEM— DINAPOOE. 



LIVE STOCK. 

SS. A. P. 

Fine large fed Bullocks, per pair... 100 to 150 

Europe and China breeding Sows and Pigs 25 

Small porkers 12 

Less sise do 10 

Rabbits, per pair... 3 

Gram fed Sheep, each.. 8 

Grass do do. 3 

Miloh Goats 8 

Gynahs, fat, and fit for immediate use, per pair... 60 

Fat cock Turkeys, each... 7 

Fat hen 4 

Geese,fat per pair... 3 

Ducks, fat, doz... 12 

Fowls, do pair... 3 

Young Pigeons, doz... 3 

Guinea Fowls, pair... 4 

Bantam do ,. „ 6 

Muscovy Ducks, t» 4 

Middling size Roasting Fowls, doz... 6 

Less size Fowls, „ 4 

Chickens, , 2 

SALTED AND CURED PROVISIONS. 

Kegs containing 2 Rounds of Beef in prepared Pickle per keg. 16 .0 

do. Briskets do „ ... 16 

do. small prime do. 8 pieces do „ ... 16 

do. Pork do. 8 to 10 do , ... 16 

do. Pig's cheeks, feet and tongues do „ ... 16 

do. 12 large Bullock Tongues in do „ ... 16 

do. 12 middling size do. dried „ ... 10 

Small kegs containing 12 highly seasoned Bologna 

Sausages in rendered suet „ ... 16 

Small Mottled Sausages in rendered suet „ ... 12 

do. German do. do..>. „ ... 12 

02 



Digitized by 



Google 



490 INDIAN DOMESTIC ICONOMT 

xa. 1. p 

Hams per ft .. 19 

MuttonHams „ ... 8 

Beef do „ ... 6 

Bacon „ ... 6 

BeefBacon „ ..060 

Hogs* cheeks, smoked „ ... 6 

Mutton Bacon „ ... 6 

Hung Beef „ ... C 

CollaredBeef „ ... OHO 

do. Veal , ... 19 .0 

do. Pig „ ... 19 

Buttocks of Beef salted eadi ... 6 

Brisket of do. do „ ... 6 

Ribs of do. do „ ... 5 8 

Humps, large, smoked per lb... 10 

do. Pickled « „ ... 19 

Bullocks' Tongues, large each... 10 

do. small perdos. ... 6 

Pigs* do „ ... « 

Sheeps* do ., ... « 

Hind and fore quarters of pickled pork each... 3 

Tripe per keg... 6 

Salted Pastry Suet permd. ... SO 

Hogs' Lard do „ ... 16 

do. do. in Bladders each, 3 and....'. „ ... 4 

Rendered Marrow per ft... 8 

Bologna Sausages each ... 10 

German do per pair... 10 

Mutton camp do dos. ... 8 

Potted Beef.^ pcrft... 18 

do. Veal „ ... 18 

do. Hares „ ... 3 

do. Chickens „ ... 18 

do. Partridges „ ... 3 

do. Quub, &e „ ... 3 

Smoked Goose, each... S 

do. Ducks 1 4 

Beef Portable soup per ft ... 2 

Veal do „ ... 3 

Chicken do „ ... 2 8 

Vegetable do , „ ... 2 8 

PorkBiown „ ... 12 



Digitized by 



Google 



B8. A. 


F. 


12 





12 





13 





1 





3 





2 





3 





B 





S 





12 





4 





4 





12 





1 





1 





10 






AND COOKXAY. 491 



Bullocks* Tongaes, middling size each... 

Beef Brawn per ft ... 

Mutton do 9, ... 

Small Soused Pig „ ... 

Smoked Chine of Pork .each ... 

do. Roe Pish each 1 6 and ... 

Jlinoed meat per fc ... 

Tamarind Pish in small kegs containing 100 slices per keg ... 

Pine Neat's Poot Oil per quart ... 

Kegs oontg. pigs' cheeks, feet^tongues^ears and hocks ... per keg . . . 
Tamarind Pish in jars containing 60 slices each ... 

do. Roes in do. 24 large „ ... 

Kegs containing Tamarind Pish Roes „ ... 

Clarified Hogs' Lard in 3 lb. jars , „ ... 

Tasteless Caster Oil in quart bottles „ ... 

do. do. inPints do ^.... »> ... 



PICKLES, PRESERVES, ETC. 

Pickled Cauliflower in Bottles per ft 

do. White Cabbage „ 

do. Red do „ 

do. Piccallili „ 

do. Beet Root „ 

do. Bamboo „ 

do. Lidian Corn. „ 

do. Purple Cabbage. „ 

do. Sliced Cucumbers „ 

do. Stufed do „ 

do. Girkins „ 

do. Onions „ 

do. French Beans „ 

do. Ginger , „ 

do. Mangoes per jar 

do. Mangoes per square bottle 

do. Country Plums „ 

do. Peaches ,, 

do. Radish Pods „ 

do. Stuffed Chillies, Red and Green.. „ 

do. Limes, 1 dozen in each.: per jar 

do. Sour Crout '. .. ..per keg or jar 

do. Chorindah „ 





8 







8 







8 







8 







S 







8 







8 







8 







8 







8 







8 







8 







8 







8 







8 















8 







8 







8 































8 






Digitized by 



Google 



492 



INDIAN OOHBSTIC XCONOKT 



■per bottle... 8 and... 3 



:i 



Essence of Ghormdah of a snperior quality per phial.. 

do. do per pint., 

Chili Vinegar .....per quarter bottle.. 

Pine Clarified Lime juice $, .. 

Love-apple Chutney, I, 

Mangoe do 

Mint do 

Apple and Lime do 

Sorrel do 

Preserved Oranges 

do. Limes 

do. Peaches 

do. Melons 

do. Ginger of a snperior quality. 

do. Citron , 

do. Chorindah Vper lb., 

do. Pears 

do. Apples 

do. Chow-Chow 

do. Red Tamarind 

do. Yellow do 

do. Green do. 

do. Whole Strawberries from the Farm Gardens. 

do. Alloobookarrah. per & 

do. Loquats „ 

do. Pine Apple „ 

do. Nectarine », 

Guava Jelly », 

Peach do m 

Mangoe do „ 

Sorrell do „ 

Alloobookarrah do „ 

do. Marmalade .' t, 

Mangoe do „ 

Orange do .' „ 

Sweet Rusks, Bath Cakes, &c „ 

Spiced Ginger Bread Nuts „ 

Rich Plum-Cakes „ 

do. Seed do „ 

Dried Artichoke Bottoms per 100 

Marrow-Fat Peae ; per seer 

FinePatna Potatoes for seed per md. 

do. do. forTable , „ 



BS. 


A. 


P. 


2 








6 








1 


8 





S 









1 























12 
4 3 
3 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 
/ 



AND COOKEBY. 



493 



VEGETABLE AND FLOWER GARDEN SEED. 



At 10 Rs. and 5 Rs. per Box, 


containing the undermentioned, 


1 Mixed Cabbage 


35 Indian Sorrcll 


2 Cauliflower 


36 B«d Beet 


3 Knole Cole 


37 White do. 


4 Co88 Lettace 


38 do. Carrots 


5 Bed do. 


39 Red do. 


6 Cabbage Lettuce 


40 Orange do. 


7 Curled Endive 


41 Long White Radish 


8 10 lb. Marrow Fat Peas 


42 do. Red do. 


9 Early Dwarf do. 


43 Cape Red Turnip 


10 Imperial Blue do. 


44 do. White do. 


11 Dwarf Prussia do. 


45 Botan do. 


12 Green Marrow do. 


46 White Bombay Onion 


13 White Prussian do. 


47 Red Patna 


14 Green Symitaire do. 


48 Artichoke 


15 Windsor Bean 


49 Asparagus 


16 Early Pod do. 


50 Europe Cress 


17 White French do. 


51 do. Parsley 


18 Dwarf do. 


62 Green Nepaul Spinach 


19 Scarlet do. 


53 Europe Spinach 


20 Kidney do. 


54 Broad Iieaf do. 


81 Bkck French do. 


55 Red China do. 


22 Hill do. 


66 Italian Celery 


23 Country Dwarf do. 


57 Blue Larkspur Flower 


24 Butter do. 


68 Sweet Sultan 


25 China Broad do. 


59 Yellow Choys Anthemum 


26 Alkoose do. 


60 Pot Marygold 


27 Cross do. 


61 China Satin 


28 Cape Dwarf Cucumbers 


62 do. Pink 


29 Long Hill Cucumbers 


63 Nepaul Marygold 


30 do. do. Pumkins 


64 Wairflower 


31 Occur 


65 Lupines 


32 Large Cape Capsicums 


66 Mignionette 


33 Nepaul Upright Chillies 


67 Double Red Poppy 


3i Long Chillies 


68 do. Balsam 



Digitized by 



Google — 



494f INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

69 Double Variegated 75 Ten Week Stock 

70 Nepaol Bnilcss 76 Yellow Cocksoomb 

71 Holly Hock 77 Nasturtium 

72 Snap Dragon 78 Sun Flower 

73 Camomile 79 White Larkspur 

74 Red Cockscomb 80 Starry Marygold. 



DINAPOOR BAZAR PRICES. 

Beefy 9 Pies to 1 aona per seer. 

Mutton, 1} to 3 annas do. 

Kid, 2 to 2^ annas per quarter. 

Pork, common, for natiyes» .1 to 1| annas per seer. 

Cbickcn, 1| to 3 annas each. 

Geese, 1 Eupee each. 

Duck, 8 annas each. 

Large Roasting Fowl* . . 8 to 10 annas each. 

Middling, 4 to 6 annas each. 

Cow and Buffalo Milk, . . 35 seers per Rupee. 

Butter, ...'..... 1) to If seers per Rupee. 

Mustard Oil, 3 annas per seer. 

Linseed Oil 3| annas per seer. 

Burning Castor Oil, ... 5 to 5}^ seers per Rupee. 

Firewood, 4 to 5 Maunds per Rupee. 

Fine soft Sugar, 3| to 4| seers per Rupee. 

Brown Sugar, 7 to 8 seers per Rupee. 

Goor or Jaggery, .... 1 Rupee 13 annas to 3 Rnps. per maund. 

Ghee, 3} to 3 seers per Rupee. 

Table Rice, 13 to 16 seers per Rupee. 

Common Rice, 35 to 35 seers per Rupee. 

Single Loaves of Bread, . . 20 to 35 loayes per Rupee. 

Butter Biscuits, 3 seers per Rupee* 

Plain Biscuits, 4 seers per Rupee. 



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AND COOKERT. 495 



CALCUTTA MONEY WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



' COINS. 



20 Gundas , ■ 

4 Puns J-«l°altoi 
4 Annas 



Accounts are kept here in Rupees, with their subdivisions, 
Annas and Pie; 12 Pie make 1 Anna; 16 Annas one Rupee. 

The standard of the Bengal money has ever been silver. 
Gold is occasionally coined, but the great bulk of the cur- 
rency is silver. 

Cowries, small, white, glossy shells, are made use of for 
small payments in the Bazar, and are generally thus 
r^oned« 

4 Cowries"! fl Gunda. 

1 Pun, 
1 Anna, 
^1 Cahun, which is about Jof a Rupee. 

But they rise and fall according to the demand there is 
for them, and the quantity in the market. 

Local Weights and Measures. 

The subdivisions of the ponderary systems, throughout the 
whole of British India, generally agree in name, though they 
differ in value. Thus in every case, 

* Dhans 1 Ruttee. 

8 Ruttees 1 Masha. 

12 Mashas 1 Tolah. 

5 Tolahs 1 Chittack. 

16 Chittacks 1 Seer. 

^0 Seers l Maund. 

The Number of Dhans in a Ruttee, and the number of 
Tolahs in a chittack, is arbitrary. 



Digitized by 



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496 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 



THE COMMERCIAL WEIGHTS OF INDIA, 

Compared with the British Indian Unit op Weight and 
WITH THE Avoirdupois System op England. 

(Selected from Princep*8 Tables.) 







tu 






Place. 


Denomination of Weights. 


4i 








%< 


o^ 


:?«9 






I 


^ 


>^ 






ft. OE. dr. 


Tolahi. 


Mnns. 


BlNiJLES. 


Tola of 215 0x8. Troy,. - 


... 


1,194 






Seer of 106 Sa. Wt., - 


2 10 ... 


105 


l.Sl'25 




Seer of 103 do. 


2 9 2 


103 


1.2875 




Seer of 96 do, - 


2 6 7 


96 


1.2000 



Calcutta. 



COBSIXBAZAR 

{Bengal.) 



CULPZZ 



{A^a.) 



FURUKHABAD 
llCDOEE (If«/tP«.) 



Malwa 
{Central India.) 

Patna {Behar,) 



Bee the Tahlee, Grain Weights or measures are derived firon 
the others, as follows: 

1 Koonkee=^5 Chittacks, 

1 Raik»4 Koonkees«=li 
Seer, - - • 

1 PaUy^i Eaiks— 5 Seers, 

1 Soally = 20 Pallies=2* 

Mannds, - - - .205S-7th 
Seers, of 76. 78. 80, and 82. 10 

ToUhs, 
Seer, for sugar, Metals, Grain 

„ for Ghee, - - - 

, for Cotton, - • 

, for Grain, Wholesome, - 

, Wholesale HO Sa. Wt., 

, retail, 94 do. 

,, for Spice, 82 do. 
Seers of 8*2 Oujein Rupees, . 
Maund of 20 Seers, for Grain 
Mannee of 12 Maunds, - 
Maund of 40 Seers for Opium, 
&c., - - - - - 
Totalofl2Maahas, - 
Seer of 84 Salimsahy, Ba. - 2 
Maund of 20 Seers, - • 40 

Tolah of 12 Mashas, 209 grains 

Seerfrom45to81 Sa.Wt. ... 80. I.IOOO 



2 
40 

486 



81 
190 gr. 
6 
7 8 



25 

90 
400 

5.400 

Tolahs. 
82.487 
92.816 
94.184 
95.652 
110. 
94. 
82 
78!803 



12. 
1.056 
78.689 

1.161 
80. 



2.500 

Mnns. 
(1.0310) 
(1.1602) 
(1.1773) 
(1.1944) 
(1.3625) 
(1.1750) 
(1.0250) 
(1.9860) 
0.4925 
5,9096 

0.9849 



(0.4918) 



Digitized by 



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AND COOKEKT. 

MADEAS PRICE CURRENT. 



497 



FISH. 

Boeball, 4- to 2 annas «acli. 

Mallet, -^ to 2 „ „ 

Wtcd, 1 „ „ 

Fomplet^ white and blacky . • 1 to 6 ^^ „ 

Whiting, 3 or 4 for • • • . 1 „ „ 

Diy, do. 6 for • . . 1 i^ ^^ 

Seer fish, • ... • . • 2 to 4 ,, ^, 

Dry, do. • . • ^ 8 to 4 „ „ 

Oysters, per hundred, ... 4 „ „ 

Prawns, 3 dozen for . • . 1 pie 

do. large 1 do 1 „ 

BEEF. 
Prime pieces, » • .1st sort, per lb. 2 annas. 

do 2d do. do. 1^ „ 

do. • . • •3d do* do* 1 „ 

Briskets and Bound, . • 1st do. do. 2 „ 

do. . • • . 2d do. do. 1^ „ 

do 8d do. do. 1 „ 

Heat for Soup, 1 >> 

Shin, . • . • 1st do. each, 6 „ 

do. • • • . . 2d do. do. 4 jj 

Tongue, .... Jarge do. 1^ rupees 

do « . small do. I „ 

Heart, . • • . large do.^ 2 annas. 

do small do. 2 ,, 

Harrow Bone, . . • /^. . . . 2 „ 

Peet, four, 8 „ 

$aet, per lb. 6 „ 

VEAL, SMALL. 

Hmd Quarter, . . . Ist sort, per lb. 6 as. kid* 

do 2cl do. do. 5 „ 

do. ' • • • •3d do. do, 4 ^y 

V 2 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



498 



INDIAN DOItBanO XCONOICY 



Fore Quarter, 


. 1st 


sort. 


per lb 


,8 as. kid. 


do. 


. . 2d 


do. 


do. 


n ., 


do. 


. 8d 


do. 


do. 


i „ 




VEAL, LARGE. 






Hind Quarter, 


. Ist 


sort. 




5 rupees. 


do. 


2d 


do. 


3 to 


5i „ 


do. 


. 8d 


do. 


2 to 


4 n 


Fore Quarter, 


1st 


do. 


2i to 


K „ 


do. 


. . . 2d 


do. 


2 to 


H „ 


do. . « 


8d 


do. 


1 to 


H „ 


Head, . 


. Ist 


do. 


each 


U „ 


do. . • 


2d 


do. 


do. 


4 ,. 


do. . . 


. 8d 


do. 


do. 


8 annas. 


Feet, four. 


Ist 


do. 


do. 


8 „ 


do. • . 


. . . 2d 


do. 


do. 


5 „ 


do. . . 


8d 


do. 


do. 


4 „ 


Liver and Heart, 


. 1st 


do. 


do. 


3 „ 


do. . 


2d 


do. 


do. 


^T » 


do. 


. . . 8d 


do. 


do. 


8 » 



MUTTON. 

Saddle^ » • 4 rupees. 

Leg, 1st sort^ . 1 „ 

Leg and Loin, ^i m 

Shoulder and Neck, • ; • , ^ 1 ,, 

Breast, • • • . Ist do. • .12 annas* 

Saddle, ..... 2d do. • 3 rupees. 

Leg, . • • • 2d do. 4 • It >> 

Loin, . • . . 2d do* • 12 annas. 

Shoulder and Neck, . . . . . 12 „ 

Breast, . ... 2d do* , ^ » 

Saddle, . • • . 3d do* . .2 rupees. 

Leg, Loin, Shoulder, and Neck, 8d do* . 1^ ,, 

Breast, • . * • Sd do. • t 4 aimas* 

Tongue> * 3 or 4 pies* 

Brains, • * • » * • • 3 or 4 ,» 



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AND OOOKBRT. 499 

Head, • .-2 annas. 

Feet, four, 4 pies. 

Liver and Heart, 2 annas. 

Suet, - - - per lb, - - 6 „ 

MUTTON FOE NATIVES. 

First sort, - * - - per seer^ - - S annas. 

Second do. - - - do. - - 1+ „ 

Third do. - - - do. - - - 1 „ 

Head, feet, liver, and heart, - - - - • ,^ 

Brains, - 8 or 8 pies, 

KID, SMALL. 

Hind Quarter, - - - 1st sort, per K, 4 annas* 

do. - - ^ - 2d do. do. S ,, 

do. - - . 8d do. do. 2^ „ 

Pore Quarter, - * - 1st do. do. 4 „ 

do. - - - - 2d do. do. 8 „ 

do. - * • - Qd do. do* 1 ,1 

KID, LAEGE. 

Hind Quarter,. - - - 1st sort, per lb, 6 annas, 

do. - - - ^ 8d do. do. 4 i. 

Fore Quarter, - -' - 1st do. do. 5 ^ 
do. - - - - 8d do. do. 8^ „ 

do. - - * - 3d do, do. 3 „ 

Head, feet, liver, and heart, - - - - 4 » 

POEK, FRESH AND SALT. 



Pork, 

Pig, roasting, large size, 

do. do. small do. 
Pig's head, - 



Pigs^ feet, large. 



per lb, 
each, - 
do. 

do. - 
per lb,' 
per set. 



- £ 

8 

S to 6 

1 
. 4 

2 



annas, 
rupees. 

t9 
39 

annas. 

99 



Digitized by 



Google 



fiOO 



INDIAN BOMSSTIC lOONOMT 



Pig's liver and heart. 
Salt Pork, country. 
Pigs' feet, small, - 



Geese, - - . 
Turkey Cock, Bombay, 

do. Hen, do. 
Powl, large, - 

do. small. 
Chickens, large, 

do. small) 
Ducks, large, 

do. small. 
Hens' Eggs, • 
Ducks' do. - 



per lb, 
per sety 



POULTfir. 



each, 

do. - 

do. 

do. - 

do. 
per doz. 

do. 
each, 

do. 



5 



2^ to 
li to 



6 
2 
S 
8 



to 
to 
or 
or 



6 

6 

8 
1 

15 
8 
4 
S 
8 



r. Si 
anni&l 



pes. 



FRUITS OF SOETS. 



sort^ 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



Pine apples, - - - 1st 

do. . - . - 2d 

Pummelos, - - - 1st 

do 2d 

Guavas, - - • - 1st 

do. «d 

Oranges, - - - - Ist 

do. «d 

Water melon, large, - . - 
do. do. small, . - . 

Plantains red, large, - - - 
do. do. small, - 

do. yellow, large, - - . 
do. do. small, ... 

Limes, ----- 

Potatoes, Neilgherry, large, - per viss, 

do. do. small, - do. 

Tams, - . • - • - do. 

Onions^ large, - . « - - do. 
do. small^ • - * -do. 



each, 

do. 

do. 
each, 

8 for 
12 for 

2 for 

4 for 
each, 

do. 

4 for 

6 for 
18 for 
16 for 
22 for 



6 
4 
6 

1 

I 
1 

1 

1 

9 
1 

1 
1 

I 
1 
3 

H 

5 
4 



annas. 

annas, 
fanam. 



anna. 

pie. 

fanam. 



fanam. 
annas. 

99 
5J 

if 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMD COOKBBY. 

DRY FRUITS OP SORTS. 



501 



Almonds, . • . . 


1st sort, per viss, 8 annas. 


do. • . • • 


2d do. do. 


6 to 7 „ 


BREAD, FLOUR 


, ROLONG, ETC. 


A loaf of let poiz IS oz. . 


. each. 


. 1 fanam. 


do. of 2d do. 18 „ • 


• do. • 


1 anna. 


do. Brown, • . , 


do. 


. 40 cash. 


Flour, wheat, 


per lb. • 


6 as. 8 pies. 


Belong, 


do. 


• 6 „ „ 


Sago, fine, • • • 


do. 


2 annas. 


do. coarse, • • • 


do. 


. H ,, 


Arrowroot, 


do. 


H ,. 


MILK AND BUTTER. 




Cows* Milk, . 


. per seer. 


. 4 annas. 


do. Batter, 


per cap, . 


6 to 8 „ 


Buffaloes' Milk, 


. per seer. 


. 2i „ 


do. Batter, 


per cap, . 


4 



OIL, CANDLES, AND SOAP. 



Cocoanat Oil, 

do. do. . 
Ginjlee, 

Candles, Europe, 
Soap, coantry, 



Sugar candy. 
Sugar, white, 

do. red. 
Brown, • 
Jagree, 



1st sort, per md. 8^ rupees. 



2d do. do. 

• . do* do. 

•• • per lb., • , 
. per viss, 

SUGAR OP SORTS. 



2 rs. 10 as. 
* >9 12 „ 
l-j- rupees. 
S annas. 



Ist sort, per viss, 12 annas. 
Ist do. do. 6 

• do. do. 4 
do. do. ItoS 

• do. do« 2 



GHEE OF SORTS. 



First sort, . . . per viss. 
Second do do. 



10 annas. 
8 „ 



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502 INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

MADRAS MONEY, WEIGHTS, AND MEA8UBES. 



COINS. 



The new currency in Madras, consists of Bupe^, half 
and quarter Bupees, double and single Annas, and in cop- 
per, half and quarter Annas and single Pies. 

Accounts are kept in Bupees, with their subdivisionsi 
Annas and Fie, thus : 

12 Pice, 1 Anna. 

16 Annas, . . . • I Bupec* 

3^ Bupees exchange in aiccount for 1 Pagoda. 

The Star Pagoda is exchanged in the bazar for abont 
45 Fanams. 

The old coins in circulation are the Star Pagoda, the 
Arcot Bupee, the double and single Fanam, and the Doo-^ 
die. There is also a copper coin sent out from Europe^ 
of 20> 10, 5, and 1 cash value, the latter being worth 
8*75ths, or about the 9th part of a farthing. 



WEIGHTS. 

10 Pagoda weight, = 1 PoUam. 
40 Pollams, • . = 1 Viss- 

8 Viss, . . = 1 Md. wt. 26 lb. Avoirdupois. 
20 Maunds, . . = 1 Candy, 500 lb. Avoirdupois. 



MBASURBS. 

Grain or Dry Measure. 

8 OUocks, . . = 1 Measure, or Puddy. 
8 Measures, . = 1 Marcal. 
400 Marcals, . • = 1 Garce, wt. 9256^ lbs. 



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AND COOKERY. 



503 



Eaoh parah is to be 2 feet square and 6:^ inches deep. 

A parah of chunam is 5 marcals. 

Milk^ Oil, Ohee, kc, are sold by the grain measure, 
containing 8 ollocks; 20 oUocks are equal to 1 English 
Crallon. 

The Covid in Cloth Measure -is 18 inches, but the 
English yard of 36 inches is generally used. 



Table of ExchcMge for the Settlement of the Madras Ouitoma* 



CowUry, 




Value in Madras Cmreney, 


Great Britain . 

fiance 

India, .... 

GvAou and Cape of Good 

Portugal, * , ■ . " . ' 
Denmark, . . . . 
Sweden, .... 


Pound Sterling, . \ 
DoUar, .... 
Lirre Toumois of France, . 
Sicca Rupee, . , , 
Bombay Rupee, . 

Rix DoUar, . , . 
Milrea, . . . . 
Rix Dollar, . 

Do 


10 Compan/s Rs, each. 
2 Rupees 3 Annas do. 
»Rs. 11 As. for 24 
106 Rs. 8 As. for 100 

1 Rupee each. 

14 Annas each. 

2 Rupees 8 Annas each. 
2 Rupees 4 Annas each. 
8 Rupees 4 Annas each. 



jsrsOBE. 

COINS. 

16 Cash make =» 1 Fananu 

10 Fanams ....= 1 Cantaria Pagoda=:6«. 4J. Ster. 

6 Cantaria Pagodas are equal to 5 Star Pagodas or 17^ 
Madras Bupees. 

MEASURES. 

40 Pucca Seers make ^^ 1 Morah. 

60 do = 1 Batty. 

521 do = 1 Garce. 

The Candy equals 560 lb Avoirdupois. 

9 Trichinopoly measures := 50 / lb Avoirdupois. 



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604 INDIAN DOKBSnC SCONOHT 

SXCHAK0E8. 

The Star Pagoda is 45 Fanams. 
The Bahadry Fag. is 46 Fanams 29 cash = 8^. 3J. Ster. 

HTDERABAD. 
COINS. 

15 Pice make 1 Anna. 

16 Annas make 1 Hyderabad Bopee. 

SXCHAN6E. 

8884^ Hyderabad Rupees equal to 350 Madras Bupees. 

PONBICHERRT. 

COINS. 

60 Cash make 1 Fanam. 
£4 Fanams t, 1 Pagoda. 
Madras Coins are also in currency here. 

Gold and Silver are weighed by the Seer of 24} Bupees^ 
81^ Pagodas, or 1%\\ Fanams. 

A Bupee weight = 30 Fanams, or 480 Nellas. 

A Pagoda weight is 9 Fanams, or 144 do. 

3 Bapees equal in weight to 10 Star Pagodas. 

1 Seer equals 4293 grains Troy. 

COHMBKCUL WIfilGHTS. 

8 Viss make 1 Maund » S5 Ks. 14 oz. 5^^ drs. 

80 Maunds make 1 Candy «» 517 Ifis* 14 oz. 14 drs. 
Bice and all other sorts of Grain are sold by the garce 
of 600 Marcals. 

100 Marcals equal to 18 English Bushels nearly. 
The Garce = 13-^ English Quarters, 



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AND GOOKEilY. 



605 



THE COMMERCIAL WEIGHTS OF INDIA, 
Compared with the British Indian Unit of Weight 

AND WITH THE AvoiRDUPOlS SysTEM OF ENGLAND. 



(Selected /ram Prinsep's Tables.) 



Place. 



Ajlcot. 



BlLLiET. {Mad, 
udtd dutrieU.) 

Maobas. 



Deaomination of Weights. 



Maivlitatam. 

[Madrat:) 



Mnon. 

POBDICBZKRT. 



TUTAHCORe. 

{liaiabar,) 

Teichinopolt. 

[Cvnatic.) 



Packa Seer of 24 Pollams. - 
Puddy, for grain»47 do. - - 
Rikcha Seer, of 24 Rupees. - 
Do. Maond of 40 Seers, - 
Candy of 20 Maunds. . - . 
Pncka Seer, for grain, 84 Rs. - 
Candy of 20 Colages, or 160 Srs. 
Marcal of 9, 10, 12, &c. to 96 Srs. 
Seer of 21 Mysore Rs, or Tolab. 

Maond, 48 Seers, • 

Maond, for Cotton,»li Noggah 
Thinapoo, grain meas. 112 Ra. . 
Marcal, Chonam do.sl2 Seen. 
Pagoda weiglit«52.56 grs. • • 
Biaond of 40 Seers or 8 Yiss. - 
Candy of 20 Maonds. .... 
Garce for Grain=:12.8 Mds. - 
Poddy, Oil Mea. ^^ Ollucks or 
Parah, for Chanam=»5 Marcals. 
Mangelin for Pearls=:6 Gnins. - 

18 Madras Chows=65 Bychows, 
Tolah^SO Chunams. . . . . 
Kucha Seer and Mds. as Madras. 

Pucka Maund=»40 Seer of 2 fts, 
Seer of 90 Madras Pagodas. . 

Seer of 72 do. (for Metals.) . . 

Seer of 96 do. (for Cotton.) - 

Marcal, Grain Measore 12 Seers. 

Garce do. do. 4800 Seers. 

:Seer=24 Mysore Rfi. of 179 Grs. 

Seer of 24]^ Pon. Us.=»781i Pan 

Maund of 8 Viss. ..... 

Garce of Grain=100 Marcals. - 

Tolah of 20 Pounds. ... 

Candy of 30 Tolahs for purchase. 
do. 20 Maonds for sale, > 

Parah, grain measure, ... 

Pncka Seer=>27 Pollams. . . 

Mannd=» 13.114 Seers. . •' . 

Seer for Metals»4167-7 grs. . 

Marcal, grain mea, 1^ GiUlon. 




lb. 
1 
3 

25 

500 
2 

336 


25 
26 



OS. dr, 
13 

8 12 
10 





1 
12 



1< 



25 
500 
320 
9375 
3750 







cub. in. 
cub. in. 



•^0 

80 




Tolahs, 
70.486 
137.930 
24.304 



81.640 



20.621 



112, 

1008. 

0.292 

24.304 






3i 



4 







5.6 





179.04 
11 

9 

12 
8 

1250 
9 13 
9 lU 
25 14 5} 
13^ quarters, 
19 14 11 
5967 8 10 
500 8 2 
2 quarts 
1 14 8 



25 




0,995 
27.342 

2i',876 
29.165 
20.210 
gallons, 
do, 

28.850 
23.622 



74.132 
23,167 



Muns. 
(0.8811) 

0.8038 
0.3038 
6.0764 
1.0230 
4.0926 

0.2578 

0.3083 
0.3199 

0.8150 

0.3038 
6.0764 
3.8888 



(0.8418) 
0.9722 
0.2734 
0.3646 



(0.2981) 
0.3146 

0.2420 

7.2618 
6.0826 

0.3038 
(0.2896) 



Q2 



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506 



INDIAN iwinanc zconomy. 



PlMe. 



Denominatum of Weights. 




Htdeuabad. 
{Deecau.) 



Jaulvah. 
{Eydrabad.) 



LvCKlfOW. 

{Oude,) 



lb. oz. dr. 

Seer of 80 Hyderabad. Rs 1 15 12 

Kucha Maund of 13 SeerB. 23 13 

Pukca do. of 40 do. 79 6 

PTillaofl20Seer8for selling. 288 2 
Tolah of 12 Mashas. 184.5 gzs. 

Pucka, SeerofRs. for Grain. 2 1 

do. Maund of 40 Seers. 80 8 8 
Kucha Maund of 12 Seers 

(for Ghee, Liquids, &c. 

Measure.) 
Seer of 100 Lucknow Ks. 



24 
2 



7 12 
6f 



Tolahs 
77.710 



1.025 
77.926 



95.817 



Muns. 
(0.9546) 
(0.2293) 
(0.9646) 
(2.8938) 



0.9471 



0.2923 
1.1977) 



CEYLON MONEY, WEIOHTS AND MEASURES. 



COINS. 

Accounts are kept in English Currency^ and the old 
Coins in circulation are as follow : 
4 Pice make 1 Fanam. 

12 Fanams ,, 1 Bix Dollar of 48 Stivers^ value Is. 9d. 
Sterling. 

EXCHANGES. 

4 English or 3 Dutch Chalees equal 1 Pice, 
Dutch Ducaton pass for 80 Stivers. 

do. Shilling 74^ do. 

Negapatam Pagoda 90 do. 

Silver Rupee 30 do. 

The Stiver or cash is a copper coin. 

All the coins of the Coromandel Coast are current in Ceyloa. 



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AND COOKERY. 607 

The Star Pagoda fluctuates from 59 io 61 ^ Fanams ia 
Bills drawn on Madras. 

The Sicca Bupee passes for 18 Fanams either in Specie 
or Bills. 

. The Bombay Rupee do. 17 do. in Bills. 

18 do. Bazaar. 

The Spanish DoUar from 37 to 39 Fanams. 

350 Arcot Bupees equal 400 Ceylon Bupees or Rix Dol- 
lars, but bills are generally drawn from 490 to 500 £ix 
Dollarsi per 850 Madras Rupees. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Bahar or Candy of 480 lbs. Dutch Troy or 620^ lbs. 
Avoirdupois ; but the English weights are in nse here. The 
Candy or Bahar contains 600 lbs. Avoirdupois or 461 lbs. 
Dutch Troy. One complete bag or 146 lbs. net or 168 lbs. 
Avoirdupois gross weight. The Garce equals 9255-^ lbs. or 
82 cwt. 2 qrs. 164- ^s* Avoirdupois, A Bale of Cinnamon is 
94 lbs. Dutch Troy^ or 102 S5s. Avoir, gross : the tare is 
14 Ks*, so that the net is 80 lbs. Dutch Troy, or 86^ lbs. 
'Avoirdupois. The anna of Rice in the husk is 240 lbs. 
Dutch Troy, er 260|^ lb. Avoirdupois. 

LONG MKASUKS. 

The Covid is I84. English Inches. 

DRY MEASURE. 

4 CutChundoos make -...1 Cut Measure or Seer. 

4^ Seers 1 Corney. 

2f Marcales 1 Parah. 

8 Parahs 1 Ammonam. 

9-1^ Ammonams or 1800 Meas...l Last. 

Qili Milk ^nd Ghee, are sold by Chundoos and Measures* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



£08 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ICONOMT 



The Parah measures 16.7 English Square Inches, aud 5.6 
Inches deep; and contains 6^ English Wine GhiUoiis. 

A measure of salt weighs 44 lbs. 
CofTee and Pepper, &c. 80 lbs. 

WINK MEASURE. 

15 Drams make 1 Quart. 

2 Quarts 1 Canade. 

2i Canades 1 Gallon. 

5 do. or 2 Gallons 1 Welt. 

75 Welts make 1 Leaguer. 

Arrack is bought at 80 Welts and sold at 75 Welta 
the Leaguer. 

The Long and Land Measures are the same as in England. 



AURUNGABAD PRICE CURRENT. 

Price of AHieles sold in the Cantonment Bazaar during tie Year 
1847 and part of 1848* 



Wheat '^Ks. 

do. Flour... „ ... 
Javary „ .. 

do. Flour... „ ... 
Bajree „ ... 

do. Flour „ ... 
Chenna „ ... 

do. Flour „ ... 

do. Dhall „ ... 
Toovur „ .., 

do. Dhall „ .. 
Moong „ .. 

do. Dhall „ .. 
Oodud „ .. 

do. Dhall „ .. 



Average Phoe ofi Average price of 
article* nom the articles froni the 



the 

Ist Janoanr to 

the «th Febrn- 

ary, 1847. 



15J to 
13i to 
32 to 
27 to 
35 to 
29 

19 to 
15 
16 
28 

14 to 
28 

18 to 
28 
18 to 



16 sr. 
14 „ 
36 , 
29 , 



20 

18 
23 
23 



lOth March, to 

the 36th March, 

1847. 



Average] 
the articles r 



15th November, 

to the 18th Feb- 

maiy. IMa. 



21 

17i 

42 

34 

42 

34 

22 

14 

16 

34 

21 

30 

18 

30 

18 



of Avenge arfioe«r 

the^artielea hum the 
lSthAfiri],to 
tfaedtTlUr, 
184*. 



to 22 sr. 
to 19 
to 44 
to 36 
to 44 
to 36 



to 24 
to 24 
to 24 



16 

IH 

55 

40 

48 

40 

18 

12 

14 

40 

20 

36 



tolTsr. 
to 15,; 
to 56, 

to 50 ', 

to 19' 



to24„ 
to 40 



24,30 to 32, 

35 

22 to 21 : 



35 
28 
60 
48 
55 
40 
85 
20 
28 
50 
31 
35 
22 
26 
16 



to 36 ar. 

to21 ^ 

to 62 „ 

to49 „ 

to 56 „ 

to 42 „ 

to 36 „ 



to 32 
to 28 



to 20 



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AND COOXKttY. 



50d 



Musaoor. .... As. 

do. Dhall „ .. 

Rice „ .. 

Ghee „ .. 

Goor „ .. 

Sugar „ .. 

do. Candy „ .. 

Mydah „ .. 

Soujee , .. 

Salt „ .. 

Saltpetre », .. 

Oil Karadee. „ .. 
do. Thillee. . ,» .. 
do. Cocoanut ,, .. 
do. Castor... ,, .. 
CoVb Milk. „ .. 
Buffalo's do. », .. 
Table Butter „ .. 
Bazaar do. „ ., 

Suet „ .. 

Beef „.. 

Table mutton ^ 

seer. 

Bazaar mutton ^ 

seer 

Loaves 

Muffin. 

Blown loaves, ^ 

loaf. 

Biscuits 

Charcoal 

Wood 

Hemp* 

Twine 

Cotton . 

TowlSy full grown 

do. half do. 
Chiekens. ... „ .. 

Efgs >» .. 

Pioe (exchange).. 



12 sr. 

6 to 14 „ 

^ to2in 

54 to 5^ 
li2to2i 

4 to 9 

6^ to 7 
16 



Avfnge price 

aiticlea turn the 

l«t Jamunr, to 

the Itth yeb- 

fiMiy.lg«7. 



ofl&renfnj 



12 sr. 

6 to 14 „ 
2ito2i „ 
6i to 6 „ 

li 
10 

9 
18 



7 

16 
20 
10 

P 

8 



balls, 
seers. 

to 13 



2^ Annas. 

S to 10 sr. 
12 



3 

2.3 
70 

14 
4 

4 

6 

8 

70 

70 



Pice, 
to 4 sr, 

to 5md, 
seers. 



1847. 



H 

16 
20 
10 

s» 

8 



balls, 
seers 

to 13 ! 



2^^ Annas. 

8 to 10 sr 
15 



Pice, 
sr. 



2i P 
2,3 to 4 
70 

4^ to 5md. 
12 seers 

H 

4 

6 

8 
69 
69^ 



price 
from the 



^. jprice ofjAvenge 

artidea Irom the 

10th March to . 

the 96th March, to the 18th Peb* 



» , or 

ifirtidei 

16th November. 



raary. 



1848. 



A^e rage price of 

artidea fhim the 

16th April to 

the 8th Mar, 

1848. • 



20 

17 

6 

? 

2 

9 
16 

4 

7 

5 

2 

3 

16 
20 
10 

3 

6 

8 



sr. 



8 
14 



to 16 
to 2i 
to 4 

to2i;; 

tolj,, 



to 5 



30 
24 

6 to 18 

7 to8 
2 to2i 
li to2 

10 to 16 
12, 15 & 1'6 
18 

4 to5 

8 

6 

2 

3 
16 



balls 
seers 

to 13 ! 



2^ Annas. 



to 10 sr. 



3 

2,3 
70 

.? 

4 

4 

4 

6 

8 
62 
6H 



Pice, 
to 4 sr. 

to 5md 

seers 

to 4i, 



10 
3 
6 

8 



balls, 
seers. 



to 13 



2| Annas. 

8 tolOsr. 
17 
34 

34 perRupee. 
3^,4 to 5 sr. 

. "': 

* to6 „ 

i 

6 

8 

124 
62 



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CHAPTER XXXI. 



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INDUN DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY. 511 



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AND COOKBBT. 



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£2 



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5U 



INDIAN DOMESTIC SCONOUT 



SXCBAMGB TABIiS. 



SJiOwing the Exchange between Co.'s Rupees and Sicca Rupees, and 

Vice Versa. 



Sicca Bupees to 


Company's 
Eupees. 


Company's 
Eupees to 


Sicca Eupees. 


Ks. A. F. B. 


Ra. A. p. D. 


Ra. A. F. B. 


Es. A. p. J). 


100000 


L06666 10 8 ... 


100000 


93750 


50000 


53333 5 4 ... 


50000 


46875 


40000 


42666 10 8 ... 


40000 


37500 


30000 


32000 


30000 


28125 


20000 


21333 5 4 ... 


2O0O0 


18750 


10000 


10666 10 8 ... 


10000 


9375 


5000 


5333 5 4 ... 


5000 


4687 8 


4000 


4266 10 8 ... 


4000 


3750 


3000 


3200 


3000 


2812 8 


2000 


2133 5 4 ... 


2000 


1875 


1000 


1066 10 8 ... 


1000 


937 8 


500 .. 


533 5 4 ... 


500 


468 12 


400 


426 10 8 ... 


400 


375 


300 


320 


300 


281 4 


200 


213 5 4 ... 


200 


187 8 


100 


106 10 8 ... 


100 


93 12 ... .. 


50 


53 5 4 ... 


50 


46 14 


40 


42 10 8 ... 


40 


37 18 


30 


32 


30 


28 2 


X 20 


21 5 4 ... 


20 


18 2 


10 


10 10 8 ... 


10 


9 6 


5 : ... 


6 5 4... 


5 


4 11 


4 


4 4 3 20 


4 


3 12 


X 3 


3 3 2 40 


3 


2 13 


2 


2 2 1 60 


2 


1 14 


1 


1 1 ... 80 


1 


15 


12 


12 9 90 

8 6 40 

4 3 20 

3 2 40 

2 1 60 


12 


11 3 ... 

7 6... 

3 9 ... 

2 9 75 

1 10 50 


8 

4 

8 




4 


3 

2 


2 


1 


1 ... 80 


1 


4 25 


9 ... 


9 60 


9 ... 


8 43 


6 ... 


6 40 


6 ... 


5 66 


3 ... 


3 20 


3 ... 


2 82 


2 ... 


2 13 


2 ... 


1 81 


1 ... 


1 7 


1 ... 


r 91 



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515 





TABXJi 


OF 


DAXIiT PAT 








from 1 to 500' Rupees, for months 


0/28. 


29. 


80 and 31 days. 




Rupees 
y month. 


of 28 Bays. 


of 29 Days. 


of 30 Days. 


of 31 Days. 


1 





7 





7 








6 








6 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 





1 


1 





1 





3 


1 


9 


1 


8 





1 


7 





1 




4 


2 


8 


2 


2 





2 


2 





2 




5 


2 


10 


2 


9 





2 


8 





2 




6 


3 


5 


3 


4 





8 


2 





3 




7 


4 





8 


10 





3 


9 





8 




8 


4 


7 


4 


5 





4 


8 





4 


2 


9 


5 


2 


5 








4 


10 





4 


8 


10 


5 


9 


5 


6 





5 


4 





5 


2 


1] 


6 


3 


6 


1 


0, 


5 


10 





5 


8 


12 


6 


10 


6 


7 


o' 


6 


5 





6 


2 


18 


7 


5 


7 


2 





6 


1] 





6 


9 


14 


8 





.0 7 


9 





7 


6 





7 


8 


IB 


8 


7 


8 


8 





8 








7 


9 


16 


9 


2 


8 


10 





8 


6 





8 


8 


17 


9 


9 


9 


5 





9 


1 





8 


9 


18 


10 


8 


9 


11 





9 


7 





9 


8 


19 


10 


10 


10 


6 





10 


2 





9 


10 


20 


11 


5 


11 








10 


.8 





10 


4 


21 


12 





11 


7 





11 


2 





10 


10 


22 


12 


7 


12 


2 





11 


9 





11 


4 


28 


13 


2 


12 


8 





12 


8 





11 


10 


24 


13 


9 


18 


8 





12 


10 





12 


5 


25 


14 


8 


18 


10 





13 


4 





12 


11 


26 


14 


10 


14 


4 





18 


10 





18 


5 


27 


15 


5 


14 


11 





14 


5 





18 


11 


28 


1 





15 


5 





14 


11 





14 


5 


29 


1 


7 


1 








15 


6 





15 





30 


1 1 


2 


1 


7 













15 


6 


81 


1 1 


9 


1 1 


1 







6 










32 


1 2 


8 


1 1 


8 




1 


1 







6 


33 


1 2 


10 


1 2 


2 




1 


7 




1 





34 


1 8 


« 


1 2 


9 




2 


2 




1 


7 


35 


1 4 





1 8 


4 




2 


8 




2 


1 


36 


1 4 


7 


1 8 


10 




8 


2 




2 


7 


87 


1 5 


2 


1 4 


5 




3 


9 




8 


1 


88 


1 5 


9 


1 5 







4 


3 




3 


7 


89 


1 6 


8 


1 5 


6 




4 


10 




4 


1 


40 


1 ' 6 


10 


1 6 


1 




5 


4 




4 


7 


41 


1 7 


5 


1 6 


7 




5 


30 




5 


2 


42 


1 8 





1 7 


2 


1 


6 


5 




5 


8 


43 


1 8 


7 


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9 




6 


11 




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2 


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8 




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6 




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45 


1 9 


9 


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10 




8 







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1 10 


8 


1 9 


5 




8 


6 




7 


9 


47 


1 10 


10 


1 9 


11 




9 


1 




8 


3 


48 


1 11 


5 


1 10 


6 




9 


7 




8 


9 


49 


1 12 





1 11 







10 


2 




9 


3 


50 


1 12 


7 


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7 




10 


8 




9 


10 


100 


8 9 


2 


3 7 


2 


3 


5 


4 




8 


7 


200 


7 2 


8 


6 14 


4 


6 


10 


8 




7 


3 


800 


10 11 


5 


10 5 


6 


10 










10 


10 


400 


14 4 


7 


13 12 


8 


33 


5 


4 


12 


14 


5 


500 


17 13 


9 


1 17 3 


10 


16 


10 


3 


16 


2 


1 



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516 



INDIAN OOMBsnC ECONOUT 





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518 



INDIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

TABLES OF POSTAGE. 



TABLE No. 1. 
Rales of Postage on Pre-paid Inland Letters, 



If not exceeding in weight 



One quarter Tolah, 
HalfaTolah, - - * 
OneTolah, - - - - 
OneandahalfTolah, - 

TwoTolalis, - ■ • • 



Postage. 



Half an anna, - 
One anna, - 
Two annas, - 
Three annas, 
Four I 



No. of Rates. 



One rate. 
Two rates. 
Fonr rates. 
Six rates. 
Eight rates. 



For every tolah iu weight above two tolahs^ two addfi 
tional annas, and every fraction of a tolah above two to-^ 
lahs shall be charged as one additional tolah. (Section VI^ 
Act XVII. of 1854.; 

A Ship Postage of one anna in addition to the above 
rates is leviable on delivery on all Letters received by Sea 
by a private Ship. Postage at double the rates under the 
above Schedule is leviable on the delivery of all Letters 
posted unpaid. 

TABLE No. 2. 

Bales oj Postage on Newspapers, Pamphlets and other Printed or Engraoed 
Papers and Proof Sheets, sent bjf Letter Mail. (A Sects. VIL, VIIL, 
IX. and X.) 



Newspapers, Pamphlets, &c., 
Peinted in India. 


Imported Newspapers, 
Pamphlets, &c. 


Not exceeding in 
weight. 


postage. 


Not exceeding in 
weight. 


Postage. 


Four Tolahs, - - 
Six Tolahs, - - 


One anna. 
Two annas. 


Six Tolahs, . . - 
Twelve Tolahs, - 


One anna. 
Two annas. 


Single Postage being added for every ad- 
ditional three tolahs, fractions of three 
tolahs being charged as three tolahs. 


Single Postage being added for every ad- 
ditional six tolahs, fractions of six to- 
lahs being charged as six tdahs. 



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AND COOKERY. 



519 



TABLE No. 8. 
Haieg of Postage <m Banghy Parcels. 







If not exceeding in weight. 


For Distancss. 


















20 


100 


200 


800 


400 


500 


600 




rolahs. 


TolahB. 


Tolahs. 


Tolahfl. 


Tolahs. 


Tolahs. 


Tolahs. 




Miles. 


B8. A. 


RS. A. 


R8. A. 


RS. A. 


RS. A. 


RS. A. 


RS. A. 


Not exceeding, - - 


100 


2 


4 


8 


12 


1 


1 4 


1 8 


Not exceeding, - 


80C 


6 


12 


1 8 


2 4 


3 


3 12 


4 8 


Not exceeding, - • 


60C 


12 


1 8 


8 


4 8 


6 


7 8 


9 


Not exceeding, - 


90C 


1 2 


2 4 


4 8 


6 12 


9 


11 4 


13 8 


Not exceeding, - - 


1,20( 


1 8 


3 


6 


9 


12 


15 


18 


Exceeding, 


1,200 


1 14 


3 12 


7 8 


11 4 


15 


18 12 


22 8 



Parcels conveyed bj Sea bj the East India Company's 
Post are subject to an additional charge of Ship Postage of 
eight annas for every hundred tolahs, fractions of hundred 
tolahs being charged as one hundred tolahs. fA. Sect. XVII.) 
Not more than one Letter, &c., may be enclosed in any 
Banghy Parcel, and by Section XVI., where Banghy and 
Letter mails are conveyed in the same carriage, it is un- 
lawful to enclose even one Letter, &c., in a Banghy Parcel. 



TABLE No. 4. 

Bales of Poslage on Books, Pamphlets^ Packels of Newspapers and of 
Printed and Engraved Papers not exceeding 120 tolahs in weight, despatched 
hg Banghg Post and pre-paid. (A. Sect. XII.) 



If not exceeding in weight. 


Book Postage in India. 


Between England and 
India. 


Twenty Tolahs, - . - - 
Forty Tolahs, 


One anna, - - - - - 
Two annas, - - . - 


Five annas and a half. 
Meyen annas. 



Single Postage is to be charged for every additional twenty tolahs, frac- 
tions of twenty tolahs being charged as twenty tolahs. 

Every article not exceeding twelve tolahs in weight will be conveyed by 
Letter Post, unless expressly directed to be sent by Banghy Post, 



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520 INDIAN DOMESTIC KCONOHY AND COOKERY. 

POSTAL NOTICE. 



From the First of Septembke, 1858, Pre-payment of Pos- 
tage on Letters posted in anj part of India for the Unit* 
ed Kingdom, whether marked ' via Southampton/ or 'via 
Marseilles/ will be compulsory. 

W. GEAT. 

Calcutta, May Z9tA, 1858. 



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CHAPTEE XXXII 



MISCELLANEOUS EECEIPTS. 

Soak the skin in water for one daj, 
To preierve Skins then clean it well of fat ; take alum 
mti tie Hair on. three pounds^ rock salt four ounces^ 
and dissolve in as much water as will 
cover the skin^ in a tub or vessel ; then boil the solution and 
when lukewarm, put in the skin and soak it for four day?^ 
working it well with the feet or hands several times; then 
take it out and dry it in a warm place, but not in the sun. 
Boil up the water again, repeating the same process with 
the skin; then wash it well and beat it with a wooden 
mallet till quite soft, after which dry it in the shade^ rub- 
bing it between the hands at intervals. £y this means it 
will be as soft and pliable as doeskin. 

The management of a lamp is not very 
Careel or Argand difficult, and common care and atten- 
Lamps. tion by the servant will keep it in order. 

In the first place, for the lamp to burn 
dear and steady, the oil should be of a good quality (co- 
coanut is the best,) and the air*holea in the rim at the 
bottom must be freed from dirt and all impurities, so that 
a current of air can pass through the centre of the wick. 
Pour out the remaining oil, and, having wiped the lamp 
carefully, examine that all the parts are in their proper 
places, and by turning the wick up and down, see if it is 
sufficiently long to last the time required for its burning; 

if not, replace it with afresh one; then recharge the lamp 

s2 



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5M INDIAN D011ESTIC ECONOMY 

with oil and replace the chimney and shade^ when it is fit 
for nse. Common oil is sometimes burnt in these lamps, 
but the light is never bright, and much smoke is given 
out. In the cold weather, cocoanot oil must be warmed 
previous to being put into the lamp ; this should be done 
as short a time before lighting as convenient. When 
necessary to wash the shade and bottoms, use lukewarm 
water with a little soapf and carefully wipe them with a 
soft dry towel. With the suspension lamp, that is raised 
or let down by a chain and pully, be guarded in holding 
the bottom firm whilst the lamp is being removed, to check 
its suddenly running up with a jerk from the force of the 
balance weight, and never leave the bottom and globe of 
the empty lamp with the chain drawn dovm to its full 
extent, as the corresponding weight of the lamp, to the 
balance weight above, being wanting, the least motion will 
cause the lamp so suddenly to rise as to throw the glass 
part out of the rim and break the whole. Servants should 
have this explained to them, as well as not to rub off the 
bronze from the pedestal. Wicks can easily be made 
from the upper part of a cotton stocking, should the 
supply run short, and others not immediately procura- 
ble. 



Cut the wick as even as you can 
Directions to trim, with the top of the inner tube, but 
light, and manage do not cut all the black part off, as 
Clarice Diamond this wastes the wick and makes it 
Carcel Lamp. more difficult to re*light.--The wick 
is put on with a cotton-stick like all 
ordinary lamps. — !Fill the lamp every time it is bumt^ as 
the wick should be well saturated. — Light the lamp with 
a lucifer or splint of wood. — Do not put the chimney on 
till the wick is lighted all round. — The wick bolder can- 
not be improperly fixed, as there is only one way of doing 
it.— The small cup that is screwed on at the bottom of 
the burner catches the overflow. The lamp should not 



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AND cboKSEY. 5S3 

be cleaned for yeurs^ and without occasioning trouble^ it 
will barn incessantly a beautifal light. 

Soak isingkss in water until it is soft, then 
Armenian dissolve it in rectified spirit ; in two ounces of 
CetnerU* this dissolve gum galbanum, or gum anuno- 
niac» of either, grains ten ; add five or six large 
tears of mastich, reduced to a liquid state bj rectified 
spirit. The cement must be kept closely stopped, and, 
when wanted for use, melted by putting the bottle in 
some warm water. Used for broken glass and china, 
and resists moisture very well. 

For broken ghiss, china, or stone ware. 

Ckina Ce- Beat a small quantity of quick lime into the 

ment. finest powder, sift it through a muslin cloth, 

and having smeared the parts to be joined 

with white of egg, dust the powder over this and unite 

the edges. 

Take very fine white lead paint, unite the brok- 
Another en particles with this, and keep them in their 
Cement, position with slips of adhesive plaster spread on 
cloth ; when the paint is perfectly dry, the unit- 
ed parts will be found as strong as ever, and the slips of 
plaster may be removed. 

Take two quarts of tar with two ounces 
WUion's Ce- of grease, boil these in an iron vessel for 
^mentfor a quarter of an hour ; prepare some slacked 

eiane^ ^c. lime and finely pounded gbiss ; pass each 

separately through a fine sieve and mix in 
the proportion of two parts of lime to one of glass ; a suffi- 
cient quantity of the boiled tar is now to be added to 
this aiixture, to render it of the consistency of thin plas- 
ter ; small quantities only of this cement should be mixed 
at a time, as the cement hardens so speedily that it is 



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5S4 INDUN DCnCESTlC ECONOMY 

too hard for use. This compoation has the qaatity of 
being imperviable to iret or dampness of any kind. 

Take two pounds cf- bees' wax and 

Aiioiker^for Ala- one of gum resin, melt them together ; 

basteTy Marble^ then strew in a pound and a half of the 

Potphyrgy 8fc* substance to be joined, reduced to an 

impalpable powder ; mix and stir the mass 

well together ; as soon as it is cool enough, it most be 

well kneaded and worked in water, so that the whole of 

the ingredients may be well incorporated. When the 

cement is to be applied it must be heated, as must also 

the edges or sides of the material to be joined, which 

likewise must be perfectly dry. 

Where the cracks are not too wide and 
Cracks in Chu- deep, they are better filled up with dam- 
n€m Ro<^8. mer than chunam, as the last continually 
separates as it dries ; whereas dammer, if 
not made brittle, and poured along the openings hot, will 
last for yearsy and the roof remain waterproof. It is made 
of Sail, a gum resin dissolved in a sufiicient quantity of 
common oil ; a small portion of tar or wax may be added, 
to keep the dammei rather soft than otherwise, as it ad- 
heres to the chunam better ; in the rains it is hard. 

Put the ingredients into an iron or copper vessel (an 
earthen one is dangerous) over a fire, and stir it until the 
resin is dissolved. This must be done in the open air, in 
case of boiling over or taking fire. Then fill tlie cracks 
with this liquid, and the work la finished. This dammer, 
when made without the tar, may be used for covering the 
corks of bottled ale, &c. 

Four ounces of lamp blaek, two ounces of 
JBlacHnff. treacle or jaggery, a tea-spoonful of diluted vi- 
triol, half an ounce of sweet oil, a wineglass of 
vinegar, and a pint of beer or water ; mix the oil and 



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AND COOKSRY. 525 

treacle and laiup black togeiher so as to form a paste^ and 
add the vitriol^ then by degrees the megar and water. 

Take two quarts of stale beer^ half a pound 
Another. of ivory black, three ounces of treacle, half an 
ounce of gum arable, one ounce of sweet oil, one 
ounce of brown sugar-candy, and half an ounce of diluted 
sulphuric acid; mix up the oil with the ivory black and 
treacle, warm the beer, in which dissolve the gum and 
sugar-candy; stir up all together, and finally throw in the 
diluted sulphuric acid, which will produce a fermentation 
and cause an amalgamation of the whole. 

Four ounces of clear glue, logwood chips 

Jet Polish for half a pound, finely powdered indigo a 

BooU^ Shoes, quarter of an ounce, the same of soft soap 

or Harness. and isinglass. Boil these ingredients with 

a quart of vinegar and one pint of water 

for ten minutes after the ebullition begins ; then strain 

the liquid when cold, and it is fit for use ; remove all dirt 

from the boots or leather^ and lay on the jet with a 

sponge or rag. 

Bectified spirits of wine one quart, seed 
French Polish, lac two ounces, shell lac one ounce, gum 
sandarach one ounce, gum copal and cam- 
phor of each one ounce ; pound the gums, and put the 
whole into a stone bottle; cork it securely, and place the 
bottle in hot water, shaking it often till all be dissolved. 
A very small quantity is to be applied at a time, and 
only a small surface covered with the liquid, and that is 
rubbed off immediately ; a little more is then applied, which 
is also rubbed off, and this is repeated till the desired 
poliah is attained,* the rest of the table or other furniture 
is treated in the same manner, till the whole surface is 
polished. 



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5S6 INDIAN DOMESTIC BCONOMY. 

Onte a quarter of an ounce of white 
toliskfdr Fur- 8oap» put it into a new earthen veaael 
nikare. with a pint of water, hold it over the 

fire till the soap is dissolved, then add 
three ounces of bees' wax and half an ounce of white wax, 
cut into small pieces ; as soon as the whole is incorporated 
it is fit for use. When used, clean the furniture well, 
dip a bit of flannel in the varnish when warm, and rub 
it on the furniture; let it stand a quarter of an hour, 
then applj a hard brush in all directions, and finish with 
a bit of clean dry flannel or coarse woollen cloth. 

Take fuller's earth or prepared chalk. 
To clean China reduce it to an impalpable powder, then 
and Glass. form it into a thin paste with water ; ap- 
ply it to the glass or china with a soft 
cloth, let it dry, and then rub it off. 

Wash your casks with water till all 
To clean Casks, the impurities are removed ; for each 
pipe take one pound of chloride of lime 
with fifteen quarts of water ; throw the whole into the 
cask, and shake it so as to affect every part, then wash 
it out several times with fresh water. The smell of the 
chloride of lime will pass off in a few hours. 

The most effectual way to sweeten a tainted cask, is to 
have the hoops removed before cleaning it, by a cooper. 

To two ounces of yellow bees' wax put 
Oerman Polish, half an ounce of black resin, melt it in 
an earthen pipkin, and add by degrees 
one ounce of spirits of turpentine. 

Cover the steel well with sweet oil, and 
To take Bust let it remain for a couple of days, then oae 
out of SteeL unshcked lime finely powdered, and mb with 
it until all the rust disappears. 



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AXO COOKERY. 627 

Wash the spot with diluted sulphuric 

To remove Ink acid or muriatic acid with a feather^ do 

or Stains from not let it remain long, or it will leave 

Tables. a mark ; rub it quick with a piece of rag, 

and, when the stain is removed, drop a 

little sweet oil on the part and give it a polish. 

Everj article of this description, whether 
To clean Dish of block tin, or queen's metal, should first 
Covers, be washed and dried, then rubbed with 

pounded whiting or fine chalk mixed with 
a little oil; after which, wipe it clean, and dust some of 
the dry powder in H muslin bag over it, and polish with 
a dry soft cloth or leather. 

The best material for cleaning plate is 
To clean Plate, finely powdered whiting or prepared chalk. 
The plate should be constantly washed with 
soap and water, or occasionally boiled in water in which 
brown soap has been dissolved; then wipe it clean with 
a cloth ; a brush may sometimes be required to remove 
any tarnish between the fluting or crevices, and if any dark 
spots remain, smear them with a little pounded whiting 
mixed with spirits of wine, gin, or terpentine ; let it dry, 
and then brush it well ofiT, after which polish with a soft 
dry leather. Plate that has long lain by, if treated in this 
manner, will resume its original polish immediately, and 
always after being used should be washed clean, then rub- 
bed with a soft leather, and a little of the powder whiting 
or chalk. 

Mix with two ounces of rectified spirits 
Scouring Drops ^ of turpentine, two drachms of either of 
the following essential oils — cloves, cin- 
namon, or lemon ; rub a little on stains of silk, woollen 
stnfb, or linen, with a bit of soft cloth or old cambric; it 
will also remove the stains of paint, pitch, or oil, without 
taking out the colours. 



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528 INDIAN DOMESTIC KCONOMY 

Frequent airing is indispensable; there- 

To preserve fore shake and place them out occasionally 

Woollen in the sun, then brush them well before 

CloiAs from either laying in the drawer or chest ; fold 

Insects. amongst them dried Neem leaves, pepper 

corns. Butch, camphor in small bags, or 

bitter apple. Furs should have pounded black pepper well 

dusted amongst them. 

Hold the part firmly, to prevent the 

To efface silk from being creased ; then with a clean 

Spots of soft white cloth or an old cambric pocket 

Grease from handkerchief rub the spot very briskly, but 

Silks, not with sufficient violence to fray the silks \ 

change the portions of the handkerchief 

frequently; in a course of a minute or two the spot will 

entirely disappear. 

The stains may be instantaneously and 
To remove entirely removed by laying over them a 
WaxStams fold or two of dry blotting paper, and ap- 
from Clot A. plying for a moment the pressure of a mo- 
derately hot iron; or hold a hot iron or 
poker within an inch or so of the cloth, and the wax will 
immediately be attracted to it, then rub the spot 
with a piece of cloth or brown paper, to remove any mark 
that may remain. 

Knead a small mass of dough under- 
Dr. Traill's neath a little stream of water for some 
Indelible and time, until it has parted with all the starch 
unchangeable it contains, and only a sticky mass remains 
InL in the hands. The more carefully this is 

done the more pure the gluten will be. 
To ten parts of pyroligneous acid, add half a part of glut- 
ten, put the whole into a covered vessel, and submit it 
to a gentle heat for twenty -four hours, when a solution 
of the gluten will be effected, and a saponaceous fluid 



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A.ND COOUERY. 529 

remains. Procure some of the finest lamp blacky and to 
every twelve grains add one ounce of the fluid, rubbing 
it quite smooth in a pestle and mortar, the addition of a 
little bruised allspice, doves, or cinnamon gives the liquid 
an agreeable aroma. This ink if exposed to the sun and 
air only becomes of a more intense black. 

Lunar caustic two drachms, distilled Op 

MarJnng Ink. rain water six drachms, gum water two 

drachms; wet the linen where you intend 

to write with liquid pounce, dry it, and write upon it with 

a clean pen. 

Subcarbonate of soda one ounce , water a 

lAqwd pint, colour with a little sap green or gamboge, 

bounce. If potash is used instead of soda the ink will 
spread. , 

Wet a spot with the pounce large enough for 

Method of the name or initials ; set it to dry, either by 

wing the fire or in the sun ; when it feels stiffs 

bounce and rub it well with the smooth handle of a 

the InL knife or the stopper of a bottle ; shake the 

ink, and, as the articles are marked, lay 

them in the sun to dry, taking care that the writing 

does not touch any other part of the clothe otherwise it 

will stain it indelibly. 

The acrid juice between the outer and 
Native inner shell of the cashue nut, if written 

Marking Ink. with on linen, stains it a dark brown ; 
so will the milky juice from the tree. 

The natives also use the juice of the marking nut (the 

Betarvine ;) the part of the cloth to be written on is first 

covered with rather a thick paste of chunam, and then 

rubbed off, after which the juice contained in the cells 

of the ntit is used as ink. 

t2 



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680 nvDiAN Doiosnc economy 

A clean solution of isinglass in - water, or 
Varnishing the white of an egg well beaten np^ will an- 
Pencil swer the purpose; but great care is requisite 
JDrawinffi, when laving it on. 

Linseed oil three pints, beeswax twelve 
For PreserV' ounces, pounded rosin four ounces, fir rosin 
ing Leather, two ounces; melt, add neatVfoot oil two 
pints, and oil of turpentine one. 

Oil of linseed one pound, yellow wax and com- 
Another. mon turpentine each two ounces, Burgundy pitch 
one ounce; melt in an earthen vessel. 

Oil of linseed one pound, suet ^ght ounces. 
Another, yellow wax six ounces, yellow rosin one ounce ; 
melt in an earthen vessel. 

Linseed oil is to be preferred, but any other 
Drying Oil vegetable oil will answer. To every quart of 
/or Paint, oil, add half an ounce of pounded vitrified 
Sf'c. 8^. oxide of lead (Moordar sing) ; boil this for 
a short time and let it stand to cool and settle ; 
then strain it off from the sediment at the bottom, which 
is composed of the fatty part of the oil ; when quite clear 
it is fit for use, either to mix with paint or other purposes. 
This paint will dry in twenty-four hours. The oil, if put 
on cloth of a close texture, will render it nearly water- 
proof; added to pounded chalk or whiting, it makes ex- 
cellent putty for windows, &c.; if mixed with mutton 
Buet and a little wax (melted over a fire) to the consistence 
of thick cream, it will be found a most excellent compo- 
sition for softening leather, and preserving it against heat 
and rain. 

Take beeswax, turpentine, and Bar- 

Boot and Shoes, gundy pitch, of each two ounces ; melt 

Waterproof. these in a pint of drying linseed oil, and 

rub the leat